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Inactive Ingredients

Inactive ingredients are components of a drug product that do not increase or affect the therapeutic action of the active ingredient, which is usually the active drug. Inactive ingredients are added during the manufacturing process of pharmaceutical products such as tablets, capsules, suppositories, and injections. Inactive ingredients may also be referred to as inert ingredients or excipients, and generally have no pharmacological effect.

Examples of inactive ingredients include binding materials (which may be excipients), dyes, preservatives, and flavoring agents. Agents that combine with active ingredients to facilitate drug transport in the body are also considered inactive.

The FDA approves inactive ingredients that are included in pharmaceutical products. However, not all inactive ingredients are always inactive. Alcohol is one example of an ingredient that may be active or inactive based on the specific formulation of the medication. Patients may have allergic reactions or other adverse effects to inactive ingredients. If a patient has a known allergic reaction to an inactive ingredient, they should check for the ingredient in new prescription or over-the-counter medications or check with their pharmacist.

Examples of inactive ingredients that are have been reported to cause reactions in some patients include: sulfites, benzoates, aspartame, saccharin, oleic acid, benzyl alcohol, lactose, soya lecithin, propylene glycol, and sorbitan trioleate. Patients who have allergic or adverse reactions to certain inactive ingredients may be able to use products that are color- or preservative-free.

A-Z index of inactive ingredients

A

acacia acesulfame acesulfame potassium acetic acid acetone acetyltributyl citrate alcohol alginic acid alpha-tocopherol aluminum chloride aluminum chlorohydrex propylene glycol aluminum hydroxide aluminum lake dyes aluminum oxide aluminum silicate aluminum stearate aluminum sulfate amide resin aminobenzoate sodium ammonia ammonio methacrylate copolymer ammonio methacrylate copolymer type A ammonio methacrylate copolymer type B ammonio methacrylate copolymers ammonium chloride ammonium laureth-5 sulfate ammonium phosphate dibasic artificial flavor artificial grape flavor artificial mint flavor ascorbic acid ascorbyl palmitate aspartame

B

banana barium sulfate benzalkonium chloride benzoic acid benzyl alcohol betadex black currant black currant flavor black ink black pigment blackberry blue dye butyl alcohol butylated hydroxyanisole butylated hydroxytoluene butylparaben

C

calcium calcium carbonate calcium phosphate calcium phosphate dibasic anhydrous calcium phosphate dihydrate dibasic calcium silicate calcium stearate calcium sulfate calcium sulfate anhydrous calcium sulfate dihydrate candelilla wax carbomer carbomer 934 carbomer homopolymer type A carbomer homopolymer type B carbomer homopolymer type C carboxymethylcellulose carboxymethylcellulose calcium carboxymethylcellulose sodium carmine carnauba wax carrageenan castor oil cellacefate cellulose acetate cellulose compounds cellulose powdered cellulosic polymers cetostearyl alcohol cetyl alcohol cetylpyridinium chloride cherry citric acid anhydrous citric acid monohydrate cochineal coconut oil colophony colorants coloring agent compressible sucrose compressible sugar confectioners sugar copovidone corn corn oil corn starch corn syrup corn-derived proteins cottonseed oil cranberry croscarmellose sodium crospovidone cysteine hydrochloride

D

D&C Green No. 5 D&C Red No. 21 D&C Red No. 22 D&C Red No. 27 D&C Red No. 27 Aluminum Lake D&C Red No. 28 D&C Red No. 30 D&C Red No. 33 D&C Red No. 6 Lake D&C Red No. 7 Calcium Lake D&C Yellow No. 10 D&C Yellow No. 10 Aluminium Lake dextrates dextrose dextrose monohydrate dibutyl phthalate dibutyl sebacate diethyl phthalate dihydroxyaluminum sodium carbonate dimethicone dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate - butyl methacrylate - methyl methacrylate copolymer docusate sodium

E

edetate calcium disodium edetate disodium edible black ink egg phospholipids ethanolamine ethyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate copolymer ethyl butyrate ethyl isovalerate ethylcellulose ethylcellulose (10 mPa.s) ethylcellulose (100 mPa.s) ethylcellulose (20 mPa.s) ethylcellulose (7 mPa.s) ethylene glycol monoethyl ether ethylvanillin eudragit

F

FD&C Blue No. 1 FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminium Lake FD&C Blue No. 2 FD&C Blue No. 2 Aluminium Lake FD&C Green No. 3 FD&C Red No. 3 FD&C Red No. 4 FD&C Red No. 40 FD&C Yellow No. 5 FD&C Yellow No. 5 Aluminum Lake FD&C Yellow No. 6 ferric oxide brown ferric oxide red ferric oxide yellow ferric oxides ferrosoferric oxide ferrous fumarate ferrous oxide flavor flavors fragrances fumaric acid

G

gelatin glucosamine glucosamine hydrochloride glutamic acid hydrochloride glycerin glycerol monooleate glyceryl behenate glyceryl distearate glyceryl monostearate glycine glycolate glycyrrhizin ammoniated guar gum

H

hard gelatin capsule hydrochloric acid hydrogen peroxide hydrogenated castor oil hydrogenated cottonseed oil hydrogenated soybean oil hydrogenated vegetable oil hydroxyethyl cellulose hydroxypropyl cellulose hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate hypromellose 2208 hypromellose 2208 (100 mPa.s) hypromellose 2208 (100000 mPa.s) hypromellose 2208 (15000 mPa.s) hypromellose 2208 (3 mPa.s) hypromellose 2208 (4000 mPa.s) hypromellose 2910 hypromellose 2910 (15 mPa.s) hypromellose 2910 (15000 mPa.s) hypromellose 2910 (3 mPa.s) hypromellose 2910 (5 mPa.s) hypromellose 2910 (50 mPa.s) hypromellose 2910 (6 mPa.s) hypromellose phthalate hypromelloses

I

indigotindisulfonate sodium iron isobutylparaben isopropyl alcohol

L

lactitol lactitol monohydrate lactose lactose anhydrous lactose monohydrate lemon oil leucine light mineral oil low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose

M

magnesium magnesium aluminum silicate magnesium carbonate magnesium hydroxide magnesium oxide magnesium silicate magnesium stearate magnesium trisilicate maleic acid malic acid maltodextrin mannitol medium-chain triglycerides meglumine menthol methacrylic acid methacrylic acid - ethyl acrylate copolymer (1:1) type a methacrylic acid - methyl methacrylate copolymer (1:1) methacrylic acid - methyl methacrylate copolymer (1:2) methacrylic acid copolymer methyl alcohol methyl cinnamate methyl methacrylate methylcellulose methylcellulose (100 mPa.s) methylcellulose (15 mPa.s) methylcellulose (400 mPa.s) methylene chloride methylparaben methylparaben sodium microcrystalline cellulose microcrystalline wax mineral oil mint mint cream flavor mint menthol modified corn starch monosodium citrate

N

natural and artificial orange flavor natural flavor natural mint flavor natural peppermint flavor natural resin nonoxynol-100

O

oleic acid olive oil opacode black orange cream flavor orange juice orange oil orange-pineapple flavor other ingredients

P

palm kernel oil paraffin partially hydrogenated soybean and palm oils peanut oil peppermint peppermint flavor peppermint oil phenylalanine phosphoric acid piperazine polacrilin potassium polacrilin sodium poloxamer poloxamer 188 poloxamer 407 polyacrylate dispersion 30% polycarbophil polydextrose polyethylene glycol polyethylene glycol 1450 polyethylene glycol 300 polyethylene glycol 3000 polyethylene glycol 3350 polyethylene glycol 400 polyethylene glycol 4000 polyethylene glycol 600 polyethylene glycol 6000 polyethylene glycol 800 polyethylene glycol 8000 polygalacturonic acid polysorbate polysorbate 20 polysorbate 80 polyvinyl acetate polyvinyl alcohol polyvinylpyrrolidone potassium potassium bicarbonate potassium bitartrate potassium carbonate potassium chloride potassium gluconate potassium hydroxide potassium sorbate potato starch povidone povidone k12 povidone k25 povidone k30 povidone k90 propyl gallate propylene glycol propylene glycol alginate propylparaben propylparaben sodium

R

raspberry raw sugar riboflavin rice starch

S

saccharin saccharin sodium sd-45 alcohol sda-3a alcohol sesame oil shellac silicified microcrystalline cellulose silicon dioxide silicone sodium sodium alginate sodium ascorbate sodium benzoate sodium bicarbonate sodium carbonate sodium carbonate monohydrate sodium caseinate sodium chloride sodium citrate sodium glycolate sodium hydroxide sodium laureth sulfate sodium lauryl sulfate sodium metabisulfite sodium monolaurate sodium phosphate sodium phosphate dibasic sodium propionate sodium starch glycolate sodium starch glycolate type A potato sodium stearate sodium stearyl fumarate sodium thioglycolate sodium tripolyphosphate sorbic acid sorbitan sorbitan monolaurate sorbitan monooleate sorbitol sorbitol special soya lecithin soybean oil spearmint starch stearic acid stearyl alcohol strawberry strawberry guarana flavor succinic acid sucralose sucrose sucrose stearate sugar 6x powder sugar spheres sunflower oil synthetic ferric oxide synthetic ferric oxide red synthetic ferric oxide yellow synthetic ferric oxides

T

tapioca starch tartaric acid taurine TIMERx-N titanium dioxide tragacanth triacetin tribehenin tricalcium phosphate triethyl citrate trimyristin trisodium citrate anhydrous trisodium citrate dihydrate tromethamine tropical blend flavor

V

vanilla vanilla flavor vanillin

W

water wheat starch white wax

X

xanthan gum xylitol

Y

yellow wax

Z

zinc gluconate zinc stearate