Excipient (pharmacologically inactive substance)
What is it?
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a naturally occurring mineral used as a bright white pigment for paint, in the food industry as a coloring, in sunscreens and cosmetics, and in other industrial uses. After processing, it is exists as white, powdery solid. Titanium dioxide has excellent ultraviolet (UV) resistant qualities and acts as a UV absorbent.
In the pharmaceutical industry, titanium dioxide is used in most sunscreens to block UVA and UVB rays, similar to zinc oxide. It is also commonly used as pigment for pharmaceutical products such as gelatin capsules, tablet coatings and syrups. In the cosmetics industry, it is used in toothpaste, lipsticks, creams, ointments and powders. It can be used as an opacifier to make pigments opaque.
The FDA has approved the safety of titanium dioxide for use as a colorant in food, drugs and cosmetics, including sunscreens. However, controversy exists as to the safety of titanium dioxide nanoparticles used in the cosmetics industry, for example in sunscreens. Titanium and zinc oxides may be made into the nanoparticle size (0.2-100 nanometers) to reduce the white appearance when applied topically, but retain the UV blocking properties. Recent studies suggest titanium dioxide nanoparticles may be toxic, although further research is needed.
 Dave RH. Overview of pharmaceutical excipients used in tablets and capsules. Drug Topics (online). Advanstar. 10/24/2008 http://drugtopics.modernmedicine.com/drugtopics/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=561047. Accessed 08/19/2011
 Biello D. Do nanoparticles and sunscreens mix? Scientific American (online). August 20, 2007; http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=do-nanoparticles-and-sunscreen-mix. Accessed 9/8/2011
Top Medications with this excipient
- Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium 875 mg / 125 mg (Lek Pharmaceuticals)
- Cetirizine Hydrochloride 10 mg (Perrigo Company)
- Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride 10 mg (Qualitest Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
- Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride 10 mg (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
- Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride 10 mg (Breckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.)
- Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride 10 mg (InvaGen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.)
- Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride 10 mg (Watson Pharmaceuticals)
- Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride 5 mg (Qualitest Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
- Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride 10 mg (KVK Tech, Inc.)
- Diclofenac Sodium Delayed Release 75 mg (Pack Pharmaceuticals, LLC)
- Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride 25 mg (Major Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
- Gabapentin 300 mg (InvaGen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.)
- Morphine Sulfate SR 30 mg (Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals)
- Morphine Sulfate SR 15 mg (Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals)
- OxyContin 10 mg (Purdue Pharma LP)
- OxyContin 20 mg (Purdue Pharma LP)
- Tramadol Hydrochloride 50 mg (Amneal Pharmaceuticals)
- Tramadol Hydrochloride 50 mg (Zydus Pharmaceuticals)
- Tramadol Hydrochloride 50 mg (Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Inc.)
- Tramadol Hydrochloride 50 mg (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.)