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Editorial and Content Policy mission is to be the Internet's most trusted resource for drug and related health information. We are achieving this by presenting independent, objective, comprehensive and up-to-date information in a clear and concise format for both consumers and healthcare professionals.

The site-designers and engineers aim to provide visitors with an intuitive, user friendly website which is easy to navigate and provides rapid access to the extensive range of drug and related databases we have available. If you have problems with navigation or would like to suggest changes, please email us here. We review all comments about site-design and navigability at weekly design meetings.

The information available on the website is displayed under a number of licensing agreements with various publishers. For our drug-database information, we rely on the solid reputation of our suppliers: Cerner Multum, Micromedex and American Society of Health-System Pharmacists.

Referencing articles on

For reference and citation guidelines, please review our attribution/citation guidelines.

Editorial Review Process

The editorial team regularly reviews all information provided by various trusted medical publishing partners to ensure content is accurate and up-to-date. Each article is peer-reviewed by at least one member of the team. The review and update status can be found at the top or bottom of each document.

Editorial Team

The editorial team is comprised of registered pharmacists and medical doctors. Our editors constantly seek to improve the quality and usability of the web site.

Leigh Ann Anderson, PharmD - Senior Editorial Pharmacist

Leigh Ann Anderson, PharmD

Senior Editorial Pharmacist

Leigh is a residency-trained Drug Information Specialist with 20+ years of drug information database development and evidence-based medical writing. Leigh’s special interests include immunology, drug interaction pharmacology, OTC and herbal dietary supplementation, and psychotropic medications.

Sanjai Sinha, MD - Medical Doctor

Sanjai Sinha, MD

Medical Doctor

Internal Medicine
Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, 1998.
Dr. Sanjai Sinha is an Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College, where he serves as full-time faculty. He spends time teaching, seeing patients, doing health services research, and developing online patient education. He was won awards and recognition for scholarship, teaching, innovation, and service throughout his career. Helping patients understand their medicines, diagnoses, and preventive needs, so that they can make informed decisions and feel engaged in their care animates his daily work.

Kaci Durbin, MD - Medical Doctor

Kaci Durbin, MD

Medical Doctor

Dr. Durbin graduated medical school with Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) honors from the University of Illinois School of Medicine in 2008, and completed her residency at the University of Louisville Hospital in 2012.

Sophia Entringer, PharmD - PharmD, BCPS

Sophia Entringer graduated with her Doctor of Pharmacy degree from Campbell University School of Pharmacy, then completed a PGY1 residency with Intermountain Healthcare. She worked as a critical care pharmacist for 6 years before transitioning to her current position as a Drug Information Specialist.

Judith Stewart, BPharm - Senior Editorial Pharmacist/Information Systems Pharmacist

Judith Stewart, BPharm

Senior Editorial Pharmacist/Information Systems Pharmacist

Bachelor of Pharmacy, 1986
University of Queensland
Brisbane, Australia.

Philip Thornton, DipPharm - Consultant Pharmacist

Philip Thornton, DipPharm

Consultant Pharmacist

Diploma in Pharmacy, 1980
Central Institute of Technology
Wellington, NZ.

Carmen Pope, BPharm - Senior Editorial Pharmacist

Carmen Pope, BPharm

Senior Editorial Pharmacist

Carmen has over 20 years’ experience in writing research-based guidelines and consumer-focused medical and pharmaceutical articles. She is also a practicing pharmacist and has a special interest in natural health, women’s health, and the gut microbiota. Her work appears on and, and she also writes for The Health Media.

Melisa Puckey, BPharm - Senior Editorial Pharmacist

Melisa Puckey, BPharm

Senior Editorial Pharmacist

Melisa is a medical writer and a practicing pharmacist. She is passionate about patient education and the provision of accurate and up-to-date drug information. Her special interest areas are COVID-19, dermatology, oncology and reproductive medicine. When not working as a writer for, Melisa works as a pharmacist in a fast-paced community setting.

Sally Chao, MD - Medical Doctor

Sally Chao, MD

Medical Doctor

Dr. Sally Chao received her medical degree from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University. She is board certified in Emergency Medicine and a Fellow of the American College of Emergency Physicians and has almost 20 years of clinical emergency medicine experience.

Kristianne Hannemann, PharmD - Editorial Pharmacist

Kristianne Hannemann, PharmD

Editorial Pharmacist

Kristianne Hannemann graduated with her Doctor of Pharmacy degree from University of California, San Francisco.

Content Policy

The information available on the website is displayed under a number of licensing agreements with the various publishers listed below. Medicine and Health Information

Special Features Drug Search Results

The drug database is powered by four main sources: Cerner Multum ("Multum"), Micromedex, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, and products labels approved by the Food and Drug Administration. When you search on a drug name, the search results page may offer the drug information in any of three formats:

Micromedex presents Detailed Drug Information for the Consumer from Micromedex.

Detailed Drug Information for the Consumer contains advanced consumer information about medicines which has been compiled and intensively reviewed by an editorial staff that includes physicians, pharmacists, nurses, toxicologists and other qualified drug experts.

Cerner Multum

Cerner Multum supplies Consumer Information about pharmaceutical drugs and medicines. Multum's content is written by full-time associates who have no affiliations with drug companies, using a combination of sources. Initial References include the Product Information/Package Insert, primary literature and information from standards groups such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Physicians and pharmacists review the new information and make any necessary changes; all leaflets are reviewed by one or more practicing clinical specialists. Content is verified using secondary references that include standard authoritative medical textbooks and the Multum Expert Review Panel.

American Society of Health-System Pharmacists

AHFS DI from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) is the most comprehensive source of unbiased and authoritative drug information available to health professionals today. A wholly independent staff of drug information pharmacists and other professional editorial and analytical staff thoroughly research AHFS DI content. Authors incorporate clinical research findings, therapeutic guidelines, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved labeling to ensure that monographs include an evidence-based foundation for safe and effective drug therapy.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Approved Products Labels

Food and Drug Administration product labels provide Professional Information about drugs. professional information presents product monographs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and compiled by drug manufacturers. reformats the style of these monographs, but the content is a duplicate of FDA-approved labeling.

National Library of Medicine

National Library of Medicine’s LactMed Database is a peer-reviewed and fully referenced database of drugs to which breastfeeding mothers may be exposed. Among the data included are maternal and infant levels of drugs, possible effects on breastfed infants and on lactation, and alternate drugs to consider.

Harvard Health Publications publishes Harvard Health Topics A to Z and Harvard Health Decision Guides (used in our Symptom Checker). Harvard Health Publications is the publishing division of the Harvard Medical School of Harvard University and draws on the expertise of the 9,000 faculty physicians to provide authoritative and trustworthy consumer health information. The Harvard Medical School was founded in 1782 and encompasses 18 affiliated hospitals with more than 10,000 members of the faculty, including more than 9,000 clinical physicians.

Veterinary Product Database

The Veterinary Product Database is an online version of the Compendium of Veterinary Products published by Animalytix. Animalytix is in the business of building, managing, maintaining and marketing data and databases in the animal health, crop chemical and human health industries in the USA and Canada. utilizes content from, a leading provider of peer-reviewed health content.

New Drugs

This section reports on drugs that have recently been approved for marketing by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and newly approved indications for drugs previously approved.

News & Articles

This section provides the latest health news aimed at the consumer and a variety of clinical and industry news articles aimed at the health professional related to the development, efficacy and safety of prescription and non-prescription drugs and supplements. Medical News is powered by Healthday and our own editorial team. HealthDay is an award winning producer of health content since 1998 and has grown to become a leading producer of evidence-based health news.

Please note: Unlike other content, the news library contains some syndicated news articles. These articles have not always been peer reviewed by and therefore we cannot guarantee accuracy to the highest ethical standards. Do further research as needed. Consultation with your physician is essential. Newsletter

Our newsletter includes features about FDA approvals of new drugs and indications, prescribing trends, updates on disease management and more. Register an account with to subscribe.

Special Features

The database includes these additional interactive resources:

Errors and Omissions acknowledges that errors and omissions in drug information may occasionally occur. As our mission is to provide the most accurate, up-to-date drug information on the Internet, we ask our visitors to alert us immediately to any errors in content, including incorrect or misleading statements, by contacting us. We aim to correct site-content errors within 48 hours. Details of recent corrections are listed on our Corrections & Addendums page.

Consumer Reports WebWatch supports the Consumer Reports WebWatch guidelines to promote credible information practices on the Web.

Updated: January 4th, 2024