Depression, Risk of Suicide, & Treatment Options
Medically reviewed on Jul 9, 2017 by L. Anderson, PharmD.
What is Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)?
Depression is not a trivial illness. In fact, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 1 out of 20 Americans 12 years of age and older reported current depression, defined as moderate or severe depressive symptoms in the past 2 weeks.
Depression, also referred to as major depressive disorder (MDD), can result in difficulties with family life, work, and social activities. Depression is not just feeling blue occasionally. Depression affects daily feelings, thoughts, and actions over a longer period of time.
Medical conditions such as arthritis, cancer, and diabetes may worsen, too. The good news is that depression is treatable with a high rate of success using treatment options such as prescription medications and psychotherapy (talk therapy).
What Are the Symptoms of Depression?
Many people with depression have a severe low mood, tearfulness, or a sense of hopelessness that has lasted for at least 2 weeks. Other symptoms may include irritability, anxiety, or short-tempers. Participation in enjoyable activities declines and many people may withdrawal from family or friends. Changes in sleeping or eating habits, constant self-criticism, or drug and alcohol abuse may also surface. One may attempt to hurt themselves or commit suicide.
Could I Be at Risk for Depression?
Depression does not play favorites. Anyone from any age group, socioeconomic status, or ethnic background is subject to depression. Some groups that tend to have a higher incidence of depression include:
- People between 45 to 64 years
- Blacks, hispanics, and non-hispanics of other color
- Education less than high school degree
- Those who are divorced
- People without health insurance
Do We Know What Causes Depression?
Depression probably involves changes in brain chemicals (neurotransmitters like serotonin and norepinephrine) that control our mood, although the exact causes of depression are not known.
Depression may involve multiple factors, such as:
- Genetics or family history
- Chronic or acute health conditions
- Situations like job loss, workplace stress, or physical or mental abuse
- Severe grief due to death of a loved one
- Prescription drug side effects
- Abuse of alcohol or drugs
- Hormonal changes in women
Are There Different Types of Depression?
Absolutely. There are many different types of depression, but all are amenable to some form of treatment. The most common types of depression include:
- Major Depression (or Major Depressive Disorder)
- Seasonal Affective Disorder
- Depressive Psychosis
- Postpartum Depression
- Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)
If you suffer from symptoms resembling depression, please talk to a trusted friend and a healthcare provider.
What Kind of Treatments Are Available for Depression?
The mainstays of treatment for depression revolve around two different approaches: prescription medications and talk therapy (psychotherapy) with a trained specialist like a mental health counselor. Often, these two approaches are effectively used together. There are different types of psychotherapy and this treatment can help you to:
- Set realistic and daily goals
- Work through a crisis situation
- Develop coping and problem solving skills
- Learn to develop positive relationships
- Replace negative thoughts with positive ones
Antidepressants: What's Used?
No single antidepressant is the best for everyone. Patients have different responses to antidepressants, such as effectiveness and side effects. Most antidepressants take 4 to 6 weeks for a full effect, and about 50% of patients respond to the first treatment. Examples of antidepressant classes include:
Antidepressants: Coping With Side Effects
When you start an antidepressant, many initial side effects like upset stomach, headache or anxiety may go away after a short period, usually in two to three weeks. It takes about 4 to 6 weeks for the full effect of many antidepressants to kick in, too. So, it is important to stick with your medicine for at least a month, taking it as prescribed by your doctor.
If your side effects seem intolerable, do not stop taking your antidepressant without speaking to your doctor. Abruptly stopping some antidepressants may cause withdrawal-like symptoms or worsen your depression and mood. Speak with your doctor. You may just need a dose adjustment.
Managing Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting
It is important to remember you will not experience every antidepressant side effect.
For those who do have side effects, coping mechanisms can help until the side effect subsides. Nausea can start fairly quickly after beginning treatment with an antidepressant, usually within the first week, but it may go away within a month. If you experience nausea or vomiting, check with your doctor or pharmacist to see if you can take your medicine with food, or if you can use an antacid or Pepto Bismol.
Be sure to drink plenty of noncarbonated fluids, and eat smaller but more frequent meals. If your nausea does not subside, talk to your doctor about a temporary dose reduction.
Managing Side Effects: Sexual Problems
Sexual dysfunction, including decreased libido (sexual drive), inhibited orgasm, erectile dysfunction, and ejaculatory failure, is a common side effect of many antidepressants, especially the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
Consult with your doctor; some strategies to cope with sexual side effects include:
Managing Side Effects: Weight Gain
Weight gain while taking antidepressants can be due to many different factors. When your mood improves, you may have a better appetite, and this can lead to unexpected weight gain. In addition, lack of physical activity or water retention can also lead to weight gain. Some antidepressants that may be less likely to result in weight gain include:
Managing Side Effects: Drowsiness, Insomnia, Agitation, Headaches
Drowsiness can be a temporary antidepressant side effect early in treatment, and may subside after a few weeks. It may be possible to take your antidepressant before bed, so that you feel less drowsy in the daytime. Paroxetine is known to lead to drowsiness. It's important you do not drive when you are drowsy. If drowsiness persists, talk to your doctor; you may be a ble to switch to another antidepressant without a lower chance of drowsiness.
If your antidepressant causes insomnia common side effects with some activating antidepressants like fluoxetine (Prozac), ask your doctor if you can take your dose in the morning. Activating antidepressants can cause anxiety or agitation, too; be sure to contact your doctor to be sure you don't have an undiagnosed bipolar disorder if ongoing agitation or insomnia is a problem.
Avoid caffeine after in the afternoon, and be sure to engage in regular exercise which can boost your mood and help with restlessness and insomnia, too.
Mild headaches are common with initial therapy and should subside in a few weeks; if not, contact your doctor.
The Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): Pros and Cons
Names of common SSRIs include citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), paroxetine (Paxil), fluoxetine (Prozac), and sertraline (Zoloft). Side effects among this class can vary. Paroxetine has been associated with more weight gain and more sexual side effects than the other options. Fluoxetine is linked with lower rates of withdrawal-type side effects, and sertraline may lead to diarrhea in some patients. With long-term (> 24 month) use of paroxetine or venlafaxine, studies have shown an increased risk for diabetes.
As a class, SSRIs can increase the risk for bleeding, so caution should be advised in patients with a history of ulcers or taking a blood thinner. A study of 26,005 antidepressant users has reported 3.6 times more upper GI bleeding episodes with the use of SSRIs relative to the population who did not receive antidepressant medications.
Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs): Pros and Cons
Venlafaxine (Effexor), desvenlafaxine (Pristiq, Khedezla) and duloxetine (Cymbalta) are effective SNRIs that inhibit reuptake of several brain neurotransmitters to treat depression. Common side effects may include: nausea (especially with venlafaxine), dry mouth, insomnia or drowsiness, anxiety, sexual problems, headache and sweating.
The SNRIs can usually be given once-a-day, and venlafaxine may be useful in patients who have hard-to-treat depression. Duloxetine is also used for painful conditions like osteoarthritis, neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia, but may increase blood pressure and worsen sweating.
Miscellaneous (Atypical) Antidepressants: Pros and Cons
Other antidepressants include trazodone (Oleptro), nefazodone (Serzone), mirtazapine (Remeron), vilazodone (Viibryd), and bupropion (Wellbutrin XL, others). Bupropion, vilazodone, trazodone or nefazodone may result in less sexual dysfunction, and bupropion may lead to weight loss. Trazodone, nefazodone, and mirtazapine can be sedating, which may be a plus in depressed patients with insomnia.
Bupropion has been added to SSRIs to help reverse sexual dysfunction; it can also help boost patients who feel fatigued. Bupropion must be avoided in patients with a risk for seizures, as higher doses of bupropion can increase this risk.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs): Pros and Cons
MAOIs include selegiline transdermal (Emsam), phenelzine (Nardil), isocarboxazid (Marplan), and tranylcypromine (Parnate). Side effects such as lightheadedness (especially when standing up), weight gain, drowsiness, headache, insomnia, nausea, constipation, dry mouth, or sexual dysfunction may occur.
Tyramine found in dried fruit, aged cheeses, pickles, smoked meats, fava beans, and red wine can lead to a spike in blood pressure, headache, nausea, and other serious effects with this class.
Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs): Pro and Cons
The TCAs are a large class of older antidepressants that include amitriptyline, amoxapine, desipramine, imipramine, doxepin, nortriptyline, protriptyline, and trimipramine. TCA side effects include dry mouth, dizziness, constipation, blurred vision, sedation, urine retention, fast heart rate, and weight gain; many of these side effects are due to anticholinergic action of the TCAs.
Like the MAOIs, TCAs are rarely used first-line; however, they may be used in adults for other indications, including nerve pain and migraine headache prevention. A TCA overdose can be fatal. Heart rhythm disturbances, seizures, and depressed breathing are serious overdose complications.
Trintellix: Another Serotonergic Antidepressant
Trintellix’s proposed mechanism of action is to enhance serotonin activity in the brain by blocking serotonin reuptake. Trintellix has several other actions at serotonin receptors, and is the only agent with this combination of serotonergic activity. More than 7,500 patients aged 18 to 88 years old were enrolled in clinical trials demonstrating Trintellix effectiveness. Common side effects include stomach issues such as nausea, constipation, and vomiting.
Fetzima: A Newer SNRI
Fetzima (levomilnacipran extended-release capsules), a once-daily serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) was FDA-approved for treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in adults in 2012. Levomilnacipran is the active enantiomer of milnacipran (Savella) which is approved only for fibromyalgia.
In Phase III studies of adults with MDD, a significant improvement in depression was seen with Fetzima given once daily compared to placebo. Common side effects occurring in greater than 5 percent of patients included nausea (>10%), constipation, and sweating. Patent protection for Fetzima runs until 2023.
An Add-On Option: Rexulti
In July 2015, the FDA approved Rexulti (brexpiprazole), an oral antipsychotic medication that is also approved to treat major depressive disorder (MDD) in combination with an antidepressant. Rexulti is a serotonin-dopamine activity modulator (SDAM) and second-generation version of aripiprazole (Abilify), with a reduced incidence of a bothersome side effect known as akathisia (restlessness).
Common side effects seen in the depression studies included restlessness, diarrhea, nausea, weight gain, headache and somnolence. Rexulti is not approved for use in psychotic conditions related to dementia. In addition, healthcare providers should see the label for significant drug interactions that can affect the dose of Rexulti. Rexulti is co-marketed by Lundbeck and Otsuka.
Serious Class Effect: Risk of Suicide
The FDA requires labeling on all antidepressants to include strong warnings about risks of suicidal thinking and behavior, known as suicidality, in children, adolescents and young adults. This risk may be higher during the initial few months of treatment, or with a personal or family history of bipolar disorder or suicidal action. Initially high doses of antidepressants in children have been linked with elevated suicide risk.
However, it is important to remember that untreated depression itself is also linked with suicide. Caregivers and healthcare providers should closely monitor patients for suicidal signs and symptoms within the first few months of treatment initiation and with dose changes.
SSRI Use in Children: The FDA's Overview
In an FDA review, no suicides occurred among 2,200 children treated with SSRI medications, according to the National Institutes of Mental Health. However, about 4 out of 100 of those children taking SSRIs experienced suicidal thinking, including attempts, at twice the rate of those taking placebos. Due to this increased risk, the FDA requires a "Boxed Warning" about the risk for suicide or attempted suicide in children and adolescents on all antidepressant labels.
Some studies suggest that the benefits of antidepressants may outweigh the risks to certain children with major depression and anxiety disorders. However, only two agents are approved for use in pediatrics. Fluoxetine (Prozac) is currently approved to treat major depressive disorder in children and adolescents, and escitalopram (Lexapro) is approved for use in adolescents.
How to Manage the Risk of Suicide
To better understand this risk, patients and caregivers are strongly encouraged to review and discuss with a healthcare provider the FDA Medication Guide available for all antidepressants.
According the scientific data in patients taking antidepressants, the risk for suicide is not increased in adults older than 24. Adults 65 years and older taking antidepressants actually have a decreased risk of suicidality.
It is not known if any one antidepressant is more or less likely to result in suicidal thoughts or action. Do not hesitate to call the below numbers for trained help:
- the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: 1-800-273-TALK (8255)
- the Suicide Hotline: 1-800-SUICIDE (1-800-784-2433)
Do Not Abruptly Stop Taking Antidepressants
Do not stop taking your antidepressant without first talking to your doctor, even when you have a side effect. Abruptly stopping an antidepressant can lead to a host of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms such as: anxiety, worsened depression, moodiness, irritability, fatigue, headaches, dizziness, nausea/vomiting, and diarrhea.
Your doctor may recommend that the antidepressant be slowly discontinued to help prevent withdrawal side effects, and will tell you how you can best taper the medication dose.
Serotonin Syndrome: A Rare But Serious Effect
Many antidepressants alter the levels of neurotransmitters like serotonin in the brain. Serotonin helps to facilitate chemical messages in the brain and it is thought this helps with the symptoms of depression.
Taking multiple drugs that boost serotonin levels can lead to an overload of serotonin in the body and unpleasant, dangerous and potentially fatal side effects such as:
- Rapid heart rate
- High fever
Drug Interactions Can Lead to Serotonin Syndrome
Serotonin syndrome can occur rarely when two drugs that increase brain serotonin are taken together. Do not start new medicines without first checking with your healthcare provider. Examples of drugs that may cause serotonin syndrome include:
Antidepressants and Cost Concerns
Prescription medications can be costly for many, especially those without adequate health insurance. However, many of the most effective and well-tolerated antidepressants are now available in generic forms. Generic formulations can save a patient literally hundreds of dollars per month. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about available generic alternatives, which include:
What if My Antidepressant Does Not Work?
If the first antidepressant you try does not work or results in intolerable side effects, there are other options, so do not give up. If you have no improvement in your symptoms after four to six weeks, talk to your doctor about switching to a different antidepressant or antidepressant class, or adjusting your dose.
If you prefer to stop your antidepressant, speak with your doctor FIRST so that a tapering schedule can be started. Finally, consider talk therapy with a trained professional who can offer methods to help lessen your depression, boost positive and appropriate thoughts and feelings, and increase your quality of life.
Finished: Depression, Risk of Suicide, and Treatment Options
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Mental Health. Overview. March 30, 2016. Accessed 7/9/2017 at
- Mayo Clinic. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder). Antidepressants: Get tips to cope with side effects. Last updated Dec. 2016. Accessed 7/9/2017 at
- Drugs.com. Winter Depression May Require Plan. Accessed 7/9/2017 at
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Medication Guides. Accessed 7/9/2017. Available at:
- National Institute of Mental Health. Antidepressant Medications for Children and Adolescents: Information for Parents and Caregivers. Accessed 7/9/2017 at
- Mayo Clinic. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder). Antidepressants: Selecting one that's right for you. Accessed 7/9/2017 at