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Medications for Diabetes, Type 2

Other names: Diabetes; Noninsulin-dependent Diabetes; Type 2 Diabetes

About Diabetes, Type 2:  Type 2 diabetes is characterized by "insulin resistance" as body cells do not respond appropriately when insulin is present. This is a more complex problem than type 1, but is sometimes easier to treat, since insulin is still produced, especially in the initial years. Type 2 may go unnoticed for years in a patient before diagnosis, since the symptoms are typically milder (no ketoacidosis) and can be sporadic. However, severe complications can result from unnoticed type 2 diabetes, including renal failure, and coronary artery disease. Type 2 diabetes was formerly known by a variety of partially misleading names, including "adult-onset diabetes", "obesity-related diabetes", "insulin-resistant diabetes", or "non-insulin-dependent diabetes" (NIDDM). It may be caused by a number of diseases, such as hemochromatosis and polycystic ovary syndrome, and can also be caused by certain types of medications (e.g. long-term steroid use). About 90-95% of all North American cases of diabetes are type 2, and about 20% of the population over the age of 65 is a type 2 diabetic. The fraction of type 2 diabetics in other parts of the world varies substantially, almost certainly for environmental and lifestyle reasons. There is also a strong inheritable genetic connection in type 2 diabetes: having relatives (especially first degree) with type 2 is a considerable risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes. The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are obese - chronic obesity leads to increased insulin resistance that can develop into diabetes, most likely because adipose tissue is a (recently identified) source of chemical signals (hormones and cytokines).

Drugs Used to Treat Diabetes, Type 2

The following list of medications are in some way related to, or used in the treatment of this condition.

Drug name Rx / OTC Pregnancy CSA Alcohol Reviews Rating Popularity
metformin B N X 164 reviews
6.0

Generic name: metformin systemic

Brand names:  Glucophage, Fortamet, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Riomet …show all

Drug class: non-sulfonylureas

For consumers: dosage, interactions,

For professionals: A-Z Drug Facts, AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

Glucophage B N X 27 reviews
6.0

Generic name: metformin systemic

Drug class: non-sulfonylureas

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: Prescribing Information

Victoza C N X 447 reviews
7.0

Generic name: liraglutide systemic

Drug class: incretin mimetics

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

Januvia B N X 77 reviews
6.0

Generic name: sitagliptin systemic

Drug class: dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

Amaryl C N X 15 reviews
8.0

Generic name: glimepiride systemic

Drug class: sulfonylureas

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

glimepiride C N X 47 reviews
7.0

Generic name: glimepiride systemic

Brand name:  Amaryl

Drug class: sulfonylureas

For consumers: dosage, interactions,

For professionals: A-Z Drug Facts, AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

glipizide C N X 45 reviews
6.0

Generic name: glipizide systemic

Brand names:  Glucotrol, GlipiZIDE XL, Glucotrol XL

Drug class: sulfonylureas

For consumers: dosage, interactions,

For professionals: A-Z Drug Facts, AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

Invokana C N X 232 reviews
6.0

Generic name: canagliflozin systemic

Drug class: SGLT-2 inhibitors

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

Actos C N X 34 reviews
5.0

Generic name: pioglitazone systemic

Drug class: thiazolidinediones

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

Levemir B N X 22 reviews
7.0

Generic name: insulin detemir systemic

Drug class: insulin

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

Lantus C N X 20 reviews
7.0

Generic name: insulin glargine systemic

Drug class: insulin

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

Glucotrol C N X 9 reviews
7.0

Generic name: glipizide systemic

Drug class: sulfonylureas

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: Prescribing Information

Janumet B N X 48 reviews
6.0

Generic name: metformin / sitagliptin systemic

Drug class: antidiabetic combinations

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: Prescribing Information

Byetta C N X 82 reviews
8.0

Generic name: exenatide systemic

Drug class: incretin mimetics

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

Bydureon C N X 228 reviews
6.0

Generic name: exenatide systemic

Drug class: incretin mimetics

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: Prescribing Information

Farxiga C N X 81 reviews
4.0

Generic name: dapagliflozin systemic

Drug class: SGLT-2 inhibitors

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

sitagliptin B N X 86 reviews
6.0

Generic name: sitagliptin systemic

Brand name:  Januvia

Drug class: dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors

For consumers: dosage, interactions,

For professionals: A-Z Drug Facts, AHFS DI Monograph

liraglutide C N X 456 reviews
7.0

Generic name: liraglutide systemic

Brand name:  Victoza

Drug class: incretin mimetics

For consumers: dosage, interactions,

For professionals: A-Z Drug Facts, AHFS DI Monograph

pioglitazone C N X 36 reviews
5.0

Generic name: pioglitazone systemic

Brand name:  Actos

Drug class: thiazolidinediones

For consumers: dosage, interactions,

For professionals: A-Z Drug Facts, AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

Tradjenta B N X 37 reviews
3.0

Generic name: linagliptin systemic

Drug class: dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

Humalog B N X 8 reviews
6.0

Generic name: insulin lispro systemic

Drug class: insulin

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

metformin / sitagliptin B N X 55 reviews
6.0

Generic name: metformin / sitagliptin systemic

Brand names:  Janumet, Janumet XR

Drug class: antidiabetic combinations

For consumers: dosage, interactions,

For professionals: A-Z Drug Facts

Onglyza B N X 13 reviews
6.0

Generic name: saxagliptin systemic

Drug class: dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

Lantus SoloStar C N X 20 reviews
7.0

Generic name: insulin glargine systemic

Drug class: insulin

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

Novolog B N X 5 reviews
6.0

Generic name: insulin aspart systemic

Drug class: insulin

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: AHFS DI Monograph

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Topics under Diabetes, Type 2

Alternative treatments for Diabetes, Type 2

The following products are considered to be alternative treatments or natural remedies for Diabetes, Type 2. Their efficacy may not have been scientifically tested to the same degree as the drugs listed in the table above. However there may be historical, cultural or anecdotal evidence linking their use to the treatment of Diabetes, Type 2.

Legend

Off Label This medication may not be approved by the FDA for the treatment of this condition.
Prescription Only / Over the Counter
Rx Prescription Only
OTC Over the Counter
Rx/OTC Prescription or Over the Counter
Pregnancy
A Adequate and well-controlled studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy (and there is no evidence of risk in later trimesters).
B Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.
C Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks.
D There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks.
X Studies in animals or humans have demonstrated fetal abnormalities and/or there is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience, and the risks involved in use in pregnant women clearly outweigh potential benefits.
N FDA has not classified the drug.
Controlled Substances Act Schedule
N Is not subject to the Controlled Substances Act.
1 Has a high potential for abuse. Has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. There is a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision.
2 Has a high potential for abuse. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions. Abuse may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.
3 Has a potential for abuse less than those in schedules 1 and 2. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.
4 Has a low potential for abuse relative to those in schedule 3. It has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to those in schedule 3.
5 Has a low potential for abuse relative to those in schedule 4. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to those in schedule 4.
Alcohol
X Interacts with Alcohol.

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