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Narcotic analgesics

Other names: narcotics, opiates, opioid analgesics

What are Narcotic analgesics

Narcotic analgesics (also called opiates, opioid analgesics, or narcotics) are a group of medicines that relieve acute and chronic severe pain by binding to opioid receptors. There are at least four opioid receptors: mu, delta, kappa and opioid receptor like-1 (ORL1) receptor. These influence the opioid system which controls pain, reward and addictive behaviors. Opioid receptors are most abundant in the brain but are also found elsewhere in the body, including the digestive tract, respiratory tract and spinal cord.

Pleasurable activities (such as laughing and loving) release natural endorphins, dynorphins, and enkephalins which activate opioid receptors, improving our mood. Opioid receptors can also be activated by exogenous compounds, for example narcotic analgesics. Most narcotic analgesics act on the mu receptor and are very effective at relieving pain, but unfortunately, also activate reward pathways meaning that narcotic analgesics have a tendency to cause addiction, dependence and tolerance (where increasing dosages are needed to provide the same pain-relieving effect). Morphine and codeine are alkaloid opiates because they occur naturally. Heroin, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone and oxymorphone are semi-synthetic because they are made by modifying morphine.

Common side effects of opiates include constipation, itch, low blood pressure, miosis (excessive constriction of the pupil of the eye), nausea, sedation, urinary retention, and respiratory depression. Most are also effective at suppressing the urge to cough. Different narcotic analgesics have different potencies, based on how strongly they bind to the opioid receptor, meaning dosages vary considerably from one narcotic to the next (for example, fentanyl is 80 to 100 times stronger than morphine).

List of Narcotic analgesics:

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Drug NameView by: Brand | Generic Reviews Avg. Ratings
meperidine systemic (Pro, More...)
70 reviews
opium systemic (Pro, More...)
19 reviews
methadone systemic (Pro, More...)
479 reviews
oxycodone systemic (Pro, More...)
696 reviews
levorphanol systemic (Pro, More...)
11 reviews
codeine systemic (Pro, More...)
41 reviews
fentanyl systemic (Pro, More...)
341 reviews
hydromorphone systemic (Pro, More...)
370 reviews
oxymorphone systemic (Pro, More...)
206 reviews
morphine systemic (Pro, More...)
309 reviews
nalbuphine systemic (Pro, More...)
26 reviews
butorphanol systemic (Pro, More...)
52 reviews
buprenorphine systemic (Pro, More...)
393 reviews
propoxyphene systemic (Pro, More...)
23 reviews
tramadol systemic (Pro, More...)
1,237 reviews
tapentadol systemic (Pro, More...)
325 reviews
pentazocine systemic (Pro, More...)
9 reviews
hydrocodone systemic (Pro, More...)
136 reviews
alfentanil systemic (Pro, More...)
0 reviews
morphine liposomal systemic (Pro, More...)
0 reviewsAdd rating
remifentanil systemic (Pro, More...)
0 reviewsAdd rating
sufentanil systemic (Pro, More...)
0 reviewsAdd rating