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Opium

Class: Opiate Agonists
VA Class: CN101
CAS Number: 8002-76-4

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com on Mar 29, 2021. Written by ASHP.

Warning

    Concomitant Use with Benzodiazepines or Other CNS Depressants
  • Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death.

  • Reserve concomitant use of opiate analgesics and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants for patients in whom alternative treatment options are inadequate; use lowest effective dosages and shortest possible duration of concomitant therapy and monitor closely for respiratory depression and sedation. (See Specific Drugs under Interactions.)

Introduction

Opiate agonist and antiperistaltic agent; naturally occurring phenanthrene derivative; contains several alkaloids, including anhydrous morphine, codeine, and papaverine.

Uses for Opium

Pain Associated with Ureteral Spasm

Used rectally in combination with belladonna extract for the relief of moderate to severe pain associated with ureteral spasm unresponsive to nonopiate analgesics.

Used when the analgesic, sedative, and antispasmodic effects of the combination may be useful (i.e., when pain and smooth-muscle spasm are present concurrently) and to space intervals between opiate injections.

Diarrhea

Paregoric and opium tincture are used principally for the treatment of diarrhea.

Should not be used for treatment of diarrhea caused by poisoning until the toxic material is eliminated from the GI tract by gastric lavage or cathartics. (See Contraindications.)

Opiate Withdrawal

Paregoric and diluted opium tincture have been used to manage manifestations of opiate abstinence syndrome (i.e., postnatal withdrawal) in neonates exposed to opiates in utero. However, because of alcohol content of these preparations, potential for medication errors resulting from confusion of opium tincture (i.e., deodorized opium tincture) and diluted opium tincture, and potential for adverse effects from excipients in paregoric, other opiates currently are preferred when environmental and supportive measures are inadequate and pharmacologic therapy required.

Opium Dosage and Administration

Administration

Administer orally as a solution.

Administer rectally as a suppository.

Oral Administration

Paregoric and opium tincture are administered orally as a solution.

Opium tincture contains 25 times more morphine than does paregoric and should never be confused with the latter preparation. (See Concentrated Opium Solutions and also Possible Prescribing and Dispensing Errors, under Cautions.)

Rectal Administration

Opium is administered rectally as a suppository in combination with belladonna extract.

Moisten finger and rectal suppository containing belladonna and opium with water prior to rectal insertion.

Dosage

Tincture: Available as opium and paregoric; dosage is expressed in terms of anhydrous morphine alkaloid.

Opium tincture is an alcoholic solution containing 50 mg of anhydrous morphine (as granulated or sliced opium) per 5 mL.

Paregoric contains 2 mg of anhydrous morphine (usually as opium), anise oil, benzoic acid, glycerin, and sufficient diluted alcohol to make 5 mL.

Rectal suppository: Available as a fixed combination containing opium and belladonna; dosage expressed in terms of opium and belladonna.

Should be given in the lowest effective dosage and for shortest duration of therapy consistent with treatment goals of the patient.

When used concomitantly with other CNS depressants, use lowest effective dosages and shortest possible duration of concomitant therapy. (See Specific Drugs under Interactions.)

Pediatric Patients

Diarrhea
Paregoric
Oral

Usually, 0.25–0.5 mL/kg 1–4 times daily.

Adults

Pain Associated with Ureteral Spasm
Opium Combination Suppository
Rectal

Usually, 1 suppository once or twice daily, or as directed by a clinician.

Diarrhea
Paregoric
Oral

Usually, 5–10 mL 1–4 times daily.

Opium Tincture
Oral

Opium tincture contains 25 times more morphine than does paregoric and should never be confused with the latter preparation. (See Concentrated Opium Solutions and also Possible Prescribing and Dispensing Errors, under Cautions.)

Usually, 0.6 mL 4 times daily; may range from 0.3–1 mL 4 times daily.

Prescribing Limits

Adults

Pain Associated with Ureteral Spasm
Opium Combination Suppository
Rectal

Maximum 1 suppository 4 times daily.

Diarrhea
Opium Tincture
Oral

Maximum 1 mL as a single dose or 6 mL daily.

Special Populations

Hepatic Impairment

Use with caution and reduce initial dosage in patients with hepatic cirrhosis or insufficiency.

Renal Impairment

Use with caution and reduce initial dosage in patients with renal impairment.

Geriatric and Debilitated Patients

Administer with caution and reduce dosage in geriatric or debilitated patients.

Cautions for Opium

Contraindications

  • Known hypersensitivity to opium or morphine.

  • Convulsive states (e.g., status epilepticus, tetanus, strychnine poisoning).

  • Undiluted opium tincture: Children. (See Pediatric Use under Cautions.)

  • Paregoric and opium tincture: Diarrhea caused by poisoning until the toxic material is eliminated from the GI tract.

  • Opium and belladonna combination suppository: Glaucoma, severe renal or hepatic disease, bronchial asthma, respiratory depression, acute alcoholism, delirium tremens, premature labor.

Warnings/Precautions

Warnings

Dependence and Abuse

Abuse potential exists; use with caution.

Does not produce analgesia or euphoria in usual oral antidiarrheal doses; therefore, opium preparations may be used in the treatment of acute diarrhea with little risk of development of physical dependence in the patient. However, prolonged use of opium preparations (e.g., patients with ileitis or colitis) may produce physical dependence.

Use with caution in patients with a history of opiate agonist dependence.

Mild withdrawal symptoms reported in patients receiving paregoric 10 mg every 4 hours for 1–2 weeks. Provide supportive care in a hospital setting for patients in opiate withdrawal.

Concentrated Opium Solutions

Serious adverse events and deaths have occurred when opium tincture was mistakenly interchanged for paregoric (also known as “camphorated tincture of opium” and “tincture of paregoric”). These medication errors resulted in fatal adverse events because opium tincture is 25 times more concentrated than paregoric. FDA recommends a poison label for all containers of opium tincture stating the strength of morphine per mL and a statement such as “WARNING! Do NOT confuse opium tincture with paregoric.”

Possible Prescribing and Dispensing Errors

Ensure accuracy of prescription spelling; similarity in acronyms for diluted tincture of opium and deodorized tincture of opium (e.g., DTO), which contains 25 times more opium. May result in fatal errors.

It is important that prescriptions for opium preparations be written clearly and filled with the proper concentration to prevent potential medication errors.

Concomitant Use with Benzodiazepines or Other CNS Depressants

Concomitant use of opiates, including opium, and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (e.g., anxiolytics, sedatives, hypnotics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opiate agonists, alcohol) may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Substantial proportion of fatal opiate overdoses involve concurrent benzodiazepine use.

Reserve concomitant use of opium and other CNS depressants for patients in whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. (See Specific Drugs under Interactions.)

General Precautions

Head Injury and Increased Intracranial Pressure

Respiratory depressant effects (with CO2 retention and secondary elevation of CSF pressure) may be markedly exaggerated in the presence of head injury, other intracranial lesions, or a preexisting increase in intracranial pressure.

May produce effects that obscure the clinical course in patients with head injuries.

Use with extreme caution, if at all, in patients with a head injury, brain tumor, or elevated CSF pressure.

Adrenal Insufficiency

Adrenal insufficiency reported in patients receiving opiate agonists or opiate partial agonists. Manifestations are nonspecific and may include nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and hypotension.

If adrenal insufficiency is suspected, perform appropriate laboratory testing promptly and provide physiologic (replacement) dosages of corticosteroids; taper and discontinue the opiate agonist or partial agonist to allow recovery of adrenal function. If the opiate agonist or partial agonist can be discontinued, perform follow-up assessment of adrenal function to determine if corticosteroid replacement therapy can be discontinued. In some patients, switching to a different opiate improved symptoms.

Hypotensive Effects

Like all opiate analgesics, may cause severe hypotension in the postoperative patient or any individual whose ability to maintain their BP is compromised by a depleted blood volume or concomitant drugs (e.g., phenothiazines, general anesthetics).

May produce orthostatic hypotension in ambulatory patients. Lightheadedness and dizziness appear to be more prominent in ambulatory patients; may be alleviated if the patient lies down.

Respiratory Effects

Respiratory depression requiring administration of naloxone or ventilatory support may result from toxic dosages.

May decrease respiratory drive to the point of apnea while simultaneously increasing airway resistance, even at usual therapeutic doses. Use with extreme caution in patients with disorders characterized by hypoxia.

Use with caution in patients with asthma or emphysema.

Routinely discuss availability of the opiate antagonist naloxone with all patients receiving new or reauthorized prescriptions for opiate analgesics.

Consider prescribing naloxone for patients receiving opiate analgesics who are at increased risk of opiate overdosage (e.g., those receiving concomitant therapy with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, those with history of opiate or substance use disorder, those with medical conditions that could increase sensitivity to opiate effects, those who have experienced a prior opiate overdose) or who have household members, including children, or other close contacts who are at risk for accidental ingestion or overdosage. Even if patients are not receiving an opiate analgesic, consider prescribing naloxone if the patient is at increased risk of opiate overdosage (e.g., those with current or past diagnosis of opiate use disorder [OUD], those who have experienced a prior opiate overdose).

Acute Abdominal Conditions

Administration may complicate assessment of patients with acute abdominal conditions.

Reduce the initial dosage in patients who have undergone GI surgery. Use with caution in patients with GI hemorrhage.

CNS Effects

May impair mental and/or physical abilities needed to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving or operating machinery. Individuals who perform hazardous tasks requiring mental alertness or physical coordination should be warned about possible adverse CNS effects of opiate agonists.

May aggravate preexisting seizures in patients with convulsive disorders. Risk of seizures in patients without a history of seizure disorders at dosages above recommended levels.

Prostatic Hypertrophy or Urethral Stricture

Use with caution in patients with severe prostatic hypertrophy or urethral stricture.

Hypothyroidism and Myxedema

Use with caution and reduce the initial dosage in patients with hypothyroidism.

Use with caution in patients with untreated myxedema.

Addison’s Disease

Use with caution and reduce the initial dosage in patients with Addison’s disease.

Cardiac Arrhythmia

May increase ventricular response rate through a vagolytic action; use with caution in patients with atrial flutter or other supraventricular tachycardias.

Cerebral Arteriosclerosis.

Use with caution in patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis.

Hypogonadism

Hypogonadism or androgen deficiency reported in patients receiving long-term opiate agonist or opiate partial agonist therapy; causality not established. Manifestations may include decreased libido, impotence, erectile dysfunction, amenorrhea, or infertility. Perform appropriate laboratory testing in patients with manifestations of hypogonadism.

Fixed-Combination Preparations

Consider the cautions, precautions, and contraindications associated with other drug(s) in fixed-combination preparations.

Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Category C.

Lactation

Morphine is distributed into milk. Use with caution in nursing women.

Pediatric Use

Manufacturer does not recommend use of opium rectal suppositories in children ≤12 years of age.

Manufacturer does not recommend use of opium tincture in children. Diluted opium tincture or paregoric no longer recommended for management of neonatal opiate abstinence syndrome. (See Opiate Withdrawal under Uses.)

Geriatric Use

Use with caution in geriatric patients.

Hepatic Impairment

Use with caution in patients with severe hepatic impairment.

Renal Impairment

Use with caution in patients with severe renal impairment.

Common Adverse Effects

Opium tincture and fixed-combination suppositories: Constipation, nausea, vomiting.

Paregoric: Lightheadedness, dizziness, sedation, nausea, vomiting.

Interactions for Opium

Drugs Associated with Serotonin Syndrome

Risk of serotonin syndrome when opiates used with other serotonergic drugs. May occur at usual dosages. Symptom onset generally occurs within several hours to a few days of concomitant use, but may occur later, particularly after dosage increases. (See Advice to Patients.)

If concomitant use of other serotonergic drugs is warranted, monitor patients for serotonin syndrome, particularly during initiation of therapy and dosage increases.

If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue opium, other opiate therapy, and/or any concurrently administered serotonergic agents.

Specific Drugs

Drug

Interaction

Comments

Antidepressants, SSRIs (e.g., citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline), SNRIs (e.g., desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran, venlafaxine), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), mirtazapine, nefazodone, trazodone, vilazodone

Risk of serotonin syndrome

If concomitant use warranted, monitor for serotonin syndrome, particularly during initiation of therapy and dosage increases

If serotonin syndrome suspected, discontinue opium, the antidepressant, and/or any concurrently administered opiates or serotonergic agents

Antiemetics, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (e.g., dolasetron, granisetron, ondansetron, palonosetron)

Risk of serotonin syndrome

If concomitant use warranted, monitor for serotonin syndrome, particularly during initiation of therapy and dosage increases

If serotonin syndrome suspected, discontinue opium, the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, and/or any concurrently administered opiates or serotonergic agents

Antipsychotics (e.g., aripiprazole, asenapine, cariprazine, chlorpromazine, clozapine, fluphenazine, haloperidol, iloperidone, loxapine, lurasidone, molindone, olanzapine, paliperidone, perphenazine, pimavanserin, quetiapine, risperidone, thioridazine, thiothixene, trifluoperazine, ziprasidone)

Risk of profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, or death

Use concomitantly only if alternative treatment options are inadequate; use lowest effective dosages and shortest possible duration of concomitant therapy

In patients receiving opium, initiate antipsychotic, if required, at lower dosage than indicated in the absence of opiate therapy and titrate based on clinical response

In patients receiving an antipsychotic, initiate opium, if required, at reduced dosage and titrate based on clinical response

Monitor closely for respiratory depression and sedation

Benzodiazepines (e.g., alprazolam, chlordiazepoxide, clobazam, clonazepam, clorazepate, diazepam, estazolam, flurazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, oxazepam, quazepam, temazepam, triazolam)

Risk of profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, or death

Whenever possible, avoid concomitant use

Use concomitantly only if alternative treatment options are inadequate; use lowest effective dosages and shortest possible duration of concomitant therapy

In patients receiving opium, initiate benzodiazepine, if required for any indication other than epilepsy, at lower dosage than indicated in the absence of opiate therapy and titrate based on clinical response

In patients receiving a benzodiazepine, initiate opium, if required, at reduced dosage and titrate based on clinical response

Monitor closely for respiratory depression and sedation

Consider prescribing naloxone for patients receiving opiates and benzodiazepines concomitantly

Buspirone

Risk of serotonin syndrome

If concomitant use warranted, monitor for serotonin syndrome, particularly during initiation of therapy and dosage increases

If serotonin syndrome suspected, discontinue opium, buspirone, and/or any concurrently administered opiates or serotonergic agents

CNS depressants (e.g., other opiates, general anesthetics, tranquilizers, anxiolytics, alcohol)

May potentiate the effects of other CNS depressants; increased risk of profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, or death

Use concomitantly only if alternative treatment options are inadequate; use lowest effective dosages and shortest possible duration of concomitant therapy

In patients receiving opium, initiate CNS depressant, if required for any indication other than epilepsy, at lower dosage than indicated in the absence of opiate therapy and titrate based on clinical response

In patients receiving a CNS depressant, initiate opium, if required, at reduced dosage and titrate based on clinical response

Monitor closely for respiratory depression and sedation

Consider prescribing naloxone for patients receiving opiates and other CNS depressants concomitantly

Avoid alcohol use

Dextromethorphan

Risk of serotonin syndrome

If concomitant use warranted, monitor for serotonin syndrome, particularly during initiation of therapy and dosage increases

If serotonin syndrome suspected, discontinue opium, dextromethorphan, and/or any concurrently administered opiates or serotonergic agents

Diuretics

Opiate agonists may decrease the effects of diuretics in patients with CHF

5-HT1 receptor agonists (triptans; e.g., almotriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, zolmitriptan)

Risk of serotonin syndrome

If concomitant use warranted, monitor for serotonin syndrome, particularly during initiation of therapy and dosage increases

If serotonin syndrome suspected, discontinue opium, the triptan, and/or any concurrently administered opiates or serotonergic agents

Lithium

Risk of serotonin syndrome

If concomitant use warranted, monitor for serotonin syndrome, particularly during initiation of therapy and dosage increases

If serotonin syndrome suspected, discontinue opium, lithium, and/or any concurrently administered opiates or serotonergic agents

MAO inhibitors (e.g., isocarboxazid, linezolid, methylene blue, phenelzine, selegiline, tranylcypromine)

Risk of serotonin syndrome

If concomitant use warranted, monitor for serotonin syndrome, particularly during initiation of therapy and dosage increases

If serotonin syndrome suspected, discontinue opium, the MAO inhibitor, and/or any concurrently administered opiates or serotonergic agents

Neuromuscular blocking agents

Opiates may enhance neuromuscular blocking action

Opiate partial agonists (butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine)

Possible reduced analgesic effect and/or withdrawal symptoms

Avoid concomitant use

Sedative/hypnotic agents (e.g., butabarbital, eszopiclone, pentobarbital, ramelteon, secobarbital, suvorexant, zaleplon, zolpidem)

Risk of profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, or death

Use concomitantly only if alternative treatment options are inadequate; use lowest effective dosages and shortest possible duration of concomitant therapy

In patients receiving opium, initiate sedative/hypnotic, if required, at lower dosage than indicated in the absence of opiate therapy and titrate based on clinical response

In patients receiving a sedative/hypnotic, initiate opium, if required, at reduced dosage and titrate based on clinical response

Monitor closely for respiratory depression and sedation

Skeletal muscle relaxants (e.g., baclofen, carisoprodol, chlorzoxazone, cyclobenzaprine, dantrolene, metaxalone, methocarbamol, orphenadrine, tizanidine)

Risk of profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, or death

Cyclobenzaprine: Risk of serotonin syndrome

Use concomitantly only if alternative treatment options are inadequate; use lowest effective dosages and shortest possible duration of concomitant therapy

In patients receiving opium, initiate skeletal muscle relaxant, if required, at lower dosage than indicated in the absence of opiate therapy and titrate based on clinical response

In patients receiving a skeletal muscle relaxant, initiate opium, if required, at reduced dosage and titrate based on clinical response

Monitor closely for respiratory depression and sedation

Cyclobenzaprine: If concomitant use warranted, monitor for serotonin syndrome, particularly during initiation of therapy and dosage increases

If serotonin syndrome suspected, discontinue opium, cyclobenzaprine, and/or any concurrently administered opiates or serotonergic agents

St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum)

Risk of serotonin syndrome

If concomitant use warranted, monitor for serotonin syndrome, particularly during initiation of therapy and dosage increases

If serotonin syndrome suspected, discontinue opium, St. John’s wort, and/or any concurrently administered opiates or serotonergic agents

Tryptophan

Risk of serotonin syndrome

If concomitant use warranted, monitor for serotonin syndrome, particularly during initiation of therapy and dosage increases

If serotonin syndrome suspected, discontinue opium, tryptophan, and/or any concurrently administered opiates or serotonergic agents

Opium Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Bioavailability

Following oral administration, morphine is variably absorbed from the GI tract.

Onset

Following rectal administration, analgesia occurs in 15–30 minutes.

Duration

Following rectal administration, analgesia is maintained for 3–5 hours.

Elimination

Metabolism

Metabolized principally in the liver and undergoes conjugation with glucuronic acid.

Secondary conjugation may also occur to form 3,6-diglucuronide.

Elimination Route

Excreted principally in urine as metabolites and to a lesser extent as unchanged drug.

Approximately 75% of morphine excreted in the urine within 48 hours.

Stability

Storage

Oral

Solution

Paregoric: Tight, light-resistant containers at 15–30°C. A sediment may form if exposed to low temperatures; filter if necessary. Avoid exposure to direct sunlight and to excessive heat.

Opium tincture: Tight, light-resistant containers at 15–30° C. Avoid exposure to direct sunlight and to excessive heat.

Rectal

Suppositories

Room temperature. Do not refrigerate. Protect from moisture.

Actions

  • Analgesic activity results primarily from the morphine content of opium preparations.

  • Increases smooth muscle tone in the longitudinal muscle of the GI tract, inhibits GI motility and propulsive contraction, and diminishes digestive secretions.

  • Relatively small doses of opium are effective in controlling diarrhea, but do not produce substantial analgesia.

  • Papaverine content of the mixed alkaloids is too small to have demonstrable smooth muscle relaxant activity.

Advice to Patients

  • Importance of informing patients that drug may impair mental and/or physical ability required for performance of potentially hazardous tasks.

  • Risk of respiratory depression following overdosage. Advise patients of the benefits of naloxone following opiate overdose and of their options for obtaining the drug.

  • Risk of potentially fatal additive effects (e.g., profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma) if used concomitantly with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol and other opiates, either therapeutically or illicitly; avoid concomitant use unless such use is supervised by clinician. Importance of informing patients that opium preparations should not be combined with alcohol.

  • Importance of informing patients that this is a drug of potential abuse.

  • Potential risk of serotonin syndrome with concurrent use of opiates and other serotonergic agents. Importance of immediately contacting clinician if manifestations of serotonin syndrome (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, labile BP, fever, excessive sweating, shivering, shaking, muscle stiffness, twitching, loss of coordination, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea) develop.

  • Potential risk of adrenal insufficiency. Importance of contacting clinician if manifestations of adrenal insufficiency (e.g., nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, hypotension) develop.

  • Possible risk (although causality not established) of hypogonadism or androgen deficiency with long-term opiate agonist or partial agonist use. Importance of informing clinician if decreased libido, impotence, erectile dysfunction, amenorrhea, or infertility occurs.

  • Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs, as well as any concomitant illnesses.

  • Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.

  • Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information. (See Cautions.)

Preparations

Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.

Please refer to the ASHP Drug Shortages Resource Center for information on shortages of one or more of these preparations.

Opium preparations are subject to control under the Federal Controlled Substances Act of 1970 as schedule II (C-II) drugs, but as schedule III (C-III) drugs when they contain ≤25 mg of opium per 5 mL, 5 g, or dosage unit in fixed combination with a therapeutic amount of one or more nonopiate drugs or as schedule V (C-V) drugs when they contain 1 mg or less of opium per mL or g in combination with one or more active nonopiate medicinal ingredients in sufficient proportion to confer on the preparation medicinal qualities not possessed by opium.

Powdered Opium

Routes

Dosage Forms

Strengths

Brand Names

Manufacturer

Bulk

Powder

* available from one or more manufacturer, distributor, and/or repackager by generic (nonproprietary) name

Powdered Opium Combinations

Routes

Dosage Forms

Strengths

Brand Names

Manufacturer

Rectal

Suppositories

30 mg with Belladonna Extract 16.2 mg (equivalent to belladonna alkaloids 0.21 mg)*

Belladonna and Opium Suppositories ( C-II)

60 mg with Belladonna Extract 16.2 mg (equivalent to belladonna alkaloids 0.21 mg)*

Belladonna and Opium Suppositories ( C-II)

* available from one or more manufacturer, distributor, and/or repackager by generic (nonproprietary) name

Opium Tincture (Deodorized Opium Tincture, Laudanum)

Routes

Dosage Forms

Strengths

Brand Names

Manufacturer

Oral

Tincture

50 mg (of morphine anhydrous) per 5 mL*

Opium Tincture Deodorized ( C-II)

* available from one or more manufacturer, distributor, and/or repackager by generic (nonproprietary) name

Paregoric (Camphorated Opium Tincture)

Routes

Dosage Forms

Strengths

Brand Names

Manufacturer

Oral

Tincture*

2 mg (of morphine anhydrous) per 5 mL*

Paregoric ( C-III)

AHFS DI Essentials™. © Copyright 2022, Selected Revisions March 29, 2021. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 4500 East-West Highway, Suite 900, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

† Use is not currently included in the labeling approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

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