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Medications for Postoperative Pain

Postoperative pain is a complex response to tissue trauma during surgery. It includes both the pain directly related to the surgery and pain associated with hypersensitivity of the central nervous system.

Drugs used to treat Postoperative Pain

The following list of medications are in some way related to or used in the treatment of this condition.

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Drug name Rating Reviews Activity ? Rx/OTC Pregnancy CSA Alcohol
ketorolac 6.1 50 reviews for ketorolac to treat Postoperative Pain
Rx C N X
Generic name:
ketorolac systemic
Drug class:
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
For consumers:
dosage, interactions, side effects
For professionals:
AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information
fentanyl 5.1 7 reviews for fentanyl to treat Postoperative Pain
Rx C 2 X
Generic name:
fentanyl systemic
Drug class:
Opioids (narcotic analgesics)
For consumers:
dosage, interactions, side effects
For professionals:
AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information
bupivacaine 8.3 3 reviews for bupivacaine to treat Postoperative Pain
Rx C N
Generic name:
bupivacaine systemic
Brand names:
Xaracoll, Posimir
Drug class:
local injectable anesthetics
For consumers:
dosage, interactions, side effects
For professionals:
AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information
Xaracoll Rate Add review
Rx C N
Generic name:
bupivacaine systemic
Drug class:
local injectable anesthetics
For consumers:
dosage, interactions, side effects
For professionals:
Prescribing Information
bupivacaine / meloxicam Rate Add review
Rx N X
Generic name:
bupivacaine / meloxicam systemic
Brand name:
Zynrelef
Drug class:
analgesic combinations
For consumers:
dosage, interactions, side effects
For professionals:
AHFS DI Monograph
Zynrelef Rate Add review
Rx N X
Generic name:
bupivacaine / meloxicam systemic
Drug class:
analgesic combinations
For consumers:
dosage, interactions, side effects
For professionals:
Prescribing Information
Posimir Rate Add review
Rx C N
Generic name:
bupivacaine systemic
Drug class:
local injectable anesthetics
For consumers:
dosage, interactions, side effects
For professionals:
Prescribing Information
bupivacaine liposome 10 1 review for bupivacaine liposome to treat Postoperative Pain
Rx C N
Generic name:
bupivacaine liposome systemic
Brand name:
Exparel
Drug class:
local injectable anesthetics
For consumers:
dosage, interactions, side effects
Exparel 10 1 review for Exparel to treat Postoperative Pain
Rx C N
Generic name:
bupivacaine liposome systemic
Drug class:
local injectable anesthetics
For consumers:
dosage, interactions, side effects

Frequently asked questions

Legend

Rating For ratings, users were asked how effective they found the medicine while considering positive/adverse effects and ease of use (1 = not effective, 10 = most effective).
Activity Activity is based on recent site visitor activity relative to other medications in the list.
Rx Prescription only.
OTC Over-the-counter.
Rx/OTC Prescription or Over-the-counter.
Off-label This medication may not be approved by the FDA for the treatment of this condition.
EUA An Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) allows the FDA to authorize unapproved medical products or unapproved uses of approved medical products to be used in a declared public health emergency when there are no adequate, approved, and available alternatives.
Expanded Access Expanded Access is a potential pathway for a patient with a serious or immediately life-threatening disease or condition to gain access to an investigational medical product (drug, biologic, or medical device) for treatment outside of clinical trials when no comparable or satisfactory alternative therapy options are available.
Pregnancy Category
A Adequate and well-controlled studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy (and there is no evidence of risk in later trimesters).
B Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.
C Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks.
D There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks.
X Studies in animals or humans have demonstrated fetal abnormalities and/or there is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience, and the risks involved in use in pregnant women clearly outweigh potential benefits.
N FDA has not classified the drug.
Controlled Substances Act (CSA) Schedule
M The drug has multiple schedules. The schedule may depend on the exact dosage form or strength of the medication.
U CSA Schedule is unknown.
N Is not subject to the Controlled Substances Act.
1 Has a high potential for abuse. Has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. There is a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision.
2 Has a high potential for abuse. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions. Abuse may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.
3 Has a potential for abuse less than those in schedules 1 and 2. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.
4 Has a low potential for abuse relative to those in schedule 3. It has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to those in schedule 3.
5 Has a low potential for abuse relative to those in schedule 4. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to those in schedule 4.
Alcohol
X Interacts with Alcohol.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.