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Levaquin in 5% dextrose injection

 

Prescribing Information

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of LEVAQUIN (levofloxacin) and other antibacterial drugs, LEVAQUIN should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

Description

LEVAQUIN (levofloxacin) is a synthetic broad spectrum antibacterial agent for oral and intravenous administration. Chemically, levofloxacin, a chiral fluorinated carboxyquinolone, is the pure (-)-(S)-enantiomer of the racemic drug substance ofloxacin. The chemical name is ( - ) - (S) - 9 - fluoro - 2,3 - dihydro - 3 - methyl - 10 - (4 - methyl - 1 - piperazinyl) - 7 - oxo - 7H - pyridol[1,2,3 - de] - 1,4 - benzoxazine - 6 - carboxylic acid hemihydrate.

The chemical structure is:

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Its empirical formula is C 18 H 20 FN 3 O 4 · ½ H 2 O and its molecular weight is 370.38. Levofloxacin is a light yellowish-white to yellow-white crystal or crystalline powder. The molecule exists as a zwitterion at the pH conditions in the small intestine.

The data demonstrate that from pH 0.6 to 5.8, the solubility of levofloxacin is essentially constant (approximately 100 mg/mL). Levofloxacin is considered soluble to freely soluble in this pH range, as defined by USP nomenclature. Above pH 5.8, the solubility increases rapidly to its maximum at pH 6.7 (272 mg/mL) and is considered freely soluble in this range. Above pH 6.7, the solubility decreases and reaches a minimum value (about 50 mg/mL) at a pH of approximately 6.9.

Levofloxacin has the potential to form stable coordination compounds with many metal ions. This in vitro chelation potential has the following formation order: A1 +3 >Cu +2 >Zn +2 >Mg +2 >Ca +2 .

LEVAQUIN Tablets are available as film-coated tablets and contain the following inactive ingredients:

250 mg (as expressed in the anhydrous form): hypromellose, crospovidone, microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, polysorbate 80 and synthetic red iron oxide.

500 mg (as expressed in the anhydrous form): hypromellose, crospovidone, microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, polysorbate 80 and synthetic red and yellow iron oxides.

750 mg (as expressed in the anhydrous form): hypromellose, crospovidone, microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, polysorbate 80.

LEVAQUIN Oral Solution, 25 mg/mL is a multi-use self-preserving aqueous solution of levofloxacin with pH ranging from 5.0-6.0. The appearance of LEVAQUIN Oral Solution may range from clear yellow to clear greenish-yellow. This does not adversely affect product potency.

LEVAQUIN Oral Solution contains the following inactive ingredients: sucrose, glycerin, sucralose, hydrochloric acid, purified water, propylene glycol, artificial and natural flavors, benzyl alcohol, ascorbic acid, and caramel color. It may also contain a solution of sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment.

LEVAQUIN Injection in Single-Use Vials is a sterile, preservative-free aqueous solution of levofloxacin with pH ranging from 3.8 to 5.8. LEVAQUIN Injection in Premix Flexible Containers is a sterile, preservative-free aqueous solution of levofloxacin with pH ranging from 3.8 to 5.8. The appearance of LEVAQUIN Injection may range from a clear yellow to a greenish-yellow solution. This does not adversely affect product potency.

LEVAQUIN Injection in Single-Use Vials contains levofloxacin in Water for Injection. LEVAQUIN Injection in Premix Flexible Containers is a dilute, non-pyrogenic, nearly isotonic premixed solution that contains levofloxacin in 5% Dextrose (D 5 W). Solutions of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide may have been added to adjust the pH.

The flexible container is fabricated from a specially formulated non-plasticized, thermoplastic copolyester (CR3). The amount of water that can permeate from the container into the overwrap is insufficient to affect the solution significantly. Solutions in contact with the flexible container can leach out certain of the container's chemical components in very small amounts within the expiration period. The suitability of the container material has been confirmed by tests in animals according to USP biological tests for plastic containers.

Clinical Pharmacology

The mean ±SD pharmacokinetic parameters of levofloxacin determined under single and steady-state conditions following oral (p.o.) tablet, oral solution, or intravenous (i.v.) doses of levofloxacin are summarized in Table 1.

Absorption

Levofloxacin is rapidly and essentially completely absorbed after oral administration. Peak plasma concentrations are usually attained one to two hours after oral dosing. The absolute bioavailability of a 500 mg tablet and a 750 mg tablet of levofloxacin are both approximately 99%, demonstrating complete oral absorption of levofloxacin. Following a single intravenous dose of levofloxacin to healthy volunteers, the mean ±SD peak plasma concentration attained was 6.2 ±1.0 µg/mL after a 500 mg dose infused over 60 minutes and 11.5 ±4.0 µg/mL after a 750 mg dose infused over 90 minutes. Levofloxacin oral solution and tablet formulations are bioequivalent.

Levofloxacin pharmacokinetics are linear and predictable after single and multiple oral or i.v. dosing regimens. Steady-state conditions are reached within 48 hours following a 500 mg or 750 mg once-daily dosage regimen. The mean ±SD peak and trough plasma concentrations attained following multiple once-daily oral dosage regimens were approximately 5.7 ±1.4 and 0.5 ±0.2 µg/mL after the 500 mg doses, and 8.6 ±1.9 and 1.1 ±0.4 µg/mL after the 750 mg doses, respectively. The mean ±SD peak and trough plasma concentrations attained following multiple once-daily i.v. regimens were approximately 6.4 ±0.8 and 0.6 ±0.2 µg/mL after the 500 mg doses, and 12.1 ±4.1 and 1.3 ±0.71 µg/mL after the 750 mg doses, respectively.

Oral administration of a 500-mg LEVAQUIN with food prolongs the time to peak concentration by approximately 1 hour and decreases the peak concentration by approximately 14% following tablet and approximately 25% following oral solution administration. Therefore, levofloxacin tablets can be administered without regard to food. It is recommended that levofloxacin oral solution be taken 1 hour before, or 2 hours after eating.

The plasma concentration profile of levofloxacin after i.v. administration is similar and comparable in extent of exposure (AUC) to that observed for levofloxacin tablets when equal doses (mg/mg) are administered. Therefore, the oral and i.v. routes of administration can be considered interchangeable. (See following chart.)

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Distribution

The mean volume of distribution of levofloxacin generally ranges from 74 to 112 L after single and multiple 500 mg or 750 mg doses, indicating widespread distribution into body tissues. Levofloxacin reaches its peak levels in skin tissues and in blister fluid of healthy subjects at approximately 3 hours after dosing. The skin tissue biopsy to plasma AUC ratio is approximately 2 and the blister fluid to plasma AUC ratio is approximately 1 following multiple once-daily oral administration of 750 mg and 500 mg levofloxacin, respectively, to healthy subjects. Levofloxacin also penetrates well into lung tissues. Lung tissue concentrations were generally 2- to 5- fold higher than plasma concentrations and ranged from approximately 2.4 to 11.3 µg/g over a 24-hour period after a single 500 mg oral dose.

In vitro, over a clinically relevant range (1 to 10 µg/mL) of serum/plasma levofloxacin concentrations, levofloxacin is approximately 24 to 38% bound to serum proteins across all species studied, as determined by the equilibrium dialysis method. Levofloxacin is mainly bound to serum albumin in humans. Levofloxacin binding to serum proteins is independent of the drug concentration.

Metabolism

Levofloxacin is stereochemically stable in plasma and urine and does not invert metabolically to its enantiomer, D-ofloxacin. Levofloxacin undergoes limited metabolism in humans and is primarily excreted as unchanged drug in the urine. Following oral administration, approximately 87% of an administered dose was recovered as unchanged drug in urine within 48 hours, whereas less than 4% of the dose was recovered in feces in 72 hours. Less than 5% of an administered dose was recovered in the urine as the desmethyl and N-oxide metabolites, the only metabolites identified in humans. These metabolites have little relevant pharmacological activity.

Excretion

Levofloxacin is excreted largely as unchanged drug in the urine. The mean terminal plasma elimination half-life of levofloxacin ranges from approximately 6 to 8 hours following single or multiple doses of levofloxacin given orally or intravenously. The mean apparent total body clearance and renal clearance range from approximately 144 to 226 mL/min and 96 to 142 mL/min, respectively. Renal clearance in excess of the glomerular filtration rate suggests that tubular secretion of levofloxacin occurs in addition to its glomerular filtration. Concomitant administration of either cimetidine or probenecid results in approximately 24% and 35% reduction in the levofloxacin renal clearance, respectively, indicating that secretion of levofloxacin occurs in the renal proximal tubule. No levofloxacin crystals were found in any of the urine samples freshly collected from subjects receiving levofloxacin.

Special Populations

Geriatric:   There are no significant differences in levofloxacin pharmacokinetics between young and elderly subjects when the subjects' differences in creatinine clearance are taken into consideration. Following a 500 mg oral dose of levofloxacin to healthy elderly subjects (66-80 years of age), the mean terminal plasma elimination half-life of levofloxacin was about 7.6 hours, as compared to approximately 6 hours in younger adults. The difference was attributable to the variation in renal function status of the subjects and was not believed to be clinically significant. Drug absorption appears to be unaffected by age. Levofloxacin dose adjustment based on age alone is not necessary.

Pediatric:   The pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in pediatric subjects have not been studied.

Gender:   There are no significant differences in levofloxacin pharmacokinetics between male and female subjects when subjects' differences in creatinine clearance are taken into consideration. Following a 500 mg oral dose of levofloxacin to healthy male subjects, the mean terminal plasma elimination half-life of levofloxacin was about 7.5 hours, as compared to approximately 6.1 hours in female subjects. This difference was attributable to the variation in renal function status of the male and female subjects and was not believed to be clinically significant. Drug absorption appears to be unaffected by the gender of the subjects. Dose adjustment based on gender alone is not necessary.

Race:   The effect of race on levofloxacin pharmacokinetics was examined through a covariate analysis performed on data from 72 subjects: 48 white and 24 non-white. The apparent total body clearance and apparent volume of distribution were not affected by the race of the subjects.

Renal insufficiency:   Clearance of levofloxacin is substantially reduced and plasma elimination half-life is substantially prolonged in patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance <50 mL/min), requiring dosage adjustment in such patients to avoid accumulation. Neither hemodialysis nor continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is effective in removal of levofloxacin from the body, indicating that supplemental doses of levofloxacin are not required following hemodialysis or CAPD. (See PRECAUTIONS : General and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION .)

Hepatic insufficiency:   Pharmacokinetic studies in hepatically impaired patients have not been conducted. Due to the limited extent of levofloxacin metabolism, the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin are not expected to be affected by hepatic impairment.

Bacterial infection:   The pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in patients with serious community-acquired bacterial infections are comparable to those observed in healthy subjects.

Drug-drug interactions:   The potential for pharmacokinetic drug interactions between levofloxacin and theophylline, warfarin, cyclosporine, digoxin, probenecid, cimetidine, sucralfate, and antacids has been evaluated. (See PRECAUTIONS : Drug Interactions .)

Table 1. Mean ±SD Levofloxacin PK Parameters
Regimen
C max
(µg/mL)
T max
(h)
AUC
(µg·h/mL)
CL/F 1
(mL/min)
Vd/F 2
(L)
t 1/2
(h)
CL R
(mL/min)
Single dose
250 mg p.o. tablet 3
2.8 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 1.0 27.2 ± 3.9 156 ± 20 ND 7.3 ± 0.9 142 ± 21
500 mg p.o. tablet 3 *
5.1 ± 0.8 1.3 ± 0.6 47.9 ± 6.8 178 ± 28 ND 6.3 ± 0.6 103 ± 30
500 mg oral solution 12
5.8 ± 1.8 0.8 ± 0.7 47.8 ± 10.8 1835 ± 40 112 ± 37.2 7.0 ± 1.47 ND
500 mg i.v. 3
6.2 ± 1.0 1.0 ± 0.1 48.3 ± 5.4 175 ± 20  90 ± 11 6.4 ± 0.7 112 ± 25
750 mg p.o. tablet 5 *
9.3 ± 1.6 1.6 ± 0.8 101 ± 20 129 ± 24  83 ± 17 7.5 ± 0.9 ND
750 mg i.v. 5
11.5 ± 4.0 4 ND 110 ± 40 126 ± 39  75 ± 13 7.5 ± 1.6 ND
Multiple dose
500 mg q24h p.o.
   tablet 3
5.7 ± 1.4 1.1 ± 0.4 47.5 ± 6.7 175 ± 25 102 ± 22 7.6 ± 1.6 116 ± 31
500 mg q24h i.v. 3
6.4 ± 0.8 ND  54.6 ± 11.1 158 ± 29  91 ± 12 7.0 ± 0.8  99 ± 28
500 mg or 250 mg
   q24h i.v., patients
   with bacterial
   infection 6
 8.7 ± 4. 7 ND   72.5 ± 51.2 7 154 ± 72 111 ± 58 ND ND
750 mg q24h p.o.
   tablet 5
8.6 ± 1.9 1.4 ± 0.5  90.7 ± 17.6 143 ± 29 100 ± 16 8.8 ± 1.5 116 ± 28
750 mg q24h i.v. 5
12.1 ± 4.1 4 ND 108 ± 34 126 ± 37  80 ± 27 7.9 ± 1.9 ND
500 mg p.o. single dose, effects of gender and age:
Male 8
5.5 ± 1.1 1.2 ± 0.4  54.4 ± 18.9 166 ± 44  89 ± 13 7.5 ± 2.1 126 ± 38
Female 9
7.0 ± 1.6 1.7 ± 0.5  67.7 ± 24.2 136 ± 44  62 ± 16 6.1 ± 0.8 106 ± 40
Young 10
5.5 ± 1.0 1.5 ± 0.6 47.5 ± 9.8 182 ± 35  83 ± 18 6.0 ± 0.9 140 ± 33
Elderly 11
7.0 ± 1.6 1.4 ± 0.5  74.7 ± 23.3 121 ± 33  67 ± 19 7.6 ± 2.0  91 ± 29
500 mg p.o. single dose, patients with renal insufficiency:
CL CR 50-80 mL/min
7.5 ± 1.8 1.5 ± 0.5  95.6 ± 11.8 88 ± 10 ND 9.1 ± 0.9 57 ± 8
CL CR 20-49 mL/min
7.1 ± 3.1 2.1 ± 1.3 182.1 ± 62.6 51 ± 19 ND 27 ± 10  26 ± 13
CL CR <20 mL/min
8.2 ± 2.6 1.1 ± 1.0 263.5 ± 72.5 33 ± 8  ND 35 ± 5  13 ± 3
Hemodialysis
5.7 ± 1.0 2.8 ± 2.2 ND ND ND 76 ± 42 ND
CAPD
6.9 ± 2.3 1.4 ± 1.1 ND ND ND 51 ± 24 ND
1 clearance/bioavailability
2 volume of distribution/bioavailability
3 healthy males 18-53 years of age
4 60 min infusion for 250 mg and 500 mg doses, 90 min infusion for 750 mg dose
5 healthy male and female subjects 18-54 years of age
6 500 mg q48h for patients with moderate renal impairment (CL CR 20-50 mL/min) and infections of the respiratory tract or skin
7 dose-normalized values (to 500 mg dose), estimated by population pharmacokinetic modeling
8 healthy males 22-75 years of age
9 healthy females 18-80 years of age
10 young healthy male and female subjects 18-36 years of age
11 healthy elderly male and female subjects 66-80 years of age
12 healthy males and females 19-55 years of age
*Absolute bioavailability; F = 0.99 ± 0.08 from a 500-mg tablet and F=0.99 ± 0.06 from a 750-mg tablet;
ND = not determined.

MICROBIOLOGY

Levofloxacin is the L-isomer of the racemate, ofloxacin, a quinolone antimicrobial agent. The antibacterial activity of ofloxacin resides primarily in the L-isomer. The mechanism of action of levofloxacin and other fluoroquinolone antimicrobials involves inhibition of bacterial topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase (both of which are type II topoisomerases), enzymes required for DNA replication, transcription, repair and recombination.

Levofloxacin has in vitro activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. Levofloxacin is often bactericidal at concentrations equal to or slightly greater than inhibitory concentrations.

Fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, differ in chemical structure and mode of action from aminoglycosides, macrolides and (beta)-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins. Fluoroquinolones may, therefore, be active against bacteria resistant to these antimicrobials.

Resistance to levofloxacin due to spontaneous mutation in vitro is a rare occurrence (range: 10 -9 to 10 -10 ). Although cross-resistance has been observed between levofloxacin and some other fluoroquinolones, some microorganisms resistant to other fluoroquinolones may be susceptible to levofloxacin.

Levofloxacin has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section:

Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms

Enterococcus faecalis (many strains are only moderately susceptible)

Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains)

Staphylococcus epidermidis (methicillin-susceptible strains)

Staphylococcus saprophyticus

Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multi-drug resistant strains [MDRSP] * )

Streptococcus pyogenes

*MDRSP (Multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae ) isolates are strains resistant to two or more of the following antibiotics: penicillin (MIC >/=2 µg/mL, 2 nd generation cephalosporins, e.g., cefuroxime, macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

Aerobic gram-negative microorganisms

Enterobacter cloacae

Escherichia coli

Haemophilus influenzae

Haemophilus parainfluenzae

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Legionella pneumophila

Moraxella catarrhalis

Proteus mirabilis

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Serratia marcescens

As with other drugs in this class, some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may develop resistance fairly rapidly during treatment with levofloxacin.

Other microorganisms

Chlamydia pneumoniae

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Levofloxacin has been shown to be active against Bacillus anthracis both in vitro and by use of plasma levels as a surrogate marker in a rhesus monkey model for anthrax (post-exposure). (See INDICATIONS AND USAGE and ADDITIONAL INFORMATION - INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX ).

The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown .

Levofloxacin exhibits in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC values) of 2 µg/mL or less against most (>/=90%) strains of the following microorganisms; however, the safety and effectiveness of levofloxacin in treating clinical infections due to these microorganisms have not been established in adequate and well-controlled trials.

Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms

Staphylococcus haemolyticus

Streptococcus (Group G)

Streptococcus milleri

Streptococcus (Group C/F)

Streptococcus agalactiae

Viridans group streptococci

Aerobic gram-negative microorganisms

Acinetobacter baumannii

Enterobacter aerogenes

Proteus vulgaris

Acinetobacter lwoffii

Enterobacter sakazakii

Providencia rettgeri

Bordetella pertussis

Klebsiella oxytoca

Providencia stuartii

Citrobacter (diversus) koseri

Morganella morganii

Pseudomonas fluorescens

Citrobacter freundii

Pantoea (Enterobacter) agglomerans

Anaerobic gram-positive microorganisms

Clostridium perfringens

Susceptibility Tests

Susceptibility testing for levofloxacin should be performed, as it is the optimal predictor of activity.

Dilution techniques: Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC values). These MIC values provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MIC values should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution method 1 (broth or agar) or equivalent with standardized inoculum concentrations and standardized concentrations of levofloxacin powder. The MIC values should be interpreted according to the following criteria:

For testing Enterobacteriaceae , Enterococci, Staphylococcus species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa:

MIC (µg/mL)
Interpretation
</=2
Susceptible (S)
 4
Intermediate (I)
>/=8
Resistant (R)

For testing Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae: a

MIC (µg/mL)
Interpretation
</=2
Susceptible (S)
a  These interpretive standards are applicable only to broth microdilution susceptibility testing with Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae using Haemophilus Test Medium. 1

The current absence of data on resistant strains precludes defining any categories other than "Susceptible." Strains yielding MIC results suggestive of a "nonsusceptible" category should be submitted to a reference laboratory for further testing.

For testing Streptococcus spp. including S. pneumoniae: b
MIC (µg/mL)
Interpretation
</=2
Susceptible (S)
 4
Intermediate (I)
>/=8
Resistant (R)
b  These interpretive standards are applicable only to broth microdilution susceptibility tests using cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with 2-5% lysed horse blood.

A report of "Susceptible" indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable. A report of "Intermediate" indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where a high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone which prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of "Resistant" indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable; other therapy should be selected.

Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. Standard levofloxacin powder should give the following MIC values:

Microorganism
   
MIC (µg/mL)
Enterococcus faecalis
ATCC 29212
0.25-2
Escherichia coli
ATCC 25922
0.008-0.06
Escherichia coli
ATCC 35218
0.015-0.06
Haemophilus influenzae
ATCC 49247 c
0.008-0.03
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
ATCC 27853
0.5-4
Staphylococcus aureus
ATCC 29213
0.06-0.5
Streptococcus pneumoniae
ATCC 49619 d
0.5-2
c This quality control range is applicable to only H. influenzae ATCC 49247 tested by a broth microdilution procedure using Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM). 1
d This quality control range is applicable to only S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 tested by a broth microdilution procedure using cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with 2-5% lysed horse blood.

Diffusion techniques:   Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure 2 requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 5-µg levofloxacin to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to levofloxacin.

Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 5-µg levofloxacin disk should be interpreted according to the following criteria:

For testing Enterobacteriaceae , Enterococci, Staphylococcus species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa:

Zone diameter (mm)
Interpretation
>/=17
Susceptible (S)
14-16
Intermediate (I)
</=13
Resistant (R)

For Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae: e

Zone diameter (mm)
Interpretation
>/=17
Susceptible (S)
e These interpretive standards are applicable only to disk diffusion susceptibility testing with Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae using Haemophilus Test Medium. 2

The current absence of data on resistant strains precludes defining any categories other than "Susceptible." Strains yielding zone diameter results suggestive of a "nonsusceptible" category should be submitted to a reference laboratory for further testing.

For Streptococcus spp. including S. pneumoniae: f
Zone diameter (mm)
Interpretation
>/=17
Susceptible (S)
14-16
Intermediate (I)
</=13
Resistant (R)
f These zone diameter standards for Streptococcus spp. including S. pneumoniae apply only to tests performed using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood and incubated in 5% CO 2 .

Interpretation should be as stated above for results using dilution techniques. Interpretation involves correlation of the diameter obtained in the disk test with the MIC for levofloxacin.

As with standardized dilution techniques, diffusion methods require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. For the diffusion technique, the 5-µg levofloxacin disk should provide the following zone diameters in these laboratory test quality control strains:

Microorganism
Zone
Diameter (mm)
Escherichia coli
ATCC 25922
29-37
Haemophilus influenzae
ATCC 49247 g
32-40
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
ATCC 27853
19-26
Staphylococcus aureus
ATCC 25923
25-30
Streptococcus pneumoniae
ATCC 49619 h
20-25
g This quality control range is applicable to only H. influenzae ATCC 49247 tested by a disk diffusion procedure using Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM). 2
h This quality control range is applicable to only S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 tested by a disk diffusion procedure using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood and incubated in 5% CO 2 .

Indications and Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of LEVAQUIN (levofloxacin) and other antibacterial drugs, LEVAQUIN should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

LEVAQUIN Tablets/Injection and Oral Solution are indicated for the treatment of adults (>/=18 years of age) with mild, moderate, and severe infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below. LEVAQUIN Injection is indicated when intravenous administration offers a route of administration advantageous to the patient (e.g., patient cannot tolerate an oral dosage form). Please see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for specific recommendations.

Acute maxillary sinusitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae , or Moraxella catarrhalis .

Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis.

Nosocomial pneumonia due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, or Streptococcus pneumoniae. Adjunctive therapy should be used as clinically indicated. Where Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a documented or presumptive pathogen, combination therapy with an anti-pseudomonal (beta)-lactam is recommended. (See CLINICAL STUDIES .)

Community-acquired pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multi-drug-resistant strains [MDRSP]) * , Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, or Mycoplasma pneumoniae. (See CLINICAL STUDIES .)

*MDRSP (Multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae ) isolates are strains resistant to two or more of the following antibiotics: penicillin (MIC >/=2 ug/mL), 2 nd generation cephalosporins, e.g., cefuroxime, macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

Complicated skin and skin structure infections due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Proteus mirabilis.

Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections (mild to moderate) including abscesses, cellulitis, furuncles, impetigo, pyoderma, wound infections, due to Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes.

Chronic bacterial prostatitis due to Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, or Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Complicated urinary tract infections (mild to moderate) due to Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Acute pyelonephritis (mild to moderate) caused by Escherichia coli.

Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (mild to moderate) due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

Inhalational anthrax (post-exposure): To prevent the development of inhalational anthrax following exposure to Bacillus anthracis (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and ADDITIONAL INFORMATION - INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX ).

Levofloxacin has not been tested in human for the post-exposure prevention of inhalation anthrax. However, plasma concentrations achieved in humans are reasonably likely to predict efficacy (See ADDITIONAL INFORMATION - INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX ).

Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify organisms causing the infection and to determine their susceptibility to levofloxacin. Therapy with levofloxacin may be initiated before results of these tests are known; once results become available, appropriate therapy should be selected.

As with other drugs in this class, some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may develop resistance fairly rapidly during treatment with levofloxacin. Culture and susceptibility testing performed periodically during therapy will provide information about the continued susceptibility of the pathogens to the antimicrobial agent and also the possible emergence of bacterial resistance.

Contraindications

Levofloxacin is contraindicated in persons with a history of hypersensitivity to levofloxacin, quinolone antimicrobial agents, or any other components of this product.

Warnings

THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF LEVOFLOXACIN IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS, ADOLESCENTS (UNDER THE AGE OF 18 YEARS), PREGNANT WOMEN, AND NURSING WOMEN HAVE NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED. (See PRECAUTIONS : Pediatric Use , Pregnancy , and Nursing Mothers subsections.)

In immature rats and dogs, the oral and intravenous administration of levofloxacin resulted in increased osteochondrosis. Histopathological examination of the weight-bearing joints of immature dogs dosed with levofloxacin revealed persistent lesions of the cartilage. Other fluoroquinolones also produce similar erosions in the weight bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species. The relevance of these findings to the clinical use of levofloxacin is unknown. (See ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY .)

Convulsions and toxic psychoses have been reported in patients receiving quinolones, including levofloxacin. Quinolones may also cause increased intracranial pressure and central nervous system stimulation which may lead to tremors, restlessness, anxiety, lightheadedness, confusion, hallucinations, paranoia, depression, nightmares, insomnia, and, rarely, suicidal thoughts or acts. These reactions may occur following the first dose. If these reactions occur in patients receiving levofloxacin, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures instituted. As with other quinolones, levofloxacin should be used with caution in patients with a known or suspected CNS disorder that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, epilepsy) or in the presence of other risk factors that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., certain drug therapy, renal dysfunction.) (See PRECAUTIONS : General, Information for Patients , Drug Interactions and ADVERSE REACTIONS .)

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity and/or anaphylactic reactions have been reported in patients receiving therapy with quinolones, including levofloxacin. These reactions often occur following the first dose. Some reactions have been accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, hypotension/shock, seizure, loss of consciousness, tingling, angioedema (including tongue, laryngeal, throat, or facial edema/swelling), airway obstruction (including bronchospasm, shortness of breath, and acute respiratory distress), dyspnea, urticaria, itching, and other serious skin reactions. Levofloxacin should be discontinued immediately at the first appearance of a skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. Serious acute hypersensitivity reactions may require treatment with epinephrine and other resuscitative measures, including oxygen, intravenous fluids, antihistamines, corticosteroids, pressor amines, and airway management, as clinically indicated. (See PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS .)

Serious and sometimes fatal events, some due to hypersensitivity, and some due to uncertain etiology, have been reported rarely in patients receiving therapy with quinolones, including levofloxacin. These events may be severe and generally occur following the administration of multiple doses. Clinical manifestations may include one or more of the following: fever, rash or severe dermatologic reactions (e.g., toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome); vasculitis; arthralgia; myalgia; serum sickness; allergic pneumonitis; interstitial nephritis; acute renal insufficiency or failure; hepatitis; jaundice; acute hepatic necrosis or failure; anemia, including hemolytic and aplastic; thrombocytopenia, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; leukopenia; agranulocytosis; pancytopenia; and/or other hematologic abnormalities. The drug should be discontinued immediately at the first appearance of a skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity and supportive measures instituted. (See PRECAUTIONS : Information for Patients and ADVERSE REACTIONS .)

Peripheral Neuropathy: Rare cases of sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias and weakness have been reported in patients receiving quinolones, including levofloxacin. Levofloxacin should be discontinued if the patient experiences symptoms of neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness or other alterations of sensation including light touch, pain, temperature, position sense, and vibratory sensation in order to prevent the development of an irreversible condition.

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including levofloxacin, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of any antibacterial agent.

Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile is one primary cause of "antibiotic-associated colitis."

After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, therapeutic measures should be initiated. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug discontinuation alone. In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation, and treatment with an antibacterial drug clinically effective against C. difficile colitis. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS .)

Tendon Effects: Ruptures of the hand, Achilles tendon, or other tendons that required surgical repair or resulted in prolonged disability have been reported in patients receiving quinolones, including levofloxacin. Post-marketing surveillance reports indicate that this risk may be increased in patients receiving concomitant corticosteroids, especially the elderly. Levofloxacin should be discontinued if the patient experiences pain, inflammation, or rupture of a tendon. Patients should rest and refrain from exercise until the diagnosis of tendonitis or tendon rupture has been confidently excluded. Tendon rupture can occur during or after therapy with quinolones, including levofloxacin.

Precautions

General

Prescribing LEVAQUIN in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Because a rapid or bolus intravenous injection may result in hypotension, LEVOFLOXACIN INJECTION SHOULD ONLY BE ADMINISTERED BY SLOW INTRAVENOUS INFUSION OVER A PERIOD OF 60 OR 90 MINUTES DEPENDING ON THE DOSAGE. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION .)

Although levofloxacin is more soluble than other quinolones, adequate hydration of patients receiving levofloxacin should be maintained to prevent the formation of a highly concentrated urine.

Administer levofloxacin with caution in the presence of renal insufficiency. Careful clinical observation and appropriate laboratory studies should be performed prior to and during therapy since elimination of levofloxacin may be reduced. In patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance <50 mL/min), adjustment of the dosage regimen is necessary to avoid the accumulation of levofloxacin due to decreased clearance. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION .)

Moderate to severe phototoxicity reactions have been observed in patients exposed to direct sunlight while receiving drugs in this class. Excessive exposure to sunlight should be avoided. However, in clinical trials with levofloxacin, phototoxicity has been observed in less than 0.1% of patients. Therapy should be discontinued if phototoxicity (e.g., a skin eruption) occurs.

As with other quinolones, levofloxacin should be used with caution in any patient with a known or suspected CNS disorder that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, epilepsy) or in the presence of other risk factors that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., certain drug therapy, renal dysfunction). (See WARNINGS and Drug Interactions .)

As with other quinolones, disturbances of blood glucose, including symptomatic hyper- and hypoglycemia, have been reported, usually in diabetic patients receiving concomitant treatment with an oral hypoglycemic agent (e.g., glyburide/glibenclamide) or with insulin. In these patients, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended. If a hypoglycemic reaction occurs in a patient being treated with levofloxacin, levofloxacin should be discontinued immediately and appropriate therapy should be initiated immediately. (See Drug Interactions and ADVERSE REACTIONS .)

Torsades de pointes:   Some quinolones, including levofloxacin, have been associated with prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram and infrequent cases of arrhythmia. Rare cases of torsades de pointes have been spontaneously reported during post-marketing surveillance in patients receiving quinolones, including levofloxacin. Levofloxacin should be avoided in patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, patients with uncorrected hypokalemia, and patients receiving class IA (quinidine, procainamide), or class III (amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents.

As with any potent antimicrobial drug, periodic assessment of organ system functions, including renal, hepatic, and hematopoietic, is advisable during therapy. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS .)

Information for Patients

Patients should be advised:

  • Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including LEVAQUIN (levofloxacin) should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When LEVAQUIN is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by LEVAQUIN or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
  • that peripheral neuropathies have been associated with levofloxacin use. symptoms peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness develop, they should discontinue treatment and contact their physicians;
  • to drink fluids liberally;
  • that antacids containing magnesium, or aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc or Videx (didanosine) should be taken at least two hours before or two hours after oral levofloxacin administration. (See Drug Interactions );
  • that levofloxacin oral tablets can be taken without regard to meals;
  • that levofloxacin oral solution should be taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating;
  • that levofloxacin may cause neurologic adverse effects (e.g., dizziness, lightheadedness) and that patients should know how they react to levofloxacin before they operate an automobile or machinery or engage in other activities requiring mental alertness and coordination. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS );
  • to discontinue treatment and inform their physician if they experience pain, inflammation, or rupture of a tendon, and to rest and refrain from exercise until the diagnosis of tendinitis or tendon rupture has been confidently excluded;
  • that levofloxacin may be associated with hypersensitivity reactions, even following the first dose, and to discontinue the drug at the first sign of a skin rash, hives or other skin reactions, a rapid heartbeat, difficulty in swallowing or breathing, any swelling suggesting angioedema (e.g., swelling of the lips, tongue, face, tightness of the throat, hoarseness), or other symptoms of an allergic reaction. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS );
  • to avoid excessive sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light while receiving levofloxacin and to discontinue therapy if phototoxicity (i.e., skin eruption) occurs;
  • that if they are diabetic and are being treated with insulin or an oral hypoglycemic agent and a hypoglycemic reaction occurs, they should discontinue levofloxacin and consult a physician. (See PRECAUTIONS : General and Drug Interactions .);
  • that concurrent administration of warfarin and levofloxacin has been associated with increases of the International Normalized Ratio (INR) or prothrombin time and clinical episodes of bleeding. Patients should notify their physician if they are taking warfarin.
  • that convulsions have been reported in patients taking quinolones, including levofloxacin, and to notify their physician before taking this drug if there is a history of this condition.

Drug Interactions

Antacids, Sucralfate, Metal Cations, Multivitamins

LEVAQUIN Tablets:  While the chelation by divalent cations is less marked than with other quinolones, concurrent administration of LEVAQUIN Tablets with antacids containing magnesium, or aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc may interfere with the gastrointestinal absorption of levofloxacin, resulting in systemic levels considerably lower than desired. Tablets with antacids containing magnesium, aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamins preparations with zinc or Videx (didanosine) may substantially interfere with the gastrointestinal absorption of levofloxacin, resulting in systemic levels considerably lower than desired. These agents should be taken at least two hours before or two hours after levofloxacin administration.

LEVAQUIN Injection:  There are no data concerning an interaction of intravenous quinolones with oral antacids, sucralfate, multivitamins, Videx (didanosine), or metal cations. However, no quinolone should be co-administered with any solution containing multivalent cations, e.g., magnesium, through the same intravenous line. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION .)

Theophylline:   No significant effect of levofloxacin on the plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for theophylline was detected in a clinical study involving 14 healthy volunteers. Similarly, no apparent effect of theophylline on levofloxacin absorption and disposition was observed. However, concomitant administration of other quinolones with theophylline has resulted in prolonged elimination half-life, elevated serum theophylline levels, and a subsequent increase in the risk of theophylline-related adverse reactions in the patient population. Therefore, theophylline levels should be closely monitored and appropriate dosage adjustments made when levofloxacin is co-administered. Adverse reactions, including seizures, may occur with or without an elevation in serum theophylline levels. (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS : General .)

Warfarin:   No significant effect of levofloxacin on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for R- and S-warfarin was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Similarly, no apparent effect of warfarin on levofloxacin absorption and disposition was observed. There have been reports during the post-marketing experience in patients that levofloxacin enhances the effects of warfarin. Elevations of the prothrombin time in the setting of concurrent warfarin and levofloxacin use have been associated with episodes of bleeding. Prothrombin time, International Normalized Ratio (INR), or other suitable anticoagulation tests should be closely monitored if levofloxacin is administered concomitantly with warfarin. Patients should also be monitored for evidence of bleeding.

Cyclosporine:   No significant effect of levofloxacin on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for cyclosporine was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. However, elevated serum levels of cyclosporine have been reported in the patient population when co-administered with some other quinolones. Levofloxacin C max and k e were slightly lower while T max and t 1/2 were slightly longer in the presence of cyclosporine than those observed in other studies without concomitant medication. The differences, however, are not considered to be clinically significant. Therefore, no dosage adjustment is required for levofloxacin or cyclosporine when administered concomitantly.

Digoxin:   No significant effect of levofloxacin on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for digoxin was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Levofloxacin absorption and disposition kinetics were similar in the presence or absence of digoxin. Therefore, no dosage adjustment for levofloxacin or digoxin is required when administered concomitantly.

Probenecid and Cimetidine:   No significant effect of probenecid or cimetidine on the rate and extent of levofloxacin absorption was observed in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. The AUC and t 1/2 of levofloxacin were 27-38% and 30% higher, respectively, while CL/F and CL R were 21-35% lower during concomitant treatment with probenecid or cimetidine compared to levofloxacin alone. Although these differences were statistically significant, the changes were not high enough to warrant dosage adjustment for levofloxacin when probenecid or cimetidine is co-administered.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs:   The concomitant administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a quinolone, including levofloxacin, may increase the risk of CNS stimulation and convulsive seizures. (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS : General .)

Antidiabetic agents:   Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with quinolones and an antidiabetic agent. Therefore, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when these agents are co-administered.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

In a lifetime bioassay in rats, levofloxacin exhibited no carcinogenic potential following daily dietary administration for 2 years; the highest dose (100 mg/kg/day) was 1.4 times the highest recommended human dose (750 mg) based upon relative body surface area. Levofloxacin did not shorten the time to tumor development of UV-induced skin tumors in hairless albino (Skh-1) mice at any levofloxacin dose level and was therefore not photo-carcinogenic under conditions of this study. Dermal levofloxacin concentrations in the hairless mice ranged from 25 to 42 µg/g at the highest levofloxacin dose level (300 mg/kg/day) used in the photo-carcinogenicity study. By comparison, dermal levofloxacin concentrations in human subjects receiving 750 mg of levofloxacin averaged approximately 11.8 µg/g at C max .

Levofloxacin was not mutagenic in the following assays: Ames bacterial mutation assay (S. typhimurium and E. coli), CHO/HGPRT forward mutation assay, mouse micronucleus test, mouse dominant lethal test, rat unscheduled DNA synthesis assay, and the mouse sister chromatid exchange assay. It was positive in the in vitro chromosomal aberration (CHL cell line) and sister chromatid exchange (CHL/IU cell line) assays.

Levofloxacin caused no impairment of fertility or reproductive performance in rats at oral doses as high as 360 mg/kg/day, corresponding to 4.2 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area and intravenous doses as high as 100 mg/kg/day, corresponding to 1.2 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area.

Pregnancy: Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C.

Levofloxacin was not teratogenic in rats at oral doses as high as 810 mg/kg/day which corresponds to 9.4 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area, or at intravenous doses as high as 160 mg/kg/day corresponding to 1.9 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area. The oral dose of 810 mg/kg/day to rats caused decreased fetal body weight and increased fetal mortality. No teratogenicity was observed when rabbits were dosed orally as high as 50 mg/kg/day which corresponds to 1.1 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area, or when dosed intravenously as high as 25 mg/kg/day, corresponding to 0.5 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area.

There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Levofloxacin should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. (See WARNINGS .)

Nursing Mothers

Levofloxacin has not been measured in human milk. Based upon data from ofloxacin, it can be presumed that levofloxacin will be excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from levofloxacin in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients and adolescents below the age of 18 years have not been established. Quinolones, including levofloxacin, cause arthropathy and osteochondrosis in juvenile animals of several species. (See WARNINGS .)

Geriatric Use

In phase 3 clinical trials, 1,190 levofloxacin-treated patients (25%) were >/=65 years of age. Of these, 675 patients (14%) were between the ages of 65 and 74 and 515 patients (11%) were 75 years or older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Elderly patients may be more susceptible drug-associated effects on the QT interval. Therefore, precaution should be taken when using levofloxacin with concomitant drugs that can result in prolongation of the QT interval (e.g. class IA or class III antiarrhythmics) or in patients with risk factors for Torsades de pointes (e.g. known QT prolongation, uncorrected hypokalemia). See PRECAUTIONS : GENERAL : Torsades de Pointes .

The pharmacokinetic properties of levofloxacin younger adults and elderly adults do not differ significantly when creatinine clearance is taken into consideration. However since the drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Adverse Reactions

The incidence of drug-related adverse reactions in patients during Phase 3 clinical trials conducted in North America was 6.2%. Among patients receiving levofloxacin therapy, 4.3% discontinued levofloxacin therapy due to adverse experiences. The overall incidence, type and distribution of adverse events was similar in patients receiving levofloxacin doses of 750 mg once daily compared to patients receiving doses from 250 mg once daily to 500 mg twice daily.

In clinical trials, the following events were considered likely to be drug-related in patients receiving levofloxacin:

nausea 1.2%, diarrhea 1.0%, vaginitis 0.6%, insomnia 0.4%, abdominal pain 0.4%, flatulence 0.3%, pruritus 0.3%, dizziness 0.3%, rash 0.3%, dyspepsia 0.2%, genital moniliasis 0.2%, moniliasis 0.2%, taste perversion 0.2%, vomiting 0.2%, injection site pain 0.2%, injection site reaction 0.2%, injection site inflammation 0.1%, constipation 0.1%, fungal infection 0.1%, genital pruritis 0.1%, headache 0.1%, nervousness 0.1%, rash erythematous 0.1%, urticaria 0.1%, anorexia 0.1%, somnolence 0.1%, agitation 0.1%, rash maculopapular 0.1%, tremor 0.1%, condition aggravated 0.1%, allergic reaction 0.1%.

In clinical trials, the following events occurred in >3% of patients, regardless of drug relationship:

nausea 7.1%, headache 6.2%, diarrhea 5.5%, insomnia 5.1%, constipation 3.5%.

In clinical trials, the following events occurred in 1 to 3% of patients, regardless of drug relationship:

abdominal pain 2.7%, dizziness 2.5%, vomiting 2.5%, dyspepsia 2.3%, vaginitis 1.7%, rash 1.6%, chest pain 1.4%, pruritus 1.3%, sinusitis 1.3%, dyspnea 1.4%, fatigue 1.4%, flatulence 1.2%, pain 1.6%, back pain 1.2%, rhinitis 1.2%, anxiety 1.2%, pharyngitis 1.2%.

In clinical trials, the following events, of potential medical importance, occurred at a rate of 0.1% to 0.9%, regardless of drug relationship:

Body as a Whole - General Disorders:
Ascites, allergic reaction, asthenia, drug level increase, edema, enlarged abdomen, fever, headache, hot flashes, influenza-like symptoms, leg pain, malaise, rigors, substernal chest pain, syncope, multiple organ failure, changed temperature sensation, withdrawal syndrome
Cardiovascular Disorders, General:
Cardiac failure, hypertension, hypertension aggravated hypotension, postural hypotension
Central and Peripheral Nervous System Disorders:
Convulsions (seizures), dysphonia, hyperesthesia, hyperkinesia, hypertonia, hypoesthesia, involuntary muscle contractions, migraine, paresthesia, paralysis, speech disorder, stupor, tremor, vertigo, encephalopathy, abnormal gait, leg cramps, intracranial hypertension, ataxia
Gastro-Intestinal System Disorders:
Dry mouth, dysphagia, esophagitis, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastroesophageal reflux, G.I. hemorrhage, glossitis, hemorrhoids, intestinal obstruction, pancreatitis, tongue edema, melena, stomatitis
Hearing and Vestibular Disorders:
Earache, tinnitus
Heart Rate and Rhythm Disorders:
Arrhythmia, arrhythmia ventricular, atrial fibrillation, bradycardia, cardiac arrest, ventricular fibrillation, heart block, palpitation, supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia, tachycardia
Liver and Biliary System Disorders:
Abnormal hepatic function, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, elevated bilirubin, hepatic enzymes increased, hepatic failure, jaundice
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders:
Hypomagnesemia, thirst, dehydration, electrolyte abnormality, fluid overload, gout, hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, hypernatremia, hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia, nonprotein nitrogen increase, weight decrease
Musculo-Skeletal System Disorders:
Arthralgia, arthritis, arthrosis, myalgia, osteomyelitis, skeletal pain, synovitis, tendonitis, tendon disorder
Myo, Endo, Pericardial and Valve Disorders:
Angina pectoris, endocarditis, myocardial infarction
Neoplasms:
Carcinoma, thrombocythemia
Other Special Senses Disorders:
Parosmia, taste perversion
Platelet, Bleeding and Clotting Disorders:
Hematoma, epistaxis, prothrombin decreased, pulmonary embolism, purpura, thrombocytopenia
Psychiatric Disorders:
Abnormal dreaming, agitation, anorexia, confusion, depression, hallucination, impotence, nervousness, paroniria, sleep disorder, somnolence
Red Blood Cell Disorders:
Anemia
Reproductive Disorders:
Dysmenorrhea, leukorrhea
Resistance Mechanism Disorders:
Abscess, bacterial infection, fungal infection, herpes simplex, moniliasis, otitis media, sepsis, viral infection
Respiratory System Disorders:
Airways obstruction, aspiration, asthma, bronchitis, bronchospasm, chronic obstructive airway disease, coughing, hemoptysis, epistaxis, hypoxia, laryngitis, pharyngitis, pleural effusion, pleurisy, pneumonitis, pneumonia, pneumothorax, pulmonary collapse, pulmonary edema, respiratory depression, respiratory insufficiency, upper respiratory tract infection
Skin and Appendages Disorders:
Alopecia, bullous eruption, dry skin, eczema, genital pruritus, increased sweating, rash, skin exfoliation, skin ulceration, urticaria
Urinary System Disorders:
Abnormal renal function, acute renal failure, dysuria, hematuria, oliguria, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, urinary tract infection
Vascular (Extracardiac) Disorders:
Flushing, gangrene, phlebitis, purpura, thrombophlebitis (deep)
Vision Disorders:
Abnormal vision, eye pain, conjunctivitis
White Cell and RES Disorders:
Agranulocytosis, granulocytopenia, leukocytosis, lymphadenopathy

In clinical trials using multiple-dose therapy, ophthalmologic abnormalities, including cataracts and multiple punctate lenticular opacities, have been noted in patients undergoing treatment with other quinolones. The relationship of the drugs to these events is not presently established.

Crystalluria and cylindruria have been reported with other quinolones.

The following markedly abnormal laboratory values appeared in >2% of patients receiving levofloxacin. It is not known whether these abnormalities were caused by the drug or the underlying condition being treated.

Blood Chemistry:  decreased glucose (2.2%)

Hematology:  decreased lymphocytes (2.2%)

Post-Marketing Adverse Reactions

Additional adverse events reported from worldwide post-marketing experience with levofloxacin include: allergic pneumonitis, anaphylactic shock, anaphylactoid reaction, dysphonia, abnormal EEG, encephalopathy, eosinophilia, erythema multiforme, hemolytic anemia, multi-system organ failure, increased International Normalized Ratio (INR)/prothrombin time, peripheral neuropathy, rhabdomyolysis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, tendon rupture, torsades de pointes, vasodilation.

Overdosage

Levofloxacin exhibits a low potential for acute toxicity. Mice, rats, dogs and monkeys exhibited the following clinical signs after receiving a single high dose of levofloxacin: ataxia, ptosis, decreased locomotor activity, dyspnea, prostration, tremors, and convulsions. Doses in excess of 1500 mg/kg orally and 250 mg/kg i.v. produced significant mortality in rodents. In the event of an acute overdosage, the stomach should be emptied. The patient should be observed and appropriate hydration maintained. Levofloxacin is not efficiently removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.

Dosage and Administration

LEVAQUIN Injection should only be administered by intravenous infusion. It is not for intramuscular, intrathecal, intraperitoneal, or subcutaneous administration.

CAUTION:  RAPID OR BOLUS INTRAVENOUS INFUSION MUST BE AVOIDED. Levofloxacin Injection should be infused intravenously slowly over a period of not less than 60 or 90 minutes, depending on the dosage. (See PRECAUTIONS .)

Single-use vials require dilution prior to administration. (See PREPARATION FOR ADMINISTRATION .)

The usual dose of LEVAQUIN Tablets or Oral Solution (25 mg/mL) is 250 mg or 500 mg or 750 mg administered orally every 24 hours, as indicated by infection and described in the following dosing chart. The usual dose of LEVAQUIN Injection is 250 mg or 500 mg administered by slow infusion over 60 minutes every 24 hours or 750 mg administered by slow infusion over 90 minutes every 24 hours, as indicated by infection and described in the following dosing chart. Levofloxacin tablets can be administered without regard to food. It is recommended that levofloxacin oral solution be taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating. These recommendations apply to patients with normal renal function (i.e., creatinine clearance > 80 mL/min). For patients with altered renal function see the Patients with Impaired Renal Function subsection. Oral doses should be administered at least two hours before or two hours after antacids containing magnesium, aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc or Videx (didanosine), chewable/buffered tablets or the pediatric powder for oral solution.

Patients with Normal Renal Function
Infection 1
Unit Dose Freq. Duration 2 Daily Dose
Comm. Acquired Pneumonia
500 mg q24h 7-14 days 500 mg
Comm. Acquired Pneumonia
750 mg 3 q24h 5 days 750 mg
Nosocomial Pneumonia
750 mg q24h 7-14 days 750 mg
Complicated SSSI
750 mg q24h 7-14 days 750 mg
Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis
500 mg q24h 7 days 500 mg
Acute Maxillary Sinusitis
500 mg q24h 10-14 days 500 mg
Uncomplicated SSSI
500 mg q24h 7-10 days 500 mg
Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
500 mg q24h 28 days 500 mg
Complicated UTI
250 mg q24h 10 days 250 mg
Acute pyelonephritis
250 mg q24h 10 days 250 mg
Uncomplicated UTI
250 mg q24h 3 days 250 mg
Inhalational anthrax
(post-exposure)
Adult 4, 5
500 mg q24h 60 days 5 500 mg
1 DUE TO THE DESIGNATED PATHOGENS (See INDICATIONS AND USAGE .)
2 Sequential therapy (intravenous to oral) may be instituted at the discretion of the physician.
3 Efficacy of this alternative regimen has only been documented for infections caused by penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, (excluding MDRSP), Haemophilius influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae .
4 Drug administration should begin as soon as possible after suspected or confirmed exposure to aerosolized B. anthracis . This indication is based on a surrogate endpoint. Levofloxacin plasma concentrations achieved in humans are reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and ADDITIONAL INFORMATION - INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX ).
5 The safety of levofloxacin in adults for durations of therapy beyond 28 days has not been studied. Prolonged levofloxacin therapy in adults should only be used when the benefit outweighs the risk (See ADDITIONAL INFORMATION - INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX ).

Patients with Impaired Renal Function
Renal Status
Initial Dose Subsequent Dose
Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis/Comm.
Acquired Pneumonia/Acute Maxillary Sinusitis/
Uncomplicated SSSI/Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
CL CR from 50 to 80 mL/min
No dosage adjustment required
CL CR from 20 to 49 mL/min
500 mg 250 mg q24h
CL CR from 10 to 19 mL/min
500 mg 250 mg q48h
Hemodialysis
500 mg 250 mg q48h
500 mg 250 mg q48h
Complicated SSSI/Nosocomial Pneumonia/Comm. Acquired Pneumonia
CL CR from 50 to 80 mL/min
No dosage adjustment required
CL CR from 20 to 49 mL/min
750 mg 750 mg q48h
CL CR from 10 to 19 mL/min
750 mg 500 mg q48h
Hemodialysis
750 mg 500 mg q48h
750 mg 500 mg q48h
Complicated UTI/Acute Pyelonephritis
CL CR >/=20 mL/min
No dosage adjustment required    
CL CR from 10 to 19 mL/min
250 mg 250 mg q48h
Uncomplicated UTI
No dosage adjustment required    
CL CR =creatinine clearances
CAPD=chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

When only the serum creatinine is known, the following formula may be used to estimate creatinine clearance.

Men: Creatinine Clearance (mL/min) =
    Weight (kg) × (140 - age)    
72 × serum creatinine (mg/dL)
Women: 0.85 × the value calculated for men.

The serum creatinine should represent a steady state of renal function.

Preparation of Levofloxacin Injection for Administration

LEVAQUIN Injection in Single-Use Vials:   LEVAQUIN Injection is supplied in single-use vials containing a concentrated levofloxacin solution with the equivalent of 500 mg (20 mL vial) and 750 mg (30 mL vial) of levofloxacin in Water for Injection, USP. The 20 mL and 30 mL vials each contain 25 mg of levofloxacin/mL. THESE LEVAQUIN INJECTION SINGLE-USE VIALS MUST BE FURTHER DILUTED WITH AN APPROPRIATE SOLUTION PRIOR TO INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION. (See COMPATIBLE INTRAVENOUS SOLUTIONS .) The concentration of the resulting diluted solution should be 5 mg/mL prior to administration.

This intravenous drug product should be inspected visually for particulate matter prior to administration. Samples containing visible particles should be discarded.

Since no preservative or bacteriostatic agent is present in this product, aseptic technique must be used in preparation of the final intravenous solution. Since the vials are for single-use only, any unused portion remaining in the vial should be discarded. When used to prepare two 250 mg doses from the 20 mL vial containing 500 mg of levofloxacin, the full content of the vial should be withdrawn at once using a single-entry procedure, and a second dose should be prepared and stored for subsequent use. (See Stability LEVAQUIN Injection Following Dilution .)

Since only limited data are available on the compatibility of levofloxacin intravenous injection with other intravenous substances, additives or other medications should not be added to LEVAQUIN Injection in single-use vials or infused simultaneously through the same intravenous line. If the same intravenous line is used for sequential infusion of several different drugs, the line should be flushed before and after infusion of LEVAQUIN Injection with an infusion solution compatible with LEVAQUIN Injection and with any other drug(s) administered via this common line.

Prepare the desired dosage of levofloxacin according to the following chart:

Desired
Dosage Strength
From Appropriate Vial,
Withdraw Volume
Volume of
Diluent
Infusion
Time
250 mg 10 mL (20 mL Vial) 40 mL 60 min
500 mg 20 mL (20 mL Vial) 80 mL 60 min
750 mg 30 mL (30 mL Vial) 120 mL 90 min

For example, to prepare a 500 mg dose using the 20 mL vial (25 mg/mL), withdraw 20 mL and dilute with a compatible intravenous solution to a total volume of 100 mL.

Compatible Intravenous Solutions:  Any of the following intravenous solutions may be used to prepare a 5 mg/mL levofloxacin solution with the approximate pH values:

Intravenous Fluids
Final pH of
LEVAQUIN Solution
0.9% Sodium Chloride
  Injection, USP
4.71
5% Dextrose Injection, USP
4.58
5% Dextrose/0.9% NaCl Injection
4.62
5% Dextrose in Lactated Ringers
4.92
Plasma-Lyte 56/5% Dextrose   Injection
5.03
5% Dextrose, 0.45% Sodium   Chloride, and 0.15% Potassium
  Chloride Injection
4.61
Sodium Lactate Injection (M/6)
5.54

LEVAQUIN Injection Premix in Single-Use Flexible Containers (5 mg/mL):   LEVAQUIN Injection is also supplied in flexible containers containing a premixed, ready-to-use levofloxacin solution in D 5 W for single-use. The fill volume is either 50 or 100 mL for the 100 mL flexible container or 150 mL for the 150 mL container. NO FURTHER DILUTION OF THESE PREPARATIONS IS NECESSARY. Consequently each 100 mL and 150 mL premix flexible container already contains a dilute solution with the equivalent of 250 mg or 500 mg (100 mL container), and 750 mg of levofloxacin (150 mL container) in 5% Dextrose (D 5 W). The con-centration of each presentation is 5 mg/mL of levofloxacin solution.

This parenteral drug product should be inspected visually for particulate matter prior to administration. Samples containing visible particles should be discarded.

Since the premix flexible containers are for single-use only, any unused portion should be discarded.

Since only limited data are available on the compatibility of levofloxacin intravenous injection with other intravenous substances, additives or other medications should not be added to LEVAQUIN Injection in flexible containers or infused simultaneously through the same intravenous line. If the same intravenous line is used for sequential infusion of several different drugs, the line should be flushed before and after infusion of LEVAQUIN Injection with an infusion solution compatible with LEVAQUIN Injection and with any other drug(s) administered via this common line.

Instructions for the Use of LEVAQUIN Injection Premix in Flexible Containers

To open:

  1. Tear outer wrap at the notch and remove solution container.
  2. Check the container for minute leaks by squeezing the inner bag firmly. If leaks are found, or if the seal is not intact, discard the solution, as the sterility may be compromised.
  3. Do not use if the solution is cloudy or a precipitate is present.
  4. Use sterile equipment.
  5. WARNING:  Do not use flexible containers in series connections. Such use could result in air embolism due to residual air being drawn from the primary container before administration of the fluid from the secondary container is complete.

Preparation for administration:

  1. Close flow control clamp of administration set.
  2. Remove cover from port at bottom of container.
  3. Insert piercing pin of administration set into port with a twisting motion until the pin is firmly seated. NOTE: See full directions on administration set carton.
  4. Suspend container from hanger.
  5. Squeeze and release drip chamber to establish proper fluid level in chamber during infusion of LEVAQUIN Injection in Premix Flexible Containers.
  6. Open flow control clamp to expel air from set. Close clamp.
  7. Regulate rate of administration with flow control clamp.

Stability of LEVAQUIN Injection as Supplied

When stored under recommended conditions, LEVAQUIN Injection, as supplied in 20 mL and 30 mL vials, or 100 mL and 150 mL flexible containers, is stable through the expiration date printed on the label.

Stability of LEVAQUIN Injection Following Dilution

LEVAQUIN Injection, when diluted in a compatible intravenous fluid to a concentration of 5 mg/mL, is stable for 72 hours when stored at or below 25°C (77°F) and for 14 days when stored under refrigeration at 5°C (41°F) in plastic intravenous containers. Solutions that are diluted in a compatible intravenous solution and frozen in glass bottles or plastic intravenous containers are stable for 6 months when stored at -20°C (-4°F). THAW FROZEN SOLUTIONS AT ROOM TEMPERATURE 25°C (77°F) OR IN A REFRIGERATOR 8°C (46°F). DO NOT FORCE THAW BY MICROWAVE IRRADIATION OR WATER BATH IMMERSION. DO NOT REFREEZE AFTER INITIAL THAWING.

How Supplied

LEVAQUIN Tablets

LEVAQUIN (levofloxacin) Tablets are supplied as 250, 500, and 750 mg capsule-shaped, coated tablets. LEVAQUIN Tablets are packaged in bottles and in unit-dose blister strips in the following configurations:

250 mg tablets are terra cotta pink and are imprinted: "LEVAQUIN" on one side and "250" on the other side.

bottles of 50 (NDC 0045-1520-50)

unit-dose/100 tablets (NDC 0045-1520-10)

500 mg tablets are peach and are imprinted: "LEVAQUIN" on one side and "500" on the other side.

bottles of 50 (NDC 0045-1525-50)

unit-dose/100 tablets (NDC 0045-1525-10)

750 mg tablets are white and are imprinted: "LEVAQUIN" on one side and "750" on the other side.

bottles of 20 (NDC 0045-1530-20)

unit-dose/100 tablets (NDC 0045-1530-10)

LEVA-Pak 5 tablets (NDC 0045-1530-05)

LEVAQUIN Tablets should be stored at 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) in well-closed containers.

LEVAQUIN Tablets are manufactured for OMP DIVISION, ORTHO-McNEIL PHARMACEUTICAL, INC. by Janssen Ortho LLC, Gurabo, Puerto Rico 00778.

LEVAQUIN Oral Solution

LEVAQUIN Oral Solution is supplied in a 16 oz. multi-use bottle (NDC 0045-1515-01). Each bottle contains 480 mL of the 25-mg/mL-levofloxacin oral solution.

LEVAQUIN Oral Solution should be stored at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°-30°C (59° to 86°F) [refer to USP controlled room temperature].

LEVAQUIN Oral Solution is manufactured for OMP DIVISION, ORTHO-McNEIL PHARMACEUTICAL, INC. by Ortho Pharmaceutical in Manati, Puerto Rico, 00674.

LEVAQUIN Injection

Single-Use Vials : LEVAQUIN (levofloxacin) Injection is supplied in single-use vials. Each vial contains a concentrated solution with the equivalent of 500 mg of levofloxacin in 20 mL vials and 750 mg of levofloxacin in 30 mL vials.

25 mg/mL, 20 mL vials (NDC 0045-0069-51)

25 mg/mL, 30 mL vials (NDC 0045-0065-55)

LEVAQUIN Injection in Single-Use Vials should be stored at controlled room temperature and protected from light.

LEVAQUIN Injection in Single-Use Vials is manufactured for OMP DIVISION, ORTHO-McNEIL PHARMACEUTICAL, INC. by OMJ Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San German, Puerto Rico 00683.

Premix in Flexible Containers :   LEVAQUIN (levofloxacin in 5% dextrose) Injection is supplied as a single-use, premixed solution in flexible containers. Each bag contains a dilute solution with the equivalent of 250, 500, or 750 mg of levofloxacin, respectively, in 5% Dextrose (D 5 W).

5 mg/mL (250 mg), 100 mL flexible container, (NDC 0045-0067-01)

5 mg/mL (500 mg), 100 mL flexible container, 100 mL fill (NDC 0045-0068-01)

5 mg/mL (750 mg), 150 mL flexible container, 150 mL fill (NDC 0045-0066-01)

LEVAQUIN Injection Premix in Flexible Containers should be stored at or below 25°C (77°F); however, brief exposure up to 40°C (104°F) does not adversely affect the product. Avoid excessive heat and protect from freezing and light.

LEVAQUIN Injection Premix in Flexible Containers is manufactured for OMP DIVISION, ORTHO-McNEIL PHARMACEUTICAL, INC. by ABBOTT Laboratories, North Chicago, IL 60064.

PRODUCT PHOTO(S):

NOTE: These photos can be used only for identification by shape, color, and imprint. They do not depict actual or relative size.

The product samples shown here have been supplied by the manufacturer. While every effort has been made to assure accurate reproduction, please remember that any visual identification should be considered preliminary. In cases of poisoning or suspected overdosage, the drug's identity should be verified by chemical analysis.
images/pills/p05328b3.jpg
images/pills/p05328b4.jpg

Clinical Studies

Nosocomial Pneumonia

Adult patients with clinically and radiologically documented nosocomial pneumonia were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, open-label study comparing intravenous levofloxacin (750 mg once daily) followed by oral levofloxacin (750 mg once daily) for a total of 7-15 days to intravenous imipenem/cilastatin (500-1000 mg q6-8 hours daily) followed by oral ciprofloxacin (750 mg q12 hours daily) for a total of 7-15 days. Levofloxacin-treated patients received an average of 7 days of intravenous therapy (range: 1-16 days); comparator-treated patients received an average of 8 days of intravenous therapy (range: 1-19 days).

Overall, in the clinically and microbiologically evaluable population, adjunctive therapy was empirically initiated at study entry in 56 of 93 (60.2%) patients in the levofloxacin arm and 53 of 94 (56.4%) patients in the comparator arm. The average duration of adjunctive therapy was 7 days in the levofloxacin arm and 7 days in the comparator. In clinically and microbiologically evaluable patients with documented Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, 15 of 17 (88.2%) received ceftazidime (N=11) or piperacillin/tazobactam (N=4) in the levofloxacin arm and 16 of 17 (94.1%) received an aminoglycoside in the comparator arm. Overall, in clinically and microbiologically evaluable patients, vancomycin was added to the treatment regimen of 37 of 93 (39.8%) patients in the levofloxacin arm and 28 of 94 (29.8%) patients in the comparator arm for suspected methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection.

Clinical success rates in clinically and microbiologically evaluable patients at the posttherapy visit (primary study endpoint assessed on day 3-15 after completing therapy) were 58.1% for levofloxacin and 60.6% for comparator. The 95% CI for the difference of response rates (levofloxacin minus comparator) was [-17.2, 12.0]. The microbiological eradication rates at the posttherapy visit were 66.7% for levofloxacin and 60.6% for comparator. The 95% CI for the difference of eradication rates (levofloxacin minus comparator) was [-8.3, 20.3]. Clinical success and microbiological eradication rates by pathogen were as follows:

Pathogen
N
Levofloxacin
No. (%) of Patients
Microbiologic/Clinical
Outcomes
N
Imipenem/Cilastatin
No. (%) of Patients
Microbiologic/Clinical
Outcomes
MSSA a
21
14 (66.7)/ 13 (61.9)
19
13 (68.4)/ 15 (78.9)
P. aeruginosa b
17
10 (58.8)/ 11 (64.7)
17
  5 (29.4)/ 7 (41.2)
S. marcescens
11
  9 (81.8)/ 7 (63.6)
7
  2 (28.6)/ 3 (42.9)
E. coli
12
10 (83.3)/ 7 (58.3)
11
  7 (63.6)/ 8 (72.7)
K. pneumoniae c
11
  9 (81.8)/ 5 (45.5)
7
  6 (85.7)/ 3 (42.9)
H. influenzae
16
13 (81.3)/ 10 (62.5)
15
14 (93.3)/ 11 (73.3)
S. pneumoniae
4
  3 (75.0)/ 3 (75.0)
7
  5 (71.4)/ 4 (57.1)
a Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus
b See above text for use of combination therapy.
c The observed differences in rates for the clinical and microbiological outcomes may reflect other factors that were not accounted for in the study.

Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia

7 to 14 Day Treatment Regimen

Adult inpatients and outpatients with a diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia were evaluated in two pivotal clinical studies. In the first study, 590 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multi-center, unblinded randomized trial comparing levofloxacin 500 mg once daily orally or intravenously for 7 to 14 days to ceftriaxone 1 to 2 grams intravenously once or in equally divided doses twice daily followed by cefuroxime axetil 500 mg orally twice daily for a total of 7 to 14 days. Patients assigned to treatment with the control regimen were allowed to receive erythromycin (or doxycycline if intolerant of erythromycin) if an infection due to atypical pathogens was suspected or proven. Clinical and microbiologic evaluations were performed during treatment, 5 to 7 days posttherapy, and 3 to 4 weeks posttherapy. Clinical success (cure plus improvement) with levofloxacin at 5 to 7 days posttherapy, the primary efficacy variable in this study, was superior (95%) to the control group (83%). The 95% CI for the difference of response rates (levofloxacin minus comparator) was [-6, 19]. In the second study, 264 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multi-center, non-comparative trial of 500 mg levofloxacin administered orally or intravenously once daily for 7 to 14 days. Clinical success for clinically evaluable patients was 93%. For both studies, the clinical success rate in patients with atypical pneumonia due to Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae , and Legionella pneumophila were 96%, 96%, and 70%, respectively. Microbiologic eradication rates across both studies were as follows:

Pathogen
No. Pathogens Microbiologic Eradication Rate (%)
H. influenzae
55 98
S. pneumoniae
83 95
S. aureus
17 88
M. catarrhalis
18 94
H. parainfluenzae
19 95
K. pneumoniae
10 100.0

Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia

5-Day Treatment Regimen

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of higher dose and shorter course of levofloxacin, 528 outpatient and hospitalized adults with clinically and radiologically determined mild to severe community-acquired pneumonia were evaluated in a double-blind, randomized, prospective, multicenter study comparing levofloxacin 750 mg, i.v. or p.o., q.d. for five days or levofloxacin 500 mg i.v. or p.o., q.d. for 10 days.

Clinical success rates (cure plus improvement) in the clinically evaluable population were 90.9% in the levofloxacin 750 mg group and 91.1% in the levofloxacin 500 mg group. The 95% CI for the difference of response rates (levofloxacin 750 minus levofloxacin 500) was [-5.9, 5.4]. In the clinically evaluable population (31-38 days after enrollment) pneumonia was observed in 7 out of 151 patients in the levofloxacin 750 mg group and 2 out of 147 patients in the levofloxacin 500 mg group. Given the small numbers observed, the significance of this finding can not be determined statistically. The microbiological efficacy of the 5-day regimen was documented for infections listed in the table below.

    Eradication rate
Penicillin susceptible S. pneumoniae
19/20
Haemophilus influenzae
12/12
Haemophilus parainfluenzae
10/10
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
26/27
Chlamydia pneumoniae
13/15

Community-Acquired Pneumonia Due to Multi-Drug Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (MDRSP) *

LEVAQUIN was effective for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia caused by multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (MDRSP) * . Of 40 microbiologically evaluable patients with MDRSP isolates, 38 patients (95.0%) achieved clinical and bacteriologic success at post-therapy. The clinical and bacterial success rates are shown in the table below.

*MDRSP (Multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae ) isolates are strains resistant to two or more of the following antibiotics: penicillin (MIC >/=2 ug/mL), 2 nd generation cephalosporins, e.g., cefuroxime, macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole.

Clinical and Bacteriological Success Rates for Levofloxacin-Treated MDRSP *
CAP Patients (Population: Valid for Efficacy)
Screening Susceptiblity
Clinical Success
Bacteriological Success **
n/N a
%
n/N b
%
Penicillin-resistant
16/17
94.1
16/17
94.1
2 nd generation cephalosporin resistant
31/32
96.9
31/32
96.9
Macrolide-resistant
28/29
96.6
28/29
96.6
Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole resistant
17/19
89.5
17/19
89.5
Tetracycline-resistant
12/12
100
12/12
100
a n = the number of microbiologically evaluable patients who were clinical successes; N = number of microbiologically evaluable patients in the designated resistance group.
b n = the number of MDRSP isolates eradicated or presumed eradicated in microbiologically evaluable patients; N = number of MDRSP isolates in a designated resistance group.
* MDRSP (Multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae ) isolates are strains resistant to two or more of the following antibiotics: penicillin (MIC >/=2 ug/mL), 2 nd generation cephalosporins, e.g., cefuroxime, macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole.
** One patient had a respiratory isolate that was resistant to tetracycline, cefuroxime, macrolides and TMP/SMX and intermediate to penicillin and a blood isolate that was intermediate to penicillin and cefuroxime and resistant to the other classes. The patient is included in the database based on respiratory isolate.

Not all isolates were resistant to all antimicrobial classes tested. Success and eradication rates are summarized in the table below.

Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
clinical success and bacteriologic
eradication rates
S. pn with MDRSP
Clinical Success
Bacteriologic Eradication
Resistant to 2
17/18 (94.4%)
17/18 (94.4%)
Resistant to 3
14/15 (93.3%)
14/15 (93.3%)
Resistant to 4
7/7 (100%)
7/7 (100%)
Resistant to 5
0
0
Bacteremias with
   MDRSP
8/9 (89%)
8/9 (89%)

Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections

Three hundred ninety-nine patients were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, comparative study for complicated skin and skin structure infections. The patients were randomized to receive either levofloxacin 750 mg QD (IV followed by oral), or an approved comparator for a median of 10 ± 4.7 days. As is expected in complicated skin and skin structure infections, surgical procedures were performed in the levofloxacin and comparator groups. Surgery (incision and drainage or debridement) was performed on 45% of the levofloxacin treated patients and 44% of the comparator treated patients, either shortly before or during antibiotic treatment and formed an integral part of therapy for this indication.

Among those who could be evaluated clinically 2-5 days after completion of study drug, overall success rates (improved or cured) were 116/138 (84.1%) for patients treated with levofloxacin and 106/132 (80.3%) for patients treated with the comparator.

Success rates varied with the type of diagnosis ranging from 68% in patients with infected ulcers to 90% in patients with infected wounds and abscesses. These rates were equivalent to those seen with comparator drugs.

Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis

Adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of prostatitis and microbiological culture results from urine sample collected after prostatic massage (VB 3 ) or expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) specimens obtained via the Meares-Stamey procedure were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind study comparing oral levofloxacin 500 mg, once daily for a total of 28 days to oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg, twice daily for a total of 28 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was microbiologic efficacy in microbiologically evaluable patients. A total of 136 and 125 microbiologically evaluable patients were enrolled in the levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin groups, respectively. The microbiologic eradication rate by patient infection at 5-18 days after completion of therapy was 75.0% in the levofloxacin group and 76.8% in the ciprofloxacin group (95% CI [-12.58, 8.98] for levofloxacin minus ciprofloxacin). The overall eradication rates for pathogens of interest are presented below:

    Levofloxacin
(N=136)
Ciprofloxacin
(N=125)
Pathogen
N Eradication N Eradication
E. coli
15 14 (93.3%) 11 9 (81.8%)
E. faecalis
54 39 (72.2%) 44 33 (75.0%)
* S. epidermidis
11 9 (81.8%) 14 11 (78.6%)
*Eradication rates shown are for patients who had a sole pathogen only; mixed cultures were excluded.

Eradication rates for S. epidermidis when found with other co-pathogens are consistent with rates seen in pure isolates.

Clinical success (cure + improvement with no need for further antibiotic therapy) rates in microbiologically evaluable population 5-18 days after completion of therapy were 75.0% for levofloxacin-treated patients and 72.8% for ciprofloxacin-treated patients (95% CI [-8.87, 13.27] for levofloxacin minus ciprofloxacin). Clinical long-term success (24-45 days after completion of therapy) rates were 66.7% for the levofloxacin-treated patients and 76.9% for the ciprofloxacin-treated patients (95% CI [-23.40, 2.89] for levofloxacin minus ciprofloxacin).

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION - INHALATION ANTHRAX

The mean plasma concentrations of levofloxacin associated with a statistically significant improvement in survival over placebo in the rhesus monkey model of inhalational anthrax are reached or exceeded in adult patients receiving oral and intravenous regimens (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).

Levofloxacin pharmacokinetics were evaluated in various populations. Levofloxacin plasma concentrations achieved in humans serve as a surrogate endpoint reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit and provide the basis for this indication. The mean (±s.d.) steady-state peak plasma concentration in human adults receiving 500 mg orally or intravenously once daily is 5.1 ± 0.8 and 6.2 ± 1.0 ug/mL, respectively; and the corresponding total exposure is 47.9 ± 6.8 and 48.3 ± 5.4 ug·h/mL, respectively.

In adults, the safety of levofloxacin for treatment durations of up to 28 days is well characterized. However, information pertaining to extended use at 500 mg daily up to 60 days is limited.

A placebo-controlled animal study in rhesus monkeys exposed to an inhaled mean dose of 49 LD 50 (~2.7 X 10 6 ) spores (range 17-118 LD 50 ) of B. anthracis (Ames strain) was conducted. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of levofloxacin for the anthrax strain used in this study was 0.125 ug/mL. In the animals studied, mean plasma concentrations of levofloxacin achieved at expected T max (1 hour post-dose) following oral dosing to steady state ranged from 2.79 to 4.87 ug/mL. Mean steady state trough concentrations at 24 hours post-dose ranged from 0.107 to 0.164 ug/mL. Mortality due to anthrax for animals that received a 30 day regimen of oral levofloxacin beginning 24 hrs post exposure was significantly lower (1/10), compared to the placebo group (9/10) [P = 0.0011, 2-sided Fisher's Exact Test]. The one levofloxacin treated animal that died of anthrax did so following the 30-day drug administration period.

ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY

Levofloxacin and other quinolones have been shown to cause arthropathy in immature animals of most species tested. (See WARNINGS .) In immature dogs (4-5 months old), oral doses of 10 mg/kg/day for 7 days and intravenous doses of 4 mg/kg/day for 14 days of levofloxacin resulted in arthropathic lesions. Administration at oral doses of 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days and intravenous doses of 60 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks produced arthropathy in juvenile rats. Three-month old beagle dogs dosed orally with levofloxacin for 8 or 9 consecutive days, with an 18-week recovery period, exhibited musculoskeletal clinical signs by the final dose at dose levels >/= 2.5 mg/kg (approximately >0.2-fold the potential therapeutic dose (1500 mg q24h) based upon plasma AUC comparisons). Synovitis and articular cartilage lesions were observed at the 10 and 40 mg/kg dose levels (equivalent to and 3-fold greater than the potential therapeutic dose, respectively). All musculoskeletal clinical signs were resolved by week 5 of recovery; synovitis was resolved by the end of the 18-week recovery period; whereas, articular cartilage erosions and chondropathy persisted.

When tested in a mouse ear swelling bioassay, levofloxacin exhibited phototoxicity similar in magnitude to ofloxacin, but less phototoxicity than other quinolones.

While crystalluria has been observed in some intravenous rat studies, urinary crystals are not formed in the bladder, being present only after micturition and are not associated with nephrotoxicity.

In mice, the CNS stimulatory effect of quinolones is enhanced by concomitant administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

In dogs, levofloxacin administered at 6 mg/kg or higher by rapid intravenous injection produced hypotensive effects. These effects were considered to be related to histamine release.

In vitro and in vivo studies in animals indicate that levofloxacin is neither an enzyme inducer or inhibitor in the human therapeutic plasma concentration range; therefore, no drug metabolizing enzyme-related interactions with other drugs or agents are anticipated.

References

  1. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically . Sixth Edition. Approved Standard NCCLS Document M7-A6,Vol. 23, No. 2, NCCLS, Wayne, PA, January, 2003.
  2. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests . Eighth Edition. Approved Standard NCCLS Document M2-A8, Vol. 23, No. 1, NCCLS, Wayne, PA, January, 2003.

Patient Information About:
LEVAQUIN
(levofloxacin) Tablets
250 mg Tablets, 500 mg Tablets, and 750 mg Tablets and LEVAQUIN (levofloxacin) Oral Solution, 25 mg/mL

This leaflet contains important information about LEVAQUIN (levofloxacin), and should be read completely before you begin treatment. This leaflet does not take the place of discussions with your doctor or health care professional about your medical condition or your treatment. This leaflet does not list all benefits and risks of LEVAQUIN. The medicine described here can be prescribed only by a licensed health care professional. If you have any questions about LEVAQUIN talk to your health care professional. Only your health care professional can determine if LEVAQUIN is right for you.

What is LEVAQUIN?

LEVAQUIN is a quinolone antibiotic used to treat lung, sinus, skin, and urinary tract infections caused by certain germs called bacteria. LEVAQUIN kills many of the types of bacteria that can infect the lungs, sinuses, skin, and urinary tract and has been shown in a large number of clinical trials to be safe and effective for the treatment of bacterial infections.

Sometimes viruses rather than bacteria may infect the lungs and sinuses (for example the common cold). LEVAQUIN, like other antibiotics, does not kill viruses.

You should contact your health care professional if you think that your condition is not improving while taking LEVAQUIN. LEVAQUIN Tablets are terra cotta pink for the 250 mg tablet, peach colored for the 500 mg tablet, or white for the 750 mg tablet. The appearance of LEVAQUIN Oral Solution may range from clear yellow to clear greenish-yellow.

How and when should I take LEVAQUIN?

LEVAQUIN should be taken once a day for 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 or 28 days depending on your prescription. LEVAQUIN Tablets should be swallowed and may be taken with or without food. LEVAQUIN Oral Solution should be taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating. Try to take the tablet and oral solution at the same time each day and drink fluids liberally.

You may begin to feel better quickly; however, in order to make sure that all bacteria are killed, you should complete the full course of medication. Do not take more than the prescribed dose of LEVAQUIN even if you missed a dose by mistake. You should not take a double dose.

Who should not take LEVAQUIN?

You should not take LEVAQUIN if you have ever had a severe allergic reaction to any of the group of antibiotics known as "quinolones" such as ciprofloxacin. Serious and occasionally fatal allergic reactions have been reported in patients receiving therapy with quinolones, including LEVAQUIN.

If you are pregnant or are planning to become pregnant while taking LEVAQUIN , talk to your health care professional before taking this medication. LEVAQUIN is not recommended for use during pregnancy or nursing, as the effects on the unborn child or nursing infant are unknown.

LEVAQUIN is not recommended for children.

What are possible side effects of LEVAQUIN?

LEVAQUIN is generally well tolerated. The most common side effects caused by LEVAQUIN, which are usually mild, include nausea, diarrhea, itching, abdominal pain, dizziness, flatulence, rash and vaginitis in women.

You should be careful about driving or operating machinery until you are sure LEVAQUIN is not causing dizziness.

Allergic reactions have been reported in patients receiving quinolones including LEVAQUIN, even after just one dose. If you develop hives, skin rash or other symptoms of an allergic reaction, you should stop taking this medication and call your health care professional.

Ruptures of shoulder, hand, or Achilles tendons have been reported in patients receiving quinolones, including LEVAQUIN. If you develop pain, swelling, or rupture of a tendon you should stop taking LEVAQUIN and contact your health care professional.

Some quinolone antibiotics have been associated with the development of phototoxicity ("sunburns" and "blistering sunburns") following exposure to sunlight or other sources of ultraviolet light such as artificial ultraviolet light used in tanning salons. LEVAQUIN has been infrequently associated with phototoxicity. You should avoid excessive exposure to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light while you are taking LEVAQUIN.

If you have diabetes and you develop a hypoglycemic reaction while on LEVAQUIN, you should stop taking LEVAQUIN and call your health care professional.

Convulsions have been reported in patients receiving quinolone antibiotics including LEVAQUIN. If you have experienced convulsions in the past, be sure to let your physician know that you have a history of convulsions.

Quinolones, including LEVAQUIN, may also cause central nervous system stimulation which may lead to tremors, restlessness, anxiety, lightheadedness, confusion, hallucinations, paranoia, depression, nightmares, insomnia, and rarely, suicidal thoughts or acts.

If you notice any side effects not mentioned in this leaflet or you have concerns about the side effects you are experiencing, please inform your health care professional.

For more complete information regarding levofloxacin, please refer to the full prescribing information, which may be obtained from your health care professional or pharmacist.

What about other medicines I am taking?

Taking warfarin (Coumadin) and LEVAQUIN together can further predispose you to the development of bleeding problems. If you take warfarin, be sure to tell your health care professional.

Many antacids and multivitamins may interfere with the absorption of LEVAQUIN and may prevent it from working properly. You should take LEVAQUIN either 2 hours before or 2 hours after taking these products.

It is important to let your health care professional know all of the medicines you are using.

Other information

Take your dose of LEVAQUIN once a day.

Complete the course of medication even if you are feeling better.

Keep this medication out of the reach of children.

This information does not take the place of discussions with your doctor or health care professional about your medical condition or your treatment.

ORTHO-McNEIL

OMP DIVISION

ORTHO-McNEIL PHARMACEUTICAL, INC.

Raritan, New Jersey, USA 08869

U.S. Patent No. 5,053,407.

© OMP 2000    Revised November 2004        7518211

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