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A food allergy
is an immune system reaction to a food. A food allergen is an ingredient or chemical in a food that causes your immune system to react. Allergic reactions happen when your immune system fights too strongly against an allergen and causes you to get sick. Allergic reactions can happen within minutes to several hours after you eat, touch, or smell the food. You can also have a second reaction up to 8 hours later. The most common food allergies are nuts, eggs, fish, shellfish, fruits, vegetables, milk, soy, and wheat.
Common signs and symptoms:
- Mild symptoms include itching, a rash, or swelling.
- Anaphylaxis symptoms include throat tightness, trouble breathing, tingling, dizziness, and wheezing. Anaphylaxis is a sudden, life-threatening reaction that needs immediate treatment.
Call 911 for signs or symptoms of anaphylaxis,
such as trouble breathing, swelling in your mouth or throat, or wheezing. You may also have itching, a rash, hives, or feel like you are going to faint.
When should I seek immediate care?
- You have itching or hives that spread all over your body.
When should I contact my healthcare provider?
- You have new or worsening rashes, hives, or itching.
- You have an upset stomach or are vomiting.
- You have stomach cramps or diarrhea.
- You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.
Steps to take for signs or symptoms of anaphylaxis:
- Immediately give 1 shot of epinephrine only into the outer thigh muscle.
- Leave the shot in place as directed. Your healthcare provider may recommend you leave it in place for up to 10 seconds before you remove it. This helps make sure all of the epinephrine is delivered.
- Call 911 and go to the emergency department, even if the shot improved symptoms. Do not drive yourself. Bring the used epinephrine shot with you.
depends on how severe your symptoms are and if you had a severe reaction before. You may need any of the following:
- Antihistamines decrease mild symptoms such as itching or a rash.
- Epinephrine is used to treat severe allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis.
Safety precautions to take if you are at risk for anaphylaxis:
- Keep 2 shots of epinephrine with you at all times. You may need a second shot, because epinephrine only works for about 20 minutes and symptoms may return. Your healthcare provider can show you and family members how to give the shot. Check the expiration date every month and replace it before it expires.
- Create an action plan. Your healthcare provider can help you create a written plan that explains the allergy and an emergency plan to treat a reaction. The plan explains when to give a second epinephrine shot if symptoms return or do not improve after the first. Give copies of the action plan and emergency instructions to family members, work and school staff, and daycare providers. Show them how to give a shot of epinephrine. Update the plan as the allergy changes.
- Be careful when you exercise. If you have had exercise-induced anaphylaxis, do not exercise right after you eat. Stop exercising right away if you start to develop any signs or symptoms of anaphylaxis. You may first feel tired, warm, or have itchy skin. Hives, swelling, and severe breathing problems may develop if you continue to exercise.
- Carry medical alert identification. Wear jewelry or carry a card that says you have a food allergy. Ask your healthcare provider where to get these items.
- Do not eat the food that causes your allergy. Even a small taste can cause an allergic reaction. Your healthcare provider or a dietitian can help you plan a balanced diet. Babies may need to drink a formula that does not contain milk or soy. A dietitian can teach you how to read labels for ingredients that cause your allergies.
- Ask about ingredients in foods prepared outside your home. When you eat out, ask what is in the food you want to order. Ask how food is prepared. Fried foods may contain small amounts of food allergens, such as nuts and shellfish.
- Use good hygiene. Do not share utensils or food. Wash your hands before and after meals.
The flu vaccine and egg allergy:
Do not get the nasal spray form of the flu vaccine if you have an egg allergy. The nasal spray may contain egg proteins that can cause anaphylaxis. Ask your healthcare provider if the injection form of the vaccine is safe for you.
Follow up with your healthcare provider as directed:
You may need to see specialists for ongoing care. Your healthcare provider may want to test you regularly to see if the food allergy changes. Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during follow-up visits.
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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.