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Methylphenidate Tablets

Pronunciation

Generic Name: methylphenidate hydrochloride
Dosage Form: tablet

Methylphenidate Tablets Description

Methylphenidate hydrochloride is a mild central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, available for oral administration as tablets of 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg and as extended-release tablets of 10 mg and 20 mg. Methylphenidate hydrochloride is methyl α-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate hydrochloride, and its structural formula is

 

Methylphenidate hydrochloride USP is a white, odorless, fine crystalline powder. Its solutions are acid to litmus. It is freely soluble in water and in methanol, soluble in alcohol, and slightly soluble in chloroform and in acetone.

Inactive Ingredients

Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Tablets USP:  lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and talc.

Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets USP: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 2208, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and talc.

Methylphenidate Tablets - Clinical Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets are a mild central nervous system stimulant.

The mode of action in man is not completely understood, but methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets presumably activate the brain stem arousal system and cortex to produce its stimulant effect.

There is neither specific evidence which clearly establishes the mechanism whereby methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets produce its mental and behavioral effects in children, nor conclusive evidence regarding how these effects relate to the condition of the central nervous system.

Effects on QT Interval

The effect of dexmethylphenidate, the pharmacologically active d-enantiomer of methylphenidate on the QT interval was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo- and open label active (moxifloxacin)-controlled study following single doses of Dexmethylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, 40 mg in 75 healthy volunteers. ECGs were collected up to 12 hours post-dose. Frederica’s method for heart rate correction was employed to derive the corrected QT interval (QTcF). The maximum mean prolongation of QTcF intervals was <5 ms, and the upper limit of the 90% confidence interval was below 10 ms for all time matched comparisons versus placebo. This was below the threshold of clinical concern and there was no evident-exposure response relationship.

Pharmacokinetics

Methylphenidate hydrochloride in the extended-release tablets is more slowly but as extensively absorbed as in the regular tablets. Relative bioavailability of the extended-release tablet compared to the immediate-release tablet, measured by the urinary excretion of methylphenidate major metabolite (α-phenyl-2-piperidine acetic acid) was 105% (49% to 168%) in children and 101% (85% to 152%) in adults. The time to peak rate in children was 4.7 hours (1.3 to 8.2 hours) for the extended-release tablets and 1.9 hours (0.3 to 4.4 hours) for the tablets. An average of 67% of extended-release tablet dose was excreted in children as compared to 86% in adults.

In a clinical study involving adult subjects who received extended-release tablets, plasma concentrations of methylphenidate hydrochloride’s major metabolite appeared to be greater in females than in males. No gender differences were observed for methylphenidate hydrochloride’s plasma concentration in the same subjects.

Indications and Usage for Methylphenidate Tablets

Attention Deficit Disorders, Narcolepsy

Attention Deficit Disorders (previously known as Minimal Brain Dysfunction in Children). Other terms being used to describe the behavioral syndrome below include: Hyperkinetic Child Syndrome, Minimal Brain Damage, Minimal Cerebral Dysfunction, Minor Cerebral Dysfunction.

Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Tablets USP and Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets USP are indicated as an integral part of a total treatment program which typically includes other remedial measures (psychological, educational, social) for a stabilizing effect in children with a behavioral syndrome characterized by the following group of developmentally inappropriate symptoms: moderate-to-severe distractibility, short attention span, hyperactivity, emotional lability, and impulsivity. The diagnosis of this syndrome should not be made with finality when these symptoms are only of comparatively recent origin. Nonlocalizing (soft) neurological signs, learning disability, and abnormal EEG may or may not be present, and a diagnosis of central nervous system dysfunction may or may not be warranted.

Special Diagnostic Considerations

Specific etiology of this syndrome is unknown, and there is no single diagnostic test. Adequate diagnosis requires the use not only of medical but of special psychological, educational, and social resources.

Characteristics commonly reported include: chronic history of short attention span, distractibility, emotional lability, impulsivity, and moderate-to-severe hyperactivity; minor neurological signs and abnormal EEG. Learning may or may not be impaired. The diagnosis must be based upon a complete history and evaluation of the child and not solely on the presence of one or more of these characteristics.

Drug treatment is not indicated for all children with this syndrome. Stimulants are not intended for use in the child who exhibits symptoms secondary to environmental factors and/or primary psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. Appropriate educational placement is essential and psychosocial intervention is generally necessary. When remedial measures alone are insufficient, the decision to prescribe stimulant medication will depend upon the physician's assessment of the chronicity and severity of the child's symptoms.

Contraindications

Marked anxiety, tension, and agitation are contraindications to methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets, since the drug may aggravate these symptoms. Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets are contraindicated also in patients known to be hypersensitive to the drug, in patients with glaucoma, and in patients with motor tics or with a family history or diagnosis of Tourette’s syndrome.

Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets are contraindicated during treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and also within a minimum of 14 days following discontinuation of a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (hypertensive crises may result).

Warnings

Serious Cardiovascular Events

Sudden Death and Preexisting Structural Cardiac Abnormalities or Other Serious Heart Problems

Children and Adolescents – Sudden death has been reported in association with CNS stimulant treatment at usual doses in children and adolescents with structural cardiac abnormalities or other serious heart problems. Although some serious heart problems alone carry an increased risk of sudden death, stimulant products generally should not be used in children or adolescents with known serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, or other serious cardiac problems that may place them at increased vulnerability to the sympathomimetic effects of a stimulant drug.

Adults – Sudden death, stroke, and myocardial infarction have been reported in adults taking stimulant drugs at usual doses for ADHD. Although the role of stimulants in these adult cases is also unknown, adults have a greater likelihood than children of having serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, coronary artery disease, or other serious cardiac problems. Adults with such abnormalities should also generally not be treated with stimulant drugs.

Hypertension and Other Cardiovascular Conditions

Stimulant medications cause a modest increase in average blood pressure (about 2 to 4 mmHg) and average heart rate (about 3 to 6 bpm), and individuals may have larger increases. While the mean changes alone would not be expected to have short-term consequences, all patients should be monitored for larger changes in heart rate and blood pressure. Caution is indicated in treating patients whose underlying medical conditions might be compromised by increases in blood pressure or heart rate, e.g., those with preexisting hypertension, heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, or ventricular arrhythmia.

Assessing Cardiovascular Status in Patients Being Treated with Stimulant Medications

Children, adolescents, or adults who are being considered for treatment with stimulant medications should have a careful history (including assessment for a family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia) and physical exam to assess for the presence of cardiac disease, and should receive further cardiac evaluation if findings suggest such disease (e.g., electrocardiogram and echocardiogram). Patients who develop symptoms such as exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease during stimulant treatment should undergo a prompt cardiac evaluation.

Psychiatric Adverse Events

Preexisting Psychosis Administration of stimulants may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder in patients with a preexisting psychotic disorder.

Bipolar Illness Particular care should be taken in using stimulants to treat ADHD in patients with comorbid bipolar disorder because of concern for possible induction of a mixed/manic episode in such patients. Prior to initiating treatment with a stimulant, patients with comorbid depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression.

Emergence of New Psychotic or Manic Symptoms – Treatment emergent psychotic or manic symptoms, e.g., hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania in children and adolescents without a prior history of psychotic illness or mania can be caused by stimulants at usual doses. If such symptoms occur, consideration should be given to a possible causal role of the stimulant, and discontinuation of treatment may be appropriate. In a pooled analysis of multiple short-term, placebo-controlled studies, such symptoms occurred in about 0.1% (4 patients with events out of 3,482 exposed to methylphenidate or amphetamine for several weeks at usual doses) of stimulant-treated patients compared to 0 in placebo-treated patients.

Aggression – Aggressive behavior or hostility is often observed in children and adolescents with ADHD, and has been reported in clinical trials and the postmarketing experience of some medications indicated for the treatment of ADHD. Although there is no systematic evidence that stimulants cause aggressive behavior or hostility, patients beginning treatment for ADHD should be monitored for the appearance of or worsening of aggressive behavior or hostility.

Long-Term Suppression of Growth

Careful follow-up of weight and height in children ages 7 to 10 years who were randomized to either methylphenidate or non-medication treatment groups over 14 months, as well as in naturalistic subgroups of newly methylphenidate-treated and non-medication treated children over 36 months (to the ages of 10 to 13 years), suggests that consistently medicated children (i.e., treatment for 7 days per week throughout the year) have a temporary slowing in growth rate (on average, a total of about 2 cm less growth in height and 2.7 kg less growth in weight over 3 years), without evidence of growth rebound during this period of development. Published data are inadequate to determine whether chronic use of amphetamines may cause a similar suppression of growth, however, it is anticipated that they likely have this effect as well. Therefore, growth should be monitored during treatment with stimulants, and patients who are not growing or gaining height or weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted.

Seizures

There is some clinical evidence that stimulants may lower the convulsive threshold in patients with prior history of seizures, in patients with prior EEG abnormalities in absence of seizures, and, very rarely, in patients without a history of seizures and no prior EEG evidence of seizures. In the presence of seizures, the drug should be discontinued.

Priapism

Prolonged and painful erections, sometimes requiring surgical intervention, have been reported with methylphenidate products in both pediatric and adult patients. Priapism was not reported with drug initiation but developed after some time on the drug, often subsequent to an increase in dose. Priapism has also appeared during a period of drug withdrawal (drug holidays or during discontinuation). Patients who develop abnormally sustained or frequent and painful erections should seek immediate medical attention.

Peripheral Vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon

Stimulants, including methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets, used to treat ADHD are associated with peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon. Signs and symptoms are usually intermittent and mild; however, very rare sequelae include digital ulceration and/or soft tissue breakdown. Effects of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon, were observed in postmarketing reports at different times and at therapeutic doses in all age groups throughout the course of treatment. Signs and symptoms generally improve after reduction in dose or discontinuation of drug. Careful observation for digital changes is necessary during treatment with ADHD stimulants. Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients.

Visual Disturbance

Difficulties with accommodation and blurring of vision have been reported with stimulant treatment.

Use in Children Under Six Years of Age

Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should not be used in children under 6 years, since safety and efficacy in this age group have not been established.

Drug Dependence

Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be given cautiously to patients with a history of drug dependence or alcoholism. Chronic abusive use can lead to marked tolerance and psychological dependence with varying degrees of abnormal behavior. Frank psychotic episodes can occur, especially with parenteral abuse. Careful supervision is required during withdrawal from abusive use, since severe depression may occur. Withdrawal following chronic therapeutic use may unmask symptoms of the underlying disorder that may require follow-up.

Precautions

Patients with an element of agitation may react adversely; discontinue therapy if necessary.

Periodic CBC, differential, and platelet counts are advised during prolonged therapy.

Drug treatment is not indicated in all cases of this behavioral syndrome and should be considered only in light of the complete history and evaluation of the child. The decision to prescribe methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should depend on the physician’s assessment of the chronicity and severity of the child’s symptoms and their appropriateness for his/her age. Prescription should not depend solely on the presence of one or more of the behavioral characteristics.

When these symptoms are associated with acute stress reactions, treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets is usually not indicated.

Information for Patients

Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with methylphenidate and should counsel them in its appropriate use. A patient Medication Guide is available for methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets. The prescriber or health professional should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents. Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have. The complete text of the Medication Guide is reprinted at the end of this document.

Priapism

  • Advise patients, caregivers, and family members of the possibility of painful or prolonged penile erections (priapism). Instruct the patient to seek immediate medical attention in the event of priapism.

Circulation problems in fingers and toes [Peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon]:

  • Instruct patients beginning treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets about the risk of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon, and in associated signs and symptoms: fingers or toes may feel numb, cool, painful, and/or may change color from pale, to blue, to red.
  • Instruct patients to report to their physician any new numbness, pain, skin color change, or sensitivity to temperature in fingers or toes.
  • Instruct patients to call their physician immediately with any signs of unexplained wounds appearing on fingers or toes while taking methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets.

Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients.

Drug Interactions

Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should not be used in patients being treated (currently or within the proceeding two weeks) with MAO Inhibitors (see CONTRAINDICATIONS, Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors). Because of possible effects on blood pressure, methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be used cautiously with pressor agents.

Methylphenidate may decrease the effectiveness of drugs used to treat hypertension. Methylphenidate is metabolized primarily to ritalinic acid by de-esterification and not through oxidative pathways.

Human pharmacologic studies have shown that racemic methylphenidate may inhibit the metabolism of coumarin anticoagulants, anticonvulsants (e.g., phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone), and tricyclic drugs (e.g., imipramine, clomipramine, desipramine). Downward dose adjustments of these drugs may be required when given concomitantly with methylphenidate. It may be necessary to adjust the dosage and monitor plasma drug concentration (or, in case of coumarin, coagulation times), when initiating or discontinuing methylphenidate.

Carcinogenesis/Mutagenesis/Impairment of Fertility

In a lifetime carcinogenicity study carried out in B6C3F1 mice, methylphenidate caused an increase in hepatocellular adenomas and, in males only, an increase in hepatoblastomas, at a daily dose of approximately 60 mg/kg/day. This dose is approximately 30 times and 4 times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/kg and mg/m2 basis, respectively. Hepatoblastoma is a relatively rare rodent malignant tumor type. There was no increase in total malignant hepatic tumors. The mouse strain used is sensitive to the development of hepatic tumors, and the significance of these results to humans is unknown.

Methylphenidate did not cause any increases in tumors in a lifetime carcinogenicity study carried out in F344 rats; the highest dose used was approximately 45 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 22 times and 5 times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/kg and mg/m2 basis, respectively.

In a 24-week carcinogenicity study in the transgenic mouse strain p53+/-, which is sensitive to genotoxic carcinogens, there was no evidence of carcinogenicity. Male and female mice were fed diets containing the same concentration of methylphenidate as in the lifetime carcinogenicity study; the high-dose groups were exposed to 60 to 74 mg/kg/day of methylphenidate.

Methylphenidate was not mutagenic in the in vitro Ames reverse mutation assay or in the in vitro mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay. Sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations were increased, indicative of a weak clastogenic response, in an in vitro assay in cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Methylphenidate was negative in vivo in males and females in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.

Methylphenidate did not impair fertility in male or female mice that were fed diets containing the drug in an 18-week Continuous Breeding study. The study was conducted at doses up to 160 mg/kg/day, approximately 80-fold and 8-fold the highest recommended dose on a mg/kg and mg/m2 basis, respectively.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C – In studies conducted in rats and rabbits, methylphenidate was administered orally at doses of up to 75 and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. Teratogenic effects (increased incidence of fetal spina bifida) were observed in rabbits at the highest dose, which is approximately 40 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mg/m2 basis. The no effect level for embryo-fetal development in rabbits was 60 mg/kg/day
(11 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). There was no evidence of specific teratogenic activity in rats, although increased incidences of fetal skeletal variations were seen at the highest dose level (7 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis), which was also maternally toxic. The no effect level for embryo-fetal development in rats was 25 mg/kg/day
(2 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). When methylphenidate was administered to rats throughout pregnancy and lactation at doses of up to 45 mg/kg/day, offspring body weight gain was decreased at the highest dose (4 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis), but no other effects on postnatal development were observed. The no effect level for pre- and postnatal development in rats was 15 mg/kg/day (equal to the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis).

Adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women have not been conducted. Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether methylphenidate is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised if methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets are administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should not be used in children under six years of age (see WARNINGS).

In a study conducted in young rats, methylphenidate was administered orally at doses of up to 100 mg/kg/day for 9 weeks, starting early in the postnatal period (Postnatal Day 7) and continuing through sexual maturity (Postnatal Week 10). When these animals were tested as adults (Postnatal Weeks 13 to 14), decreased spontaneous locomotor activity was observed in males and females previously treated with 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 6 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] on a mg/m2 basis) or greater, and a deficit in the acquisition of a specific learning task was seen in females exposed to the highest dose (12 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). The no effect level for juvenile neurobehavioral development in rats was 5 mg/kg/day (half the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). The clinical significance of the long-term behavioral effects observed in rats is unknown.

Adverse Reactions

Nervousness and insomnia are the most common adverse reactions but are usually controlled by reducing dosage and omitting the drug in the afternoon or evening. Other reactions include hypersensitivity (including skin rash, urticaria, fever, arthralgia, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme with histopathological findings of necrotizing vasculitis, and thrombocytopenic purpura); anorexia; nausea; dizziness; palpitations; headache; dyskinesia; drowsiness; blood pressure and pulse changes, both up and down; tachycardia; angina; cardiac arrhythmia; abdominal pain; weight loss during prolonged therapy; libido changes. There have been rare reports of Tourette’s syndrome. Toxic psychosis has been reported. Although a definite causal relationship has not been established, the following have been reported in patients taking this drug: rhabdomyolysis, instances of abnormal liver function, ranging from transaminase elevation to hepatic coma; isolated cases of cerebral arteritis and/or occlusion; leukopenia and/or anemia; transient depressed mood; aggressive behavior; a few instances of scalp hair loss. Very rare reports of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) have been received, and, in most of these, patients were concurrently receiving therapies associated with NMS. In a single report, a ten-year-old boy who had been taking methylphenidate for approximately 18 months experienced an NMS-like event within 45 minutes of ingesting his first dose of venlafaxine. It is uncertain whether this case represented a drug-drug interaction, a response to either drug alone, or some other cause.

In children, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, weight loss during prolonged therapy, insomnia, and tachycardia may occur more frequently; however, any of the other adverse reactions listed above may also occur.

Methylphenidate Tablets Dosage and Administration

Dosage should be individualized according to the needs and responses of the patient.

Adults

Tablets: Administer in divided doses 2 or 3 times daily, preferably 30 to 45 minutes before meals. Average dosage is 20 to 30 mg daily. Some patients may require 40 to
60 mg daily. In others, 10 to 15 mg daily will be adequate. Patients who are unable to sleep if medication is taken late in the day should take the last dose before 6 p.m.

Extended-Release Tablets: Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets have a duration of action of approximately 8 hours. Therefore, methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets may be used in place of methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets when the 8-hour dosage of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets corresponds to the titrated 8-hour dosage of methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets. Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets must be swallowed whole and never crushed or chewed.

Children (6 years and over)

Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be initiated in small doses, with gradual weekly increments. Daily dosage above 60 mg is not recommended.

If improvement is not observed after appropriate dosage adjustment over a one-month period, the drug should be discontinued.

Tablets: Start with 5 mg twice daily (before breakfast and lunch) with gradual increments of 5 to 10 mg weekly.

Extended-Release Tablets: Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets have a duration of action of approximately 8 hours. Therefore, methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets may be used in place of methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets when the 8-hour dosage of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets corresponds to the titrated 8-hour dosage of methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets. Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets must be swallowed whole and never crushed or chewed.

If paradoxical aggravation of symptoms or other adverse effects occur, reduce dosage, or, if necessary, discontinue the drug.

Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be periodically discontinued to assess the child’s condition. Improvement may be sustained when the drug is either temporarily or permanently discontinued.

Drug treatment should not and need not be indefinite and usually may be discontinued after puberty.

Overdosage

Signs and symptoms of acute overdosage, resulting principally from overstimulation of the central nervous system and from excessive sympathomimetic effects, may include the following: vomiting, agitation, tremors, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, convulsions (may be followed by coma), euphoria, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, sweating, flushing, headache, hyperpyrexia, tachycardia, palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, mydriasis, and dryness of mucous membranes. Rhabdomyolysis has also been reported in overdose.

Consult with a Certified Poison Control Center regarding treatment for up-to-date guidance and advice.

Treatment consists of appropriate supportive measures. The patient must be protected against self-injury and against external stimuli that would aggravate overstimulation already present. Gastric contents may be evacuated by gastric lavage. In the presence of severe intoxication, use a carefully titrated dosage of a short-acting barbiturate before performing gastric lavage. Other measures to detoxify the gut include administration of activated charcoal and a cathartic.

Intensive care must be provided to maintain adequate circulation and respiratory exchange; external cooling procedures may be required for hyperpyrexia.

Efficacy of peritoneal dialysis or extracorporeal hemodialysis for methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets overdosage has not been established.

How is Methylphenidate Tablets Supplied

Each Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Tablet USP 5 mg is available as a round, white unscored tablet debossed with 5 on one side and a  on the other side.

                    Bottles of 100........................NDC 0406-1142-01

Each Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Tablet USP 10 mg is available as a round, white scored tablet debossed with 10 on one side of the tablet and a M on the other side.

                    Bottles of 100........................NDC 0406-1144-01

Each Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Tablet USP 20 mg is available as a round, white scored tablet debossed with 20 on one side of the tablet and a  on the other side.

                    Bottles of 100........................NDC 0406-1146-01

Protect from light. Dispense in tight, light-resistant container with child-resistant closure.

Storage: Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Each Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablet USP 10 mg is available as a round, white to off-white tablet, debossed with 1423 on one side and a  on the other side.

                    Bottles of 100........................NDC 0406-1445-01

Each Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablet USP 20 mg is available as a round, white to off-white tablet, debossed with 1451 on one side and a  on the other side.

                    Bottles of 100........................NDC 0406-1473-01

Note: Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets are color-additive free.

Dispense in tight, light-resistant container with child-resistant closure.

Storage: Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Protect from moisture.

Mallinckrodt, the “M” brand mark, the Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals logo and  are trademarks of a Mallinckrodt company.

© 2016 Mallinckrodt.

Manufactured and Distributed by:
Mallinckrodt Inc.
Hazelwood, MO 63042 USA                                                                                                  

Rev 04/2016

Mallinckrodt™
Pharmaceuticals

An electronic copy of the medication guide for Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Tablets USP can be obtained from www.mallinckrodt.com/Medguide/L20M46.pdf or by calling
1-800-778-7898 for alternate delivery options.

An electronic copy of the medication guide for Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets USP can be obtained from www.mallinckrodt.com/Medguide/L20M47.pdf or by calling 1-800-778-7898 for alternate delivery options.

MEDICATION GUIDE

Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Tablets USP
Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets USP
(METH il FEN i date)

CII

Read the Medication Guide that comes with methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets before you or your child starts taking it and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This Medication Guide does not take the place of talking to your doctor about your or your child’s treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets.

 What is the most important information I should know about methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets? The following have been reported with use of methylphenidate hydrochloride and other stimulant medicines.
1. Heart-related problems:
  • sudden death in patients who have heart problems or heart defects
  • stroke and heart attack in adults
  • increased blood pressure and heart rate
Tell your doctor if you or your child have any heart problems, heart defects, high blood pressure, or a family history of these problems.

Your doctor should check you or your child carefully for heart problems before starting methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets.

Your doctor should check your or your child’s blood pressure and heart rate regularly during treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets.

Call your doctor right away if you or your child has any signs of heart problems such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or fainting while taking methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets.

2. Mental (Psychiatric) problems:
All Patients
  • new or worse behavior and thought problems
  • new or worse bipolar illness
  • new or worse aggressive behavior or hostility
Children and Teenagers
  • new psychotic symptoms (such as hearing voices, believing things that are not true, are suspicious) or new manic symptoms

Tell your doctor about any mental problems you or your child have, or about a family history of suicide, bipolar illness, or depression.

Call your doctor right away if you or your child have any new or worsening mental symptoms or problems while taking methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets, especially seeing or hearing things that are not real, believing things that are not real, or are suspicious.

3. Circulation problems in fingers and toes [Peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon]: fingers or toes may feel numb, cool, painful, and/or may change color from pale, to blue, to red

  • Tell your doctor if you have or your child has numbness, pain, skin color change, or sensitivity to temperature in the fingers or toes.
  • Call your doctor right away if you have or your child has any signs of unexplained wounds appearing on fingers or toes while taking methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets.

What are methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets?

Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets are a central nervous system stimulant prescription medicine. They are used for the treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets may help increase attention and decrease impulsiveness and hyperactivity in patients with ADHD.

Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be used as a part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may include counseling or other therapies.

Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets are also used in the treatment of a sleep disorder called narcolepsy.

 Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets are a federally controlled substance (CII) because they can be abused or lead to dependence. Keep methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets in a safe place to prevent misuse and abuse. Selling or giving away methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets may harm others, and is against the law.

Tell your doctor if you or your child have (or have a family history of) ever abused or been dependent on alcohol, prescription medicines or street drugs.

Who should not take methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets?

Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should not be taken if you or your child:

  • are very anxious, tense, or agitated
  • have an eye problem called glaucoma
  • have tics or Tourette's syndrome, or a family history of Tourette's syndrome. Tics are hard to control repeated movements or sounds.
  • are taking or have taken within the past 14 days an anti-depression medicine called a monoamine oxidase inhibitor or MAOI
  • are allergic to anything in methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets. See the end of this Medication Guide for a complete list of ingredients.

Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should not be used in children less than 6 years old because they have not been studied in this age group.

Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets may not be right for you or your child. Before starting methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets tell your or your child’s doctor about all health conditions (or a family history of) including:

  • heart problems, heart defects, high blood pressure
  • mental problems including psychosis, mania, bipolar illness, or depression
  • tics or Tourette's syndrome
  • seizures or have had an abnormal brain wave test (EEG)
  • circulation problems in fingers or toes

Tell your doctor if you or your child is pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or breast-feeding.

Can methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets be taken with other medicines?

Tell your doctor about all of the medicines that you or your child take including prescription and nonprescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets and some medicines may interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Sometimes the doses of other medicines will need to be adjusted while taking methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets.

Your doctor will decide whether methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets can be taken with other medicines.

Especially tell your doctor if you or your child takes:

  • anti-depression medicines including MAOIs
  • seizure medicines
  • blood thinner medicines
  • blood pressure medicines
  • cold or allergy medicines that contain decongestants

Know the medicines that you or your child takes. Keep a list of your medicines with you to show your doctor and pharmacist.

Do not start any new medicine while taking methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets without talking to your doctor first.

How should methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets be taken?

  • Take methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets exactly as prescribed. Your doctor may adjust the dose until it is right for you or your child.
  • Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets are usually taken 2 to 3 times a day.
  • Take methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets 30 to 45 minutes before a meal. The effect of a dose of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets usually lasts about 8 hours.
  • Do not chew or crush methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Swallow methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets whole with water or other liquids. Tell your doctor if you or your child cannot swallow methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets whole. A different medicine may need to be prescribed.
  • From time to time, your doctor may stop methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets treatment for a while to check ADHD symptoms.
  • Your doctor may do regular checks of the blood, heart, and blood pressure while taking methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Children should have their height and weight checked often while taking methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets treatment may be stopped if a problem is found during these check-ups.
  • If you or your child takes too much methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets or overdoses, call your doctor or poison control center right away, or get emergency treatment.

What are possible side effects of methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets?

See “What is the most important information I should know about methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets?” for information on reported heart and mental problems.

Other serious side effects include:

  • slowing of growth (height and weight) in children
  • seizures, mainly in patients with a history of seizures
  • eyesight changes or blurred vision
  • painful and prolonged erections (priapism) have occurred with methylphenidate. If you or your child develop priapism, seek medical help right away. Because of the potential for lasting damage, priapism should be evaluated by a doctor immediately.

Common side effects include:

  • headache
  • stomach ache
  • trouble sleeping
  • nausea
  • decreased appetite
  • nervousness

Talk to your doctor if you or your child has side effects that are bothersome or do not go away.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

How should I store methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets?

  • Store methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets in a safe place at room temperature, 68° to 77°F (20° to 25°C).
  • Protect methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets from light.
  • Protect methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets from moisture.
  • Keep methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets and all medicines out of the reach of children.

General information about methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets

Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets to other people, even if they have the same condition. It may harm them and it is against the law.

This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets. If you would like more information, talk with your doctor. You can ask your doctor or pharmacist for information about methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets that was written for healthcare professionals, or you can visit www.Mallinckrodt.com or call 1-800-778-7898.

What are the ingredients in methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets?

Active Ingredient: methylphenidate hydrochloride USP

Inactive Ingredients:

Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets: lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and talc.

Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 2208, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and talc.

This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Mallinckrodt, the “M” brand mark, and the Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals logo are trademarks of a Mallinckrodt company.

© 2014 Mallinckrodt.

Mallinckrodt™
Pharmaceuticals

Manufactured and Distributed by:
Mallinckrodt Inc.
Hazelwood, MO 63042 USA                                                                                                            

Rev 10/2014

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Tablet USP  (5 mg bottle of 100)

NDC 0406 - 1142 - 01                    100 TABLETS

Methylphenidate Hydrochloride
Tablets USP

CII    Rx only

5 mg

Each tablet contains: Methylphenidate Hydrochloride USP......5 mg

PHARMACIST: Dispense the Medication Guide provided separately to each patient.

Mallinckrodt™

L0M125
Rev 04/2016

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Tablet USP  (10 mg bottle of 100)

NDC 0406 - 1144 - 01                    100 TABLETS

Methylphenidate Hydrochloride
Tablets USP

CII    Rx only

10 mg

Each tablet contains: Methylphenidate Hydrochloride USP......10 mg

PHARMACIST: Dispense the Medication Guide provided separately to each patient.

Mallinckrodt™

L0M127
Rev 04/2016

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Tablet USP  (20 mg bottle of 100)

NDC 0406 - 1146 - 01                    100 TABLETS

Methylphenidate Hydrochloride
Tablets USP

CII    Rx only

20 mg

Each tablet contains: Methylphenidate Hydrochloride USP......20 mg

PHARMACIST: Dispense the Medication Guide provided separately to each patient.

Mallinckrodt

L0M129
Rev 04/2016

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - Methylphenidate Hydrochloride ER Tablet USP  (10 mg bottle of 100)

NDC 0406 - 1445 - 01                    100 TABLETS

Methylphenidate Hydrochloride
Extended-Release Tablets USP

CII    Rx only

10 mg

Each tablet contains: Methylphenidate Hydrochloride USP......10 mg

PHARMACIST: Dispense the Medication Guide provided separately to each patient.

Mallinckrodt

L0M131
Rev 04/2016

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - Methylphenidate Hydrochloride ER Tablet USP  (20 mg bottle of 100)

NDC 0406 - 1473 - 01                    100 TABLETS

Methylphenidate Hydrochloride
Extended-Release Tablets USP

CII    Rx only

20 mg

Each tablet contains: Methylphenidate Hydrochloride USP......20 mg

PHARMACIST: Dispense the Medication Guide provided separately to each patient.

Mallinckrodt

L0M132
Rev 04/2016

METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE 
methylphenidate hydrochloride tablet
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:0406-1142
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule CII    
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE (METHYLPHENIDATE) METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE 5 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE  
MAGNESIUM STEARATE  
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE  
TALC  
Product Characteristics
Color WHITE Score no score
Shape ROUND Size 6mm
Flavor Imprint Code 5;M
Contains         
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:0406-1142-01 100 TABLET in 1 BOTTLE
2 NDC:0406-1142-10 1000 TABLET in 1 BOTTLE
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
ANDA ANDA040300 03/18/2011
METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE 
methylphenidate hydrochloride tablet
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:0406-1144
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule CII    
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE (METHYLPHENIDATE) METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE 10 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE  
MAGNESIUM STEARATE  
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE  
TALC  
Product Characteristics
Color WHITE Score 2 pieces
Shape ROUND Size 7mm
Flavor Imprint Code 10;M
Contains         
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:0406-1144-01 100 TABLET in 1 BOTTLE
2 NDC:0406-1144-10 1000 TABLET in 1 BOTTLE
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
ANDA ANDA040300 03/18/2011
METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE 
methylphenidate hydrochloride tablet
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:0406-1146
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule CII    
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE (METHYLPHENIDATE) METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE 20 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE  
MAGNESIUM STEARATE  
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE  
TALC  
Product Characteristics
Color WHITE Score 2 pieces
Shape ROUND Size 8mm
Flavor Imprint Code 20;M
Contains         
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:0406-1146-01 100 TABLET in 1 BOTTLE
2 NDC:0406-1146-10 1000 TABLET in 1 BOTTLE
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
ANDA ANDA040300 03/18/2011
METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE 
methylphenidate hydrochloride tablet, extended release
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:0406-1445
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule CII    
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE (METHYLPHENIDATE) METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE 10 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
HYPROMELLOSE 2208 (15000 MPA.S)  
MAGNESIUM STEARATE  
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE  
TALC  
Product Characteristics
Color WHITE (to off-white) Score no score
Shape ROUND Size 6mm
Flavor Imprint Code 1423;M
Contains         
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:0406-1445-01 100 TABLET, EXTENDED RELEASE in 1 BOTTLE
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
ANDA ANDA075629 03/18/2011
METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE 
methylphenidate hydrochloride tablet, extended release
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:0406-1473
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule CII    
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE (METHYLPHENIDATE) METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE 20 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
HYPROMELLOSE 2208 (15000 MPA.S)  
MAGNESIUM STEARATE  
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE  
TALC  
Product Characteristics
Color WHITE (to off-white) Score no score
Shape ROUND Size 7mm
Flavor Imprint Code 1451;M
Contains         
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:0406-1473-01 100 TABLET, EXTENDED RELEASE in 1 BOTTLE
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
ANDA ANDA075629 03/18/2011
Labeler - Mallinckrodt, Inc. (047021092)
Establishment
Name Address ID/FEI Operations
MALLINCKRODT INC 957414238 ANALYSIS(0406-1142, 0406-1144, 0406-1146, 0406-1445, 0406-1473), MANUFACTURE(0406-1142, 0406-1144, 0406-1146, 0406-1445, 0406-1473)
Establishment
Name Address ID/FEI Operations
MALLINCKRODT, INC. 163205300 API MANUFACTURE(0406-1142, 0406-1144, 0406-1146, 0406-1445, 0406-1473)
Revised: 11/2016
 
Mallinckrodt, Inc.
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