Generic Name: methylphenidate hydrochloride
Dosage Form: tablet
Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Jul 1, 2020.
On This Page
- Boxed Warning
- Indications and Usage
- Dosage and Administration
- Dosage Forms and Strengths
- Warnings and Precautions
- Adverse Reactions/Side Effects
- Drug Interactions
- Use In Specific Populations
- Drug Abuse and Dependence
- Clinical Pharmacology
- Nonclinical Toxicology
- How Supplied/Storage and Handling
- Patient Counseling Information
CNS stimulants, including methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, other methylphenidate-containing products, and amphetamines, have a high potential for abuse and dependence. Assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing, and monitor for signs of abuse and dependence while on therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.2, 9.3)].
1. INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the treatment of:
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in pediatric patients 6 years and older and adults
2. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Prior to treating pediatric patients and adults with central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, including methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, assess for the presence of cardiac disease (i.e., perform a careful history including family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia, and physical examination) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing, and monitor for signs of abuse and dependence while on therapy. Maintain careful prescription records, educate patients about abuse, monitor for signs of abuse and overdose, and periodically reevaluate the need for methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets use [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)].
General Dosing Information
Methylphenidate hydrochloride Tablets
Pediatric Patients 6 years and Older: Start with 5 mg orally twice daily (before breakfast and lunch). Increase dosage gradually, in increments of 5 to 10 mg weekly. Daily dosage above 60 mg is not recommended.
Adults: Average dosage is 20 to 30 mg daily. Administer orally in divided doses 2 or 3 times daily, preferably 30 to 45 minutes before meals. Maximum total daily dosage is 60 mg. Patients who are unable to sleep if medication is taken late in the day should take the last dose before 6 p.m.
Pharmacological treatment of ADHD may be needed for extended periods. Periodically reevaluate the long-term use of methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, and adjust dosage as needed.
Dose Reduction and Discontinuation
If paradoxical worsening of symptoms or other adverse reactions occur, reduce the dosage, or, if necessary, discontinue methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets. If improvement is not observed after appropriate dosage adjustment over a one-month period, the drug should be discontinued.
Dosage Forms and Strengths
• 5 mg, Light yellow, round, biconvex, beveled edge tablets de-bossed with ‘T’ on one side and ‘173’ on the other side.
• 10 mg, White to off white, round, flat, beveled edge tablets de-bossed with ‘T’ and ‘174’ with a functional score line on one side and plain on the other side.
• 20 mg, Light yellow, round, flat, beveled edge tablets de-bossed with ‘T’ and ‘175’ with a functional score line on one side and plain on the other side.
- Hypersensitivity to methylphenidate or other components of methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets. Hypersensitivity reactions such as angioedema and anaphylactic reactions have been reported in patients treated with methylphenidate [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
- Concomitant treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), or within 14 days following discontinuation of treatment with an MAOI, because of the risk of hypertensive crises [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
Warnings and Precautions
Potential for Abuse and Dependence
CNS stimulants, including methylphenidate hydrochloride, other methylphenidate-containing products, and amphetamines, have a high potential for abuse and dependence. Assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing, and monitor for signs of abuse and dependence while on therapy [see Boxed Warning, Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.2, 9.3)].
Serious Cardiovascular Reactions
Sudden death, stroke and myocardial infarction have been reported in adults with CNS stimulant treatment at recommended doses. Sudden death has been reported in pediatric patients with structural cardiac abnormalities and other serious heart problems taking CNS stimulants at recommended doses for ADHD. Avoid use in patients with known serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, coronary artery disease, and other serious heart problems. Further evaluate patients who develop exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or arrhythmias during methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment.
Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Increases
CNS stimulants cause an increase in blood pressure (mean increase approximately 2 to 4 mmHg) and heart rate (mean increase approximately 3 to 6 bpm). Individuals may have larger increases. Monitor all patients for hypertension and tachycardia.
Psychiatric Adverse Reactions
Exacerbation of Preexisting Psychosis
CNS stimulants may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder in patients with a preexisting psychotic disorder.
Induction of a Manic Episode in Patients with Bipolar Disorder
CNS stimulants may induce a manic or mixed mood episode in patients. Prior to initiating treatment, screen patients for risk factors for developing a manic episode (e.g. comorbid or history of depressive symptoms or a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, or depression).
New Psychotic or Manic Symptoms
CNS stimulants, at recommended doses, may cause psychotic or manic symptoms (e.g., hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania) in patients without a prior history of psychotic illness or mania. If such symptoms occur, consider discontinuing methylphenidate hydrochloride. In a pooled analysis of multiple short-term, placebo-controlled studies of CNS stimulants, psychotic or manic symptoms occurred in approximately 0.1% of CNS stimulant-treated patients, compared to 0 in placebo-treated patients.
Prolonged and painful erections, sometimes requiring surgical intervention, have been reported with methylphenidate products in both pediatric and adult patients. Priapism was not reported with drug initiation but developed after some time on the drug, often subsequent to an increase in dose. Priapism has also appeared during a period of drug withdrawal (drug holidays or during discontinuation). Patients who develop abnormally sustained or frequent and painful erections should seek immediate medical attention.
Peripheral Vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s Phenomenon
CNS stimulants, including methylphenidate hydrochloride, used to treat ADHD are associated with peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon. Signs and symptoms are usually intermittent and mild; however, very rare sequelae include digital ulceration and/or soft tissue breakdown. Effects of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon, were observed in postmarketing reports at different times and at therapeutic doses in all age groups throughout the course of treatment. Signs and symptoms generally improve after reduction in dose or discontinuation of drug. Careful observation for digital changes is necessary during treatment with ADHD stimulants. Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients.
Long-Term Suppression of Growth
CNS stimulants have been associated with weight loss and slowing of growth rate in pediatric patients.
Careful follow-up of weight and height in pediatric patients ages 7 to 10 years who were randomized to either methylphenidate or non-medication treatment groups over 14 months, as well as in naturalistic subgroups of newly methylphenidate-treated and non-medication treated patients over 36 months (to the ages of 10 to 13 years), suggests that consistently medicated pediatric patients (i.e., treatment for 7 days per week throughout the year) have a temporary slowing in growth rate (on average, a total of about 2 cm less growth in height and 2.7 kg less growth in weight over 3 years), without evidence of growth rebound during this period of development.
Closely monitor growth (weight and height) in pediatric patients treated with CNS stimulants including methylphenidate hydrochloride. Patients who are not growing or gaining height or weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted.
The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Abuse and Dependence [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.2, 9.3) ]
- Known hypersensitivity to methylphenidate or other ingredients of methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets [see Contraindications (4)]
- Hypertensive crisis with Concomitant Use of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors [see Contraindications (4), Drug Interactions (7.1)]
- Serious Cardiovascular Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Increases [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Psychiatric Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Priapism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Peripheral Vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s Phenomenon [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
- Long-term Suppression of Growth [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
The following adverse reactions associated with the use of all methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and other methylphenidate products were identified in clinical trials, spontaneous reports, and literature. Because these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency reliably or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Adverse Reactions Reported with methylphenidate hydrochloride
Infections and Infestations: nasopharyngitis
Blood and the Lymphatic System Disorders : leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia
Immune System Disorders: hypersensitivity reactions, including angioedema and anaphylaxis
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: decreased appetite, reduced weight gain, and suppression of growth during prolonged use in pediatric patients
Psychiatric Disorders: insomnia, anxiety, restlessness, agitation, psychosis (sometimes with visual and tactile hallucinations), depressed mood
Nervous System Disorders: headache, dizziness, tremor, dyskinesia including choreoatheetoid movements, drowsiness, convulsions, cerebrovascular disorders (including vasculitis, cerebral hemorrhages and cerebrovascular accidents), serotonin syndrome in combination with serotonergic drugs
Eye Disorders: blurred vision, difficulties in visual accommodation
Cardiac Disorders: tachycardia, palpitations, increased blood pressure, arrhythmias, angina pectoris
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: cough
Gastrointestinal Disorders: dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dyspepsia
Hepatobiliary Disorders: abnormal liver function, ranging from transaminase elevation to severe hepatic injury
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: hyperhidrosis, pruritus, urticaria, exfoliative dermatitis, scalp hair loss, erythema multiforme rash, thrombocytopenic purpura
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: arthralgia, muscle cramps, rhabdomyolysis
Investigations: weight loss (adult ADHD patients)
Additional Adverse Reactions Reported With Other Methylphenidate-Containing Products
The list below shows adverse reactions not listed for methylphenidate hydrochloride that have been reported with other methylphenidate-containing products.
Blood and Lymphatic Disorders: pancytopenia
Immune System Disorders: hypersensitivity reactions such as auricular swelling, bullous conditions, eruptions, exanthemas
Psychiatric Disorders: affect lability, mania, disorientation and libido changes
Nervous System Disorders: migraine
Eye Disorders: diplopia, mydriasis
Cardiac Disorders: sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarction, bradycardia, extrasystole
Vascular Disorders: peripheral coldness, Raynaud's phenomenon
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: pharyngolaryngeal pain, dyspnea
Gastrointestinal Disorders: diarrhea, constipation
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: angioneurotic edema, erythema, fixed drug eruption
Musculoskeletal, Connective Tissue and bone Disorders: myalgia, muscle twitching
Renal and Urinary Disorders: hematuria
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: gynecomastia
General Disorders: fatigue, hyperpyrexia
Urogenital Disorders: priapism
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS contact AvKARE at 1-855-361-3993; email email@example.com; or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
Clinically Important Interactions with methylphenidate hydrochloride
Table 1 presents clinically important drug interactions with methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets
Table 1: Clinically Important Drug Interactions with methylphenidate hydrochloride
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI)
Concomitant use of MAOIs and CNS stimulants, including methylphenidate hydrochloride can cause hypertensive crisis. Potential outcomes include death, stroke, myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, ophthalmological complications, eclampsia, pulmonary edema, and renal failure [see Contraindications (4)].
Concomitant use of methylphenidate hydrochloride with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or within 14 days after discontinuing MAOI treatment is contraindicated.
selegiline, tranylcypromine, isocarboxazid, phenelzine, linezolid, methylene blue
Methylphenidate hydrochloride may decrease the effectiveness of drugs used to treat hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Monitor blood pressure and adjust the dosage of the antihypertensive drug as needed.
Potassium-sparing and thiazide diuretics, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), beta blockers, centrally acting alpha-2 receptor agonists
Concomitant use of halogenated anesthetics and methylphenidate hydrochloride may increase the risk of sudden blood pressure and heart rate increase during surgery.
Avoid use of methylphenidate hydrochloride in patients being treated with anesthetics on the day of surgery.
halothane, isoflurane, enflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to ADHD medications, including methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the National Pregnancy Registry for ADHD Medications at 1-866-961-2388 or visit https://womensmentalhealth.org/adhd-medications/
Published studies and postmarketing reports on methylphenidate use during pregnancy have not identified a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. There may be risks to the fetus associated with the use of CNS stimulants use during pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations).
No effects on morphological development were observed in embryo-fetal development studies with oral administration of methylphenidate to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses up to 10 and 15 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 60 mg/day given to adolescents on a mg/m 2 basis. However, spina bifida was observed in rabbits at a dose 52 times the MRHD given to adolescents. A decrease in pup body weight was observed in a pre and post-natal development study with oral administration of methylphenidate to rats throughout pregnancy and lactation at doses 6 times the MRHD given to adolescents (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20% respectively.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
CNS stimulants, such as methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, can cause vasoconstriction and thereby decrease placental perfusion. No fetal and/or neonatal adverse reactions have been reported with the use of therapeutic doses of methylphenidate during pregnancy; however, premature delivery and low birth weight infants have been reported in amphetamine-dependent mothers.
In embryo-fetal development studies conducted in rats and rabbits, methylphenidate was administered orally at doses of up to 75 and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. Malformations (increased incidence of fetal spina bifida) were observed in rabbits at the highest dose, which is approximately 52 times the MRHD of 60 mg/day given to adolescents on a mg/m 2 basis. The no effect level for embryo-fetal development in rabbits was 60 mg/kg/day (15times the MRHD given to adolescents on a mg/m 2 basis). There was no evidence of morphological development effects in rats, although increased incidences of fetal skeletal variations were seen at the highest dose level (10 times the MRHD of 60 mg/day given to adolescents on a mg/m 2 basis), which was also maternally toxic. The no effect level for embryo-fetal development in rats was 25 mg/kg/day (3 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis). When methylphenidate was administered to rats throughout pregnancy and lactation at doses of up to 45 mg/kg/day, offspring body weight gain was decreased at the highest dose (6 times the MRHD of 60 mg/day given to adolescents on a mg/m 2 basis), but no other effects on postnatal development were observed. The no effect level for pre and postnatal development in rats was 15 mg/kg/day (~2 times the MRHD given to adolescents on a mg/m 2 basis).
Limited published literature, based on milk sampling from seven mothers reports that methylphenidate is present in human milk, which resulted in infant doses of 0.16% to 0.7% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 1.1 and 2.7. There are no reports of adverse effects on the breastfed infant and no effects on milk production. Long-term neurodevelopmental effects on infants from stimulant exposure are unknown. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for methylphenidate hydrochloride and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from methylphenidate hydrochloride or from the underlying maternal condition.
Monitor breastfeeding infants for adverse reactions, such as agitation, insomnia, anorexia, and reduced weight gain.
The safety and effectiveness of methylphenidate hydrochloride for the treatment of ADHD have been established in pediatric patients 6 to 17 years.
The safety and effectiveness of methylphenidate hydrochloride in pediatric patients less than 6 years have not been established.
The long-term efficacy of methylphenidate hydrochloride in pediatric patients has not been established.
Long-Term Suppression of Growth
Growth should be monitored during treatment with stimulants, including methylphenidate hydrochloride. Pediatric patients who are not growing or gaining weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data
Rats treated with methylphenidate early in the postnatal period through sexual maturation demonstrated a decrease in spontaneous locomotor activity in adulthood. A deficit in acquisition of a specific learning task was observed in females only. The doses at which these findings were observed are at least 4 times the MRHD of 60 mg/day given to children on a mg/m 2 basis.
In a study conducted in young rats, methylphenidate was administered orally at doses of up to 100 mg/kg/day for 9 weeks, starting early in the postnatal period (postnatal Day 7) and continuing through sexual maturity (postnatal Week 10). When these animals were tested as adults (postnatal Weeks 13 to 14), decreased spontaneous locomotor activity was observed in males and females previously treated with 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 4 times the MRHD of 60 mg/day given to children on a mg/m 2 basis) or greater, and a deficit in the acquisition of a specific learning task was seen in females exposed to the highest dose (8 times the MRHD given to children on a mg/m 2 basis). The no effect level for juvenile neurobehavioral development in rats was 5 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.5 times the MRHD given to children on a mg/m 2 basis). The clinical significance of the long-term behavioral effects observed in rats is unknown.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride has not been studied in the geriatric population.
Drug Abuse and Dependence
Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets contain methylphenidate hydrochloride, a Schedule II controlled substance.
CNS stimulants, including methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, have a high potential for abuse. Abuse is characterized by impaired control over drug use despite harm, and craving.
Signs and symptoms of CNS stimulant abuse include increased heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and/or sweating, dilated pupils, hyperactivity, restlessness, insomnia, decreased appetite, loss of coordination, tremors, flushed skin, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain. Anxiety, psychosis, hostility, aggression, and suicidal or homicidal ideation have also been observed. Abusers of CNS stimulants may chew, snort, inject, or use other unapproved routes of administration which may result in overdose and death [see Overdosage (10)].
To reduce the abuse of CNS stimulants including methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing. After prescribing, keep careful prescription records, educate patients and their families about abuse and on proper storage and disposal of CNS stimulants [see How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16)], monitor for signs of abuse while on therapy, and reevaluate the need for methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets use.
Tolerance (a state of adaptation in which exposure to a drug results in a reduction of the drug’s desired and/or undesired effects over time) can occur during chronic therapy with CNS stimulants, including methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets.
Physical dependence (which is manifested by a withdrawal syndrome produced by abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, or administration of an antagonist) may occur in patients treated with CNS stimulants including methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets. Withdrawal symptoms after abrupt cessation following prolonged high-dosage administration of CNS stimulants include dysphoric mood; fatigue; vivid, unpleasant dreams; insomnia or hypersomnia; increased appetite; and psychomotor retardation or agitation.
Signs and symptoms of acute overdosage, resulting principally from overstimulation of the central nervous system and from excessive sympathomimetic effects, may include the following: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, restlessness, anxiety, agitation, tremors, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, convulsions (which may be followed by coma), euphoria, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, sweating, flushing, headache, hyperpyrexia, tachycardia, palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, hypotension, tachypnea, mydriasis, dryness of mucous membranes, and rhabdomyolysis.
Consult with a Certified Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222) for the latest recommendations.
Methylphenidate Tablets Description
Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, USP is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. It is available as tablets of 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg strength for oral administration.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride is methyl α- phenyl-2-piperidineacetate hydrochloride, and its structural formula is
Methylphenidate hydrochloride USP is a white to off white, odorless, fine crystalline powder. Its solutions are acid to litmus. It is freely soluble in water and in methanol, soluble in alcohol, and slightly soluble in chloroform and in acetone. Its molecular weight is 269.77 g/mol.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, USP contain the following inactive ingredients: compressible sugar, colloidal silicon dioxide, D&C yellow no. 10 (5 mg and 20 mg tablets), lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, and microcrystalline cellulose.
Methylphenidate Tablets - Clinical Pharmacology
Mechanism of Action
Methylphenidate hydrochloride is a CNS stimulant. The mode of therapeutic action in ADHD and narcolepsy is not known.
Methylphenidate is a racemic mixture comprised of the d- and l-threo enantiomers. The d-threo enantiomer is more pharmacologically active than the l-threo enantiomer. Methylphenidate blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.
A formal QT study has not been conducted in patients taking methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets.
The effect of dexmethylphenidate, the pharmacologically active d-enantiomer of methylphenidate hydrochloride on the QT interval was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo and open-label active (moxifloxacin)-controlled study following single doses of dexmethylphenidate XR 40 mg (maximum recommended adult total daily dosage) in 75 healthy volunteers. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were collected up to 12 hours postdose. Frederica’s method for heart rate correction was employed to derive the corrected QT interval (QTcF). The maximum mean prolongation of QTcF intervals was less than 5 ms, and the upper limit of the 90% confidence interval (CI) was below 10 ms for all time-matched comparisons versus placebo. This was below the threshold of clinical concern and there was no evident exposure response relationship.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride in the extended release tablets is more slowly but as extensively absorbed as in the regular tablets. Relative bioavailability of the extended-release tablet compared to the methylphenidate hydrochloride tablet, measured by the urinary excretion of methylphenidate hydrochloride major metabolite (α-phenyl-2-piperidine acetic acid) was 105% (49% to 168%) in children and 101% (85% to 152%) in adults. The time to peak rate in children was 1.9 hours (0.3 to 4.4 hours) for the methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and 4.7 hours (1.3 to 8.2 hours) for the methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets. An average of 67% of extended-release tablet dose was excreted in children as compared to 86% in adults.
Effect of Food
After a high-fat meal, both area under the curve (AUC) (by 25 %) and C max (by 27 %) are higher. Time to C max (T max) is faster after a high-fat meal (median T max: 2.5 hours) as compared to without food (median T max: 3 hours).
Binding to plasma proteins is low (10% to 33%). The volume of distribution was 2.65 ± 1.11 L/kg for d- methylphenidate and 1.80 ± 0.91 L/kg for 1- methylphenidate.
The systemic clearance is 0.40 ± 0.12 L/h/kg for d-methylphenidate and 0.73 ± 0.28 L/h/kg for 1-methylphenidate.
Methylphenidate is metabolized primarily by de-esterification to alpha-phenyl-piperidine acetic acid (ritalinic acid), which has little or no pharmacologic activity.
After oral administration, 78% to 97% of the dose is excreted in the urine and 1% to 3% in feces in the form of metabolites within 48 to 96 hours. Most of the dose is excreted in the urine as alpha-phenyl-2-piperidine acetic acid (60% to 86%). The cumulative urinary excretion of alpha-phenyl-2-piperidine acetic acid are not significantly different for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended release tablets.
Studies in Specific Populations
Male and Female Patients
In a clinical study involving adult subjects who received methylphenidate hydrochloride extended release, plasma concentrations of methylphenidate hydrochloride’s major metabolite appeared to be greater in females than in males. No gender differences were observed for methylphenidate hydrochloride plasma concentration in the same subjects.
Racial or Ethnic Groups
There is insufficient experience with the use of methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets to detect ethnic variations in pharmacokinetics.
Patients with Renal Impairment
Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets have not been studied in renally-impaired patients. Renal impairment is expected to have minimal effect on the pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate since less than 1% of a radiolabeled dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged compound, and the major metabolite (ritalinic acid), has little or no pharmacologic activity.
Patients with Hepatic Impairment
Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets have not been studied in patients with hepatic impairment. Hepatic impairment is expected to have minimal effect on the pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate since it is metabolized primarily to ritalinic acid by nonmicrosomal hydrolytic esterases that are widely distributed throughout the body.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility
In a lifetime carcinogenicity study carried out in B6C3F1 mice, methylphenidate caused an increase in hepatocellular adenomas, and in males only, an increase in hepatoblastomas at a daily dose of approximately 60 mg/kg/day. This dose is approximately 2 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 60 mg/day given to children on mg/m 2 basis. Hepatoblastoma is a relatively rare rodent malignant tumor type. There was no increase in total malignant hepatic tumors. The mouse strain used is sensitive to the development of hepatic tumors and the significance of these results to humans is unknown.
Methylphenidate did not cause any increase in tumors in a lifetime carcinogenicity study carried out in F344 rats; the highest dose used was approximately 45 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 4 times the MRHD (children) on a mg/m 2 basis.
In a 24-week carcinogenicity study in the transgenic mouse strain p53+/-, which is sensitive to genotoxic carcinogens, there was no evidence of carcinogenicity. Male and female mice were fed diets containing the same concentration of methylphenidate as in the lifetime carcinogenicity study; the high-dose groups were exposed to 60 to 74 mg/kg/day of methylphenidate.
Methylphenidate was not mutagenic in the in vitro Ames reverse mutation assay, in the in vitro mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay, or in the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay using human lymphocytes. Sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations were increased, indicative of a weak clastogenic response, in an in vitro assay in cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Methylphenidate was negative in vivo in males and females in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.
Impairment of Fertility
No human data on the effect of methylphenidate on fertility are available. Methylphenidate did not impair fertility in male or female mice that were fed diets containing the drug in an 18-week continuous breeding study. The study was conducted at doses up to 160 mg/kg/day, approximately 10 times the MRHD of 60 mg/day given to adolescents on a mg/m 2 basis.
How Supplied/Storage and Handling
5 mg Tablets - Light yellow, round, biconvex, beveled edge tablets de-bossed with ‘ T’ on one side and ‘ 173’ on the other side.
10 mg Tablets – White to off white, round, flat, beveled edge tablets de-bossed with ‘ T’ and ‘ 174’ with a functional score line on one side and plain on the other side.
NDC 50268-528-15 (10 tablets per card, 5 cards per carton)
20 mg Tablets - Light yellow, round, flat, beveled edge tablets de-bossed with ‘ T’ and ‘ 175’ with a functional score line on one side and plain on the other side.
NDC 50268-529-15 (10 tablets per card, 5 cards per carton)
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F), excursions permitted 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Protect from light.
Dispensed in Unit Dose Package. For Institutional Use Only.
Comply with local laws and regulations on drug disposal of CNS stimulants. Dispose of remaining, unused, or expired methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets by a medicine take-back program or by an authorized collector registered with the Drug Enforcement Administration. If no take-back program or authorized collector is available, mix methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets with an undesirable, nontoxic substance to make it less appealing to children and pets. Place the mixture in a container such as a sealed plastic bag and discard methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets in the household trash.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
Controlled Substance Status/High Potential for Abuse and Dependence
Advise patients that methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets are controlled substances, and they can be abused and lead to dependence. Instruct patients that they should not give methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets to anyone else. Advise patients to store methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets in a safe place, preferably locked, to prevent abuse. Advise patients to comply with laws and regulations on drug disposal. Advise patients to dispose of remaining, unused, or expired methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets by a medicine take-back program if available [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.1, 9.2, 9.3),How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16)].
Serious Cardiovascular Risks
Advise patients that there is a potential serious cardiovascular risk including sudden death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hypertension with methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets use. Instruct patients to contact a healthcare provider immediately if they develop symptoms such as exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Increases
Instruct patients that methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets can cause elevations of their blood pressure and pulse rate [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Advise patients that methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets at recommended doses, can cause psychotic or manic symptoms, even in patients without prior history of psychotic symptoms or mania [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Advise patients of the possibility of painful or prolonged penile erections (priapism). Instruct them to seek immediate medical attention in the event of priapism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Circulation Problems in Fingers and Toes [Peripheral vasculopathy, Including Raynaud’s Phenomenon]
Instruct patients about the risk of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s Phenomenon, and associated signs and symptoms: fingers or toes may feel numb, cool, painful, and/or may change color from pale, to blue, to red. Instruct patients to report to their physician any new numbness, pain, skin color change, or sensitivity to temperature in fingers or toes.
Instruct patients to call their physician immediately with any signs of unexplained wounds appearing on fingers or toes while taking methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets. Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
Suppression of Growth
Advise patients that methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets may cause slowing of growth and weight loss [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
Advise patients that there is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in patients exposed to ADHD medications, including methylphenidate hydrochloride, during pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Pulaski, TN 38478
Mfg. Rev. 01/20
AV Rev. 07/20 (P)
Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, USP CII(meth'' il fen' i date hye'' droe klor' ide)
What is the most important information I should know about methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets?
Methylphenidate hydrochloride is a federal controlled substance (CII) because it can be abused or lead to dependence. Keep methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets in a safe place to prevent misuse and abuse. Selling or giving away methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets may harm others and is against the law.
Tell your doctor if you or your child have abused or been dependent on alcohol, prescription medicines or street drugs.
The following have been reported with use of methylphenidate hydrochloride and other stimulant medicines.
1. Heart-related problems:
Tell your doctor if you or your child have any heart problems, heart defects, high blood pressure, or a family history of these problems.
Your doctor should check you or your child carefully for heart problems before starting methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets.
Your doctor should check you or your childs blood pressure and heart rate regularly during treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets.
Call your doctor right away if you or your child has any signs of heart problems such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or fainting while taking methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets.
2. Mental (Psychiatric) problems:
Tell your doctor about any mental problems you or your child have, or about a family history of suicide, bipolar illness, or depression.
Call your doctor right away if you or your child have any new or worsening mental symptoms or problems while taking methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, especially seeing or hearing things that are not real, believing things that are not real, or are suspicious.
What are methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets?
It is not known if methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets are safe and effective in children under 6 years of age.
Who should not take methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets?
Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets should not be taken if you or your child:
Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets may not be right for you or your child. Before starting methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, tell your or your child’s doctor about all health conditions (or a family history of) including:
Tell your doctor about all of the medicines that you or your child takes including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and some medicines may interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Sometimes the doses of other medicines will need to be adjusted while taking methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets.
Your doctor will decide whether methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets can be taken with other medicines.
Especially tell your doctor if you or your child takes:
Know the medicines that you or your child takes. Keep a list of your medicines with you to show your doctor and pharmacist.
Do not start any new medicine while taking methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets without talking to your doctor first.
How should methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets be taken?
What are the possible side effects of methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets?
Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets may cause serious side effects, including:
Tell your doctor if you or your child have, numbness, pain, skin color change, or sensitivity to temperature in the fingers or toes.
Common side effects include:
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
How should I store methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets?
General information about the safe and effective use of methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets.
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. You can ask your pharmacist or doctor for information about methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets that is written for healthcare professionals. Do not use methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them and it is against the law.
What are the ingredients in methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets?
Active Ingredient:Methylphenidate HCl.
Inactive Ingredients:Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, USP contain inactive ingredients: compressible sugar, colloidal silicon dioxide, D&C yellow no. 10 (5 mg and 20 mg tablets), lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, and microcrystalline cellulose.
Pulaski, TN 38478
Mfg. Rev. 01/20
AV Rev. 07/20 (P)
For more information and request for additional copies of the Medication Guide, call AvKARE at 1-855-361-3993.
This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Rev: 01/20
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methylphenidate hydrochloride tablet
methylphenidate hydrochloride tablet
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