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Lurasidone

Pronunciation

(loo RAS i done)

Index Terms

  • Lurasidone HCl
  • Lurasidone Hydrochloride
  • SM-13496

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral, as hydrochloride:

Latuda: 20 mg, 40 mg, 60 mg

Latuda: 80 mg [contains fd&c blue #2 aluminum lake]

Latuda: 120 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Latuda

Pharmacologic Category

  • Second Generation (Atypical) Antipsychotic

Pharmacology

Lurasidone is a benzoisothiazol-derivative atypical antipsychotic with mixed serotonin-dopamine antagonist activity. It exhibits high affinity for D2, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT7 receptors; moderate affinity for alpha2C-adrenergic receptors; and is a partial agonist for 5-HT1A receptors. Lurasidone has no significant affinity for muscarinic M1 and histamine H1 receptors. The addition of serotonin antagonism to dopamine antagonism (classic neuroleptic mechanism) is thought to improve negative symptoms of psychoses and reduce the incidence of extrapyramidal side effects as compared to typical antipsychotics (Huttunen 1995).

Absorption

Increased in fed state.

Distribution

Vd: 6,173 L

Metabolism

Primarily via CYP3A4; two active metabolites (ID-14283 and ID-14326) and two major nonactive metabolites (ID-20219 and ID-20220) produced

Excretion

Urine (~9%); feces (~80%)

Time to Peak

1 to 3 hours; steady state concentrations achieved within 7 days

Half-Life Elimination

18 to 40 hours; Main active metabolite, ID-14283 (exo-hydroxy metabolite), exhibits a half-life of 7.5 to 10 hours (Citrome 2011)

Protein Binding

~99%

Special Populations: Renal Function Impairment

In patients with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment, mean Cmax increased by 40%, 92%, and 54%, respectively, and mean AUC0-∞ increased by 53%, 91%, and 2 times, respectively, compared with healthy matched subjects (Citrome 2011).

Special Populations: Hepatic Function Impairment

Mean AUC0-last was 1.5 times higher in subjects with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A), 1.7 times higher in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B), and 3 times higher in subjects with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C) compared with the values for healthy matched subjects. Mean Cmax was 1.3, 1.2, and 1.3 times higher for patients with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic impairment, respectively, compared with the values for healthy matched subjects (Citrome 2011).

Use: Labeled Indications

Bipolar depression: Treatment of depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder, both as monotherapy and as an adjunct to lithium or divalproex.

Schizophrenia: Treatment of schizophrenia.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to lurasidone or any component of the formulation (including angioedema); concomitant use with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (eg, ketoconazole, clarithromycin, ritonavir, voriconazole, mibefradil) and inducers (eg, rifampin, avasimibe, St John's wort, phenytoin, carbamazepine).

Dosing: Adult

Bipolar depression: Oral: Initial: 20 mg once daily as monotherapy or as adjunct to lithium or divalproex; increase dose further based on response and tolerability; maximum recommended dose: 120 mg/day. Note: Doses ≥80 mg/day during monotherapy study did not provide additional efficacy compared with lower doses (eg, 20 to 60 mg/day).

Schizophrenia: Oral: Initial: 40 mg once daily; increase dose further based on response and tolerability; maximum recommended dose: 160 mg/day

Concomitant CYP3A4 inhibitors/inducers:

CYP3A4 inhibitors:

Concomitant administration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor (eg, ketoconazole, clarithromycin, ritonavir, voriconazole, mibefradil): Use is contraindicated.

Concomitant administration with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor (eg, diltiazem, atazanavir, erythromycin, fluconazole, verapamil): Initial dose: 20 mg once daily; do not exceed 80 mg/day of lurasidone. Note: If moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is added to therapy, reduce lurasidone dose to 50% of original dose.

CYP3A4 inducers:

Concomitant administration with a strong CYP3A4 inducer (eg, rifampin, avasimibe, St John's wort, phenytoin, carbamazepine): Use is contraindicated.

Concomitant administration with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer: Lurasidone dose may need to be increased when combined with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer for ≥7 days.

Discontinuation of therapy: The American Psychiatric Association (APA), Canadian Psychiatric Association (CPA), and World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines recommend gradually tapering antipsychotics to avoid withdrawal symptoms and minimize the risk of relapse (APA [Lehman 2004]; Cerovecki 2013; CPA [Addington 2005]; WFSBP [Hasan 2012]); risk for withdrawal symptoms may be highest with highly anti-cholinergic or dopaminergic antipsychotics (Cerovecki 2013). When stopping antipsychotic therapy in patients with schizophrenia, the CPA guidelines recommend a gradual taper over 6 to 24 months, and the APA guidelines recommend reducing the dose by 10% each month (APA [Lehman 2004]; CPA [Addington 2005]). Continuing anti-parkinsonism agents for a brief period after discontinuation may prevent withdrawal symptoms (Cerovecki 2013). When switching antipsychotics, 3 strategies have been suggested: cross-titration (gradually discontinuing the first antipsychotic while gradually increasing the new antipsychotic), overlap and taper (maintaining the dose of the first antipsychotic while gradually increasing the new antipsychotic, then tapering the first antipsychotic), and abrupt change (abruptly discontinuing the first antipsychotic and either increasing the new antipsychotic gradually or starting it at a treatment dose). Evidence supporting ideal switch strategies and taper rates is limited, and results are conflicting (Cerovecki 2013; Remington 2005).

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Renal Impairment

CrCl ≥50 mL/minute: No dosage adjustment necessary.

CrCl <50 mL/minute: Initial: 20 mg daily; maximum: 80 mg/day

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment

Mild impairment (Child-Pugh class A): No dosage adjustment necessary.

Moderate impairment (Child-Pugh class B): Initial: 20 mg daily; maximum: 80 mg/day

Severe impairment (Child-Pugh class C): Initial: 20 mg daily; maximum: 40 mg/day

Administration

Administer with food (≥350 calories).

Dietary Considerations

Should be taken with food (≥350 calories). Avoid grapefruit and grapefruit juice.

Storage

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F).

Drug Interactions

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors (Central): May enhance the neurotoxic (central) effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Severe extrapyramidal symptoms have occurred in some patients. Monitor therapy

Alcohol (Ethyl): CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Alcohol (Ethyl). Monitor therapy

Amisulpride: Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Amisulpride. Avoid combination

Amphetamines: Antipsychotic Agents may diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines. Monitor therapy

Analgesics (Opioid): CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Analgesics (Opioid). Management: Avoid concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Consider therapy modification

Antidiabetic Agents: Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist): Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist). Management: Consider using an alternative antipsychotic agent when possible in patients with Parkinson disease. If an atypical antipsychotic is necessary, consider using clozapine or quetiapine, which may convey the lowest interaction risk. Consider therapy modification

ARIPiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole. Management: Monitor for increased aripiprazole pharmacologic effects. Aripiprazole dose adjustments may or may not be required based on concomitant therapy and/or indication. Consult full interaction monograph for specific recommendations. Monitor therapy

Atazanavir: May increase the serum concentration of Lurasidone. Management: Atazanavir labeling recommends reducing the lurasidone dose as directed by the lurasidone labeling for moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors when used together with lurasidone. Consider therapy modification

Azelastine (Nasal): CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Azelastine (Nasal). Avoid combination

Blonanserin: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Blonanserin. Consider therapy modification

Blood Pressure Lowering Agents: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]). Monitor therapy

Bosentan: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Buprenorphine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Buprenorphine. Management: Consider reduced doses of other CNS depressants, and avoiding such drugs in patients at high risk of buprenorphine overuse/self-injection. Initiate buprenorphine patches (Butrans brand) at 5 mcg/hr in adults when used with other CNS depressants. Consider therapy modification

Cannabis: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Chlorphenesin Carbamate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

CNS Depressants: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Conivaptan: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Avoid combination

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May decrease the serum concentration of Lurasidone. Avoid combination

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May increase the serum concentration of Lurasidone. Management: Lurasidone US labeling recommends reducing lurasidone dose by half with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Some non-US labeling recommends initiating lurasidone at 20 mg/day and limiting dose to 40 mg/day; avoid concurrent use of grapefruit products. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Lurasidone. Avoid combination

Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Seek alternatives to the CYP3A4 substrate when possible. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor clinical effects of the substrate closely (particularly therapeutic effects). Consider therapy modification

Dasatinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Dimethindene (Systemic): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Disopyramide: Lurasidone may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Disopyramide. Management: Consider alternatives to disopyramide in patients with acute lurasidone overdose. If disopyramide treatment cannot be avoided, monitor for excessive QTc interval prolongation. Consider therapy modification

Dofetilide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Dofetilide. Monitor therapy

DOPamine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Lurasidone. Avoid combination

Doxylamine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: The manufacturer of Diclegis (doxylamine/pyridoxine), intended for use in pregnancy, specifically states that use with other CNS depressants is not recommended. Monitor therapy

Dronabinol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Droperidol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Consider dose reductions of droperidol or of other CNS agents (e.g., opioids, barbiturates) with concomitant use. Consider therapy modification

EPINEPHrine (Systemic): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Lurasidone. Avoid combination

Flibanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Monitor therapy

Flunitrazepam: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Flunitrazepam. Consider therapy modification

Fosaprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Fusidic Acid (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Avoid combination

Grapefruit Juice: May increase the serum concentration of Lurasidone. Avoid combination

HYDROcodone: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of HYDROcodone. Management: Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Consider therapy modification

HydrOXYzine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Idelalisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Avoid combination

Ivacaftor: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Kava Kava: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Lithium: May enhance the neurotoxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Lithium may decrease the serum concentration of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically noted with chlorpromazine. Monitor therapy

Lofexidine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Lomitapide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Lomitapide. Management: Patients on lomitapide 5 mg/day may continue that dose. Patients taking lomitapide 10 mg/day or more should decrease the lomitapide dose by half. The lomitapide dose may then be titrated up to a max adult dose of 30 mg/day. Consider therapy modification

Luliconazole: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Magnesium Sulfate: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Mequitazine: Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Mequitazine. Management: Consider alternatives to one of these agents when possible. While this combination is not specifically contraindicated, mequitazine labeling describes this combination as discouraged. Consider therapy modification

Methotrimeprazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Methotrimeprazine. Management: Reduce adult dose of CNS depressant agents by 50% with initiation of concomitant methotrimeprazine therapy. Further CNS depressant dosage adjustments should be initiated only after clinically effective methotrimeprazine dose is established. Consider therapy modification

Methylphenidate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methylphenidate. Monitor therapy

Metoclopramide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Avoid combination

MetyroSINE: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of MetyroSINE. Monitor therapy

MetyroSINE: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Monitor therapy

Minocycline: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Mirtazapine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Mirtazapine. Monitor therapy

Nabilone: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

NiMODipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of NiMODipine. Monitor therapy

Orphenadrine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Orphenadrine. Avoid combination

OxyCODONE: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of OxyCODONE. Management: Avoid concomitant use of oxycodone and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Consider therapy modification

Palbociclib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Paraldehyde: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Paraldehyde. Avoid combination

Perampanel: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Patients taking perampanel with any other drug that has CNS depressant activities should avoid complex and high-risk activities, particularly those such as driving that require alertness and coordination, until they have experience using the combination. Consider therapy modification

Pimozide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Pimozide. Avoid combination

Piribedil [INT]: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Antipsychotic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Piribedil [INT]. Management: Use of piribedil with antiemetic neuroleptics is contraindicated, and use with antipsychotic neuroleptics, except for clozapine, is not recommended. Avoid combination

Procainamide: Lurasidone may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Procainamide. Management: Consider alternatives to procainamide in patients with acute lurasidone overdose. If procainamide treatment cannot be avoided, monitor for excessive QTc interval prolongation. Consider therapy modification

Quinagolide: Antipsychotic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Quinagolide. Monitor therapy

QuiNIDine: Lurasidone may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QuiNIDine. Management: Consider alternatives to quinidine in patients with acute lurasidone overdose. If quinidine treatment cannot be avoided, monitor for excessive QTc interval prolongation. Consider therapy modification

Rufinamide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Specifically, sleepiness and dizziness may be enhanced. Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: CNS Depressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of psychomotor impairment may be enhanced. Monitor therapy

Serotonin Modulators: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Exceptions: Nicergoline. Monitor therapy

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Sodium Oxybate: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Consider alternatives to combined use. When combined use is needed, consider minimizing doses of one or more drugs. Use of sodium oxybate with alcohol or sedative hypnotics is contraindicated. Consider therapy modification

St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of Lurasidone. Avoid combination

Stiripentol: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Use of stiripentol with CYP3A4 substrates that are considered to have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided due to the increased risk for adverse effects and toxicity. Any CYP3A4 substrate used with stiripentol requires closer monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Sulpiride: Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sulpiride. Avoid combination

Suvorexant: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Suvorexant. Management: Dose reduction of suvorexant and/or any other CNS depressant may be necessary. Use of suvorexant with alcohol is not recommended, and the use of suvorexant with any other drug to treat insomnia is not recommended. Consider therapy modification

Tapentadol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Avoid concomitant use of tapentadol and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Consider therapy modification

Tetrabenazine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Monitor therapy

Tetrahydrocannabinol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Thalidomide: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Thalidomide. Avoid combination

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Trimeprazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Zolpidem: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Zolpidem. Management: Reduce the Intermezzo brand sublingual zolpidem adult dose to 1.75 mg for men who are also receiving other CNS depressants. No such dose change is recommended for women. Avoid use with other CNS depressants at bedtime; avoid use with alcohol. Consider therapy modification

Adverse Reactions

Frequencies reported for schizophrenia unless otherwise noted.

10%:

Central nervous system: Drowsiness (dose-related: 8% to 27%; depressive episodes, monotherapy: 11%), extrapyramidal reaction (dose-related: 14% to 26%; depressive episodes, monotherapy: 7%), akathisia (dose-related: 6% to 22%; depressive episodes, monotherapy: 8% to 11%), parkinsonian-like syndrome (6% to 17%; depressive episodes, monotherapy: 8%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Increased serum triglycerides (10% to 14%), increased serum glucose (fasting, 10% to 14%), increased serum cholesterol (6% to 14%)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea (dose-related; 10%; depressive episodes, monotherapy: 14%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension (1% to 2%), tachycardia

Central nervous system: Insomnia (10%), agitation (5%), anxiety (5%; depressive episodes, monotherapy: 4%), dizziness (4%), dystonia (≤7%; depressive episodes, monotherapy: ≤2%), restlessness (1% to 3%)

Dermatologic: Pruritus, skin rash

Endocrine & metabolic: Increased serum prolactin (≥5 x ULN: females: 8%; males: ≤2%), weight gain (≥7% increase in baseline body weight: 2% to 6%)

Gastrointestinal: Vomiting (8%; depressive episodes, monotherapy: 4%), dyspepsia (6%), xerostomia (depressive episodes, monotherapy: 5%), diarrhea (≥1%; depressive episodes, monotherapy: 4%), sialorrhea (2%), abdominal pain, decreased appetite

Genitourinary: Urinary tract infection (depressive episodes, monotherapy: 2%)

Infection: Influenza (depressive episodes, monotherapy: 2%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Back pain (3%; depressive episodes, monotherapy: 2%), increased creatine phosphokinase

Ophthalmic: Blurred vision

Renal: Increased serum creatinine (3% to 7%; depressive episodes, monotherapy: 2% to 4%)

Respiratory: Nasopharyngitis (depressive episodes, monotherapy: 4%)

<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Amenorrhea, anemia, angina pectoris, angioedema, atrioventricular block, breast hypertrophy, cerebrovascular accident, gastritis, dysmenorrhea, erectile dysfunction, galactorrhea, hypomania, leukopenia, mania, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, panic attack, renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, seizure, suicidal ideation, tardive dyskinesia, venous thromboembolism

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Increased mortality in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis:

Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Lurasidone is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.

Suicidality and antidepressant drugs:

Antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies. These studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior with antidepressant use in patients older than 24 years; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressant use in patients 65 years and older.

In patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy, monitor closely for worsening and for emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Advise families and caregivers of the need for close observation and communication with the health care provider.

Warnings/Precautions

Major psychiatric warnings:

• Suicidal thinking/behavior: [US Boxed Warning]: Antidepressants increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults (18 to 24 years of age) with major depressive disorder and other psychiatric disorders; consider risk prior to prescribing. Lurasidone is not approved in the US for use in children. Short-term studies did not show an increased risk in patients >24 years of age and showed a decreased risk in patients ≥65 years. Closely monitor all patients for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior, particularly during the initial 1 to 2 months of therapy or during periods of dosage adjustments (increases or decreases); the patient's family or caregiver should be instructed to closely observe the patient and communicate condition with healthcare provider. A medication guide concerning the use of antidepressants should be dispensed with each prescription.

- The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in major depression and may persist until remission occurs. Worsening depression and severe abrupt suicidality that are not part of the presenting symptoms may require discontinuation or modification of drug therapy. Use caution in high-risk patients during initiation of therapy.

- Prescriptions should be written for the smallest quantity consistent with good patient care. The patient's family or caregiver should be alerted to monitor patients for the emergence of suicidality and associated behaviors such as anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, impulsivity, akathisia, hypomania, and mania; patients should be instructed to notify their healthcare provider if any of these symptoms or worsening depression or psychosis occur.

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Altered cardiac conduction: Antipsychotics may alter cardiac conduction; life-threatening arrhythmias have occurred with therapeutic doses of antipsychotics (Haddad 2002). Relative to other antipsychotics, lurasidone has minimal effects on the QTc interval and therefore, risk for arrhythmias is low.

• Blood dyscrasias: Leukopenia, neutropenia, and agranulocytosis (sometimes fatal) have been reported in clinical trials and postmarketing reports with antipsychotic use; presence of risk factors (eg, preexisting low WBC or history of drug-induced leuko-/neutropenia) should prompt periodic blood count assessment. Discontinue therapy at first signs of blood dyscrasias or if absolute neutrophil count <1,000/mm3.

• CNS depression: May cause CNS depression, which may impair physical or mental abilities; patients must be cautioned about performing tasks that require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery, driving).

• Dyslipidemia: Increases in total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations have been observed with atypical antipsychotic use; incidence varies with product. During clinical trials of lurasidone, there were no significant changes in total cholesterol or triglycerides observed.

• Esophageal dysmotility/aspiration: Antipsychotic use has been associated with esophageal dysmotility and aspiration; use with caution in patients at risk of pneumonia (eg, Alzheimer's disease).

• Extrapyramidal symptoms: May cause extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), including pseudoparkinsonism, acute dystonic reactions, akathisia, and tardive dyskinesia (risk of these reactions is generally much lower relative to typical/conventional antipsychotics; frequencies reported are similar to placebo). Risk of dystonia (and probably other EPS) may be greater with increased doses, use of conventional antipsychotics, males, and younger patients. Factors associated with greater vulnerability to tardive dyskinesia include older in age, female gender combined with postmenopausal status, Parkinson disease, pseudoparkinsonism symptoms, affective disorders (particularly major depressive disorder), concurrent medical diseases such as diabetes, previous brain damage, alcoholism, poor treatment response, and use of high doses of antipsychotics (APA [Lehman 2004]; Soares-Weiser 2007). Consider therapy discontinuation with signs/symptoms of tardive dyskinesia.

• Hyperglycemia: Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with development of hyperglycemia; in some cases, may be extreme and associated with ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar coma, or death. Incidence varies with product. Use with caution in patients with diabetes or other disorders of glucose regulation; monitor for worsening of glucose control.

• Hyperprolactinemia: Use is associated with increased prolactin levels; clinical significance of hyperprolactinemia in patients with breast cancer or other prolactin-dependent tumors is unknown.

• Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS): Use may be associated with neuroleptic malignant syndrome; monitor for mental status changes, fever, muscle rigidity, and/or autonomic instability (risk may be increased in patients with Parkinson disease or Lewy body dementia) (McKeith 2002).

• Orthostatic hypotension: May cause orthostatic hypotension; use with caution in patients at risk of this effect (eg, concurrent medication use which may predispose to hypotension/bradycardia or presence of hypovolemia) or in those who would not tolerate transient hypotensive episodes. Use caution with history of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, heart failure, or ischemic disease).

• Temperature regulation: Impaired core body temperature regulation may occur; caution with strenuous exercise, heat exposure, dehydration, and concomitant medication possessing anticholinergic effects.

• Weight gain: Significant weight gain has been observed with antipsychotic therapy; incidence varies with product. Monitor waist circumference and BMI (ADA 2004; Lehman 2004; Marder 2004).

Disease-related concerns:

• Bipolar disorder: May precipitate a shift to mania or hypomania in patients with bipolar disorder. Monitor patients for the emergence of such episodes.

• Cardiovascular disease: Use with caution in patients with severe cardiac disease, hemodynamic instability, prior myocardial infarction or ischemic heart disease.

• Dementia: [US Boxed Warning]: Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotics are at an increased risk of death compared to placebo. Most deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (eg, heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (eg, pneumonia) in nature. Lurasidone is not approved for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis.

• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with hepatic disease or impairment; dosage reduction is recommended in moderate-to-severe impairment.

• Parkinson disease: Use with caution in patients with Parkinson disease. Antipsychotics may aggravate the motor disturbances of Parkinson disease (APA [Rabins 2007]).

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal disease; dosage reduction is recommended in moderate-to-severe impairment.

• Seizures: Use with caution in patients at risk of seizures, including those with a history of seizures or conditions that lower the seizure threshold such as Alzheimer disease. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of seizures due to an increased prevalence of predisposing factors.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Discontinuation of therapy: When discontinuing antipsychotic therapy, the American Psychiatric Association (APA), Canadian Psychiatric Association (CPA), and World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines recommend gradually tapering antipsychotics to avoid physical withdrawal symptoms, including anorexia, anxiety, diaphoresis, diarrhea, dizziness, dyskinesia, headache, myalgia, nausea, paresthesia, restlessness, tremulousness, and vomiting (APA [Lehman 2004]; CPA [Addington 2005]; Lambert 2007; WFSBP [Hasan 2012]). The risk of withdrawal symptoms is highest following abrupt discontinuation of highly anti-cholinergic or dopaminergic antipsychotics (Cerovecki 2013). Additional factors such as duration of antipsychotic exposure, the indication for use, medication half-life and risk for relapse should be considered. In schizophrenia, there is no reliable indicator to differentiate the minority who will not from the majority who will relapse with drug discontinuation. However, studies in which the medication of well-stabilized patients were discontinued indicate that 75% of patients relapse within 6 to 24 months. Indefinite maintenance antipsychotic medication is generally recommended, and especially for patients who have had multiple prior episodes or 2 episodes within 5 years (APA [Lehman 2004]).

Monitoring Parameters

Mental status; vital signs (as clinically indicated); blood pressure (baseline; repeat 3 months after antipsychotic initiation, then yearly); weight, height, BMI, waist circumference (baseline; repeat at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after initiating or changing therapy, then quarterly; consider switching to a different antipsychotic for a weight gain ≥5% of initial weight); CBC (as clinically indicated; monitor frequently during the first few months of therapy in patients with preexisting low WBC or history of drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia); electrolytes, renal and liver function (annually and as clinically indicated); personal and family history of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, or cardiovascular disease (baseline; repeat annually); fasting plasma glucose level/HbA1c (baseline; repeat 3 months after starting antipsychotic, then yearly); fasting lipid panel (baseline; repeat 3 months after initiation of antipsychotic; if LDL level is normal repeat at 2- to 5-year intervals or more frequently if clinically indicated); changes in menstruation, libido, development of galactorrhea, erectile and ejaculatory function (at each visit for the first 12 weeks after the antipsychotic is initiated or until the dose is stable, then yearly); abnormal involuntary movements or parkinsonian signs (baseline; repeat weekly until dose stabilized for at least 2 weeks after introduction and for 2 weeks after any significant dose increase); tardive dyskinesia (every 12 months; high-risk patients every 6 months); ocular examination (yearly in patients >40 years; every 2 years in younger patients) (ADA, 2004; Lehman, 2004; Marder, 2004).

Pregnancy Risk Factor

B

Pregnancy Considerations

Adverse events were not observed in animal reproduction studies. Antipsychotic use during the third trimester of pregnancy has a risk for abnormal muscle movements (extrapyramidal symptoms [EPS]) and/or withdrawal symptoms in newborns following delivery. Symptoms in the newborn may include agitation, feeding disorder, hypertonia, hypotonia, respiratory distress, somnolence, and tremor; these effects may be self-limiting or require hospitalization. Lurasidone may cause hyperprolactinemia, which may decrease reproductive function in both males and females.

The ACOG recommends that therapy during pregnancy be individualized; treatment with psychiatric medications during pregnancy should incorporate the clinical expertise of the mental health clinician, obstetrician, primary healthcare provider, and pediatrician. Safety data related to atypical antipsychotics during pregnancy is limited and routine use is not recommended. However, if a woman is inadvertently exposed to an atypical antipsychotic while pregnant, continuing therapy may be preferable to switching to a typical antipsychotic that the fetus has not yet been exposed to; consider risk:benefit (ACOG, 2008).

Healthcare providers are encouraged to enroll women 18-45 years of age exposed to lurasidone during pregnancy in the Atypical Antipsychotics Pregnancy Registry (866-961-2388 or http://www.womensmentalhealth.org/pregnancyregistry).

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience fatigue, restlessness, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, diarrhea, dry mouth, loss of strength and energy, or weight gain. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of infection, signs of depression (suicidal ideation, anxiety, emotional instability, illogical thinking), signs of high blood sugar (confusion, feeling sleepy, more thirst, hunger, passing urine more often, flushing, fast breathing, or breath that smells like fruit), signs of severe cerebrovascular disease (change in strength on one side is greater than the other, trouble speaking or thinking, change in balance, or change in eyesight), signs of DVT (edema, warmth, numbness, change in color, or pain in the extremities), severe dizziness, passing out, tachycardia, bradycardia, arrhythmia, behavioral changes, tremors, abnormal movements, rigidity, enlarged breasts, nipple discharge, sexual dysfunction, amenorrhea, drooling, difficulty focusing, seizures, dysphagia, difficulty speaking, angina, coughing up blood, shortness of breath, signs of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (fever, muscle cramps or stiffness, dizziness, very bad headache, confusion, change in thinking, fast heartbeat, abnormal heartbeat, or sweating a lot), or signs of tardive dyskinesia (unable to control body movements; tongue, face, mouth, or jaw sticking out; mouth puckering; and puffing cheeks) (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for healthcare professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience and judgment in diagnosing, treating and advising patients.

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