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Cartia XT Disease Interactions

There are 9 disease interactions with Cartia XT (diltiazem).

Major

CCBs (applies to Cartia XT) aortic stenosis

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility.

The use of some calcium channel blockers (CCBs) is contraindicated in patients with advanced aortic stenosis. CCBs whose pharmacologic effect is partially dependent on their ability to reduce afterload (e.g., diltiazem, nicardipine, nifedipine, verapamil) may be of less benefit in these patients due to a fixed impedance to flow across the aortic valve and may, in fact, worsen rather than improve myocardial oxygen balance. Rarely, heart failure has developed following the initiation of these CCBs, particularly in patients receiving concomitant beta-blocker therapy.

References

  1. "Product Information. Cardene (nicardipine)." Syntex Laboratories Inc (2002):
  2. "Product Information. Adalat (nifedipine)." Bayer (2002):
  3. "Product Information. Procardia (nifedipine)." Pfizer U.S. Pharmaceuticals (2002):
Major

CCBs (applies to Cartia XT) bradyarrhythmia/AV block

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Heart Block, Sinus Node Dysfunction

The use of some calcium channel blockers (CCBs) is contraindicated in patients with severe bradyarrhythmia, sick sinus syndrome (unless a functioning pacemaker is present), or heart block greater than the first degree (unless a functioning pacemaker is present). CCBs like bepridil, diltiazem and verapamil have a negative effect on AV conduction and the SA node and may exacerbate these conditions.

References

  1. Reams GP, Lau A, Messina C, et al. "Efficacy, electrocardiographic and renal effects of intravenous diltiazem for essential hypertension." Am J Cardiol 60 (1987): i78-84
  2. Nagle RE, Low-Beer T, Horton R "Diltiazem and heart block." Lancet Apr (1989): 907
  3. Imamura T, Koiwaya Y, Nakamura M "Sinoatrial block induced by oral diltiazem." Clin Cardiol 9 (1986): 33-4
  4. Woehler TR, Eff J, Graney W, et al. "Multicenter evaluation of the efficacy and safety of sustained-release diltiazem hydrochloride for the treatment of hypertension." Clin Ther 14 (1992): 148-57
  5. Colombo G, Zucchella G, Planca E, Grieco A "Intravenous diltiazem in the treatment of unstable angina: a study of efficacy and tolerance." Clin Ther 9 (1987): 536-47
  6. Aromatorio GJ, Uretsky BF, Reddy PS "Hypotension and sinus arrest with nifedipine in pulmonary hypertension." Chest 87 (1985): 265-7
  7. Baky SH, Singh BN "Verapamil hydrochloride: pharmacological properties and role in cardiovascular therapeutics." Pharmacotherapy 2 (1982): 328-50
  8. "Product Information. Vascor (bepridil)." McNeil Pharmaceutical (2002):
  9. "Product Information. Cardizem (diltiazem)." Hoechst Marion Roussel (2002):
  10. "Product Information. Calan (verapamil)." Searle (2001):
  11. Andrivet P, Beaslay V, Kiger JP, Gnoc CV "Complete sinus arrest during diltiazem therapy - clinical correlates and efficacy of intravenous calcium." Eur Heart J 15 (1994): 350-4
  12. Gobel EJAM, Hautvast RWM, Vangilst WH, Spanjaard JN, Hillege HL, Dejongste MJL, Molhoek GP, Lie KI "Randomised, double-blind trial of intravenous diltiazem versus glyceryl trinitrate for unstable angina pectoris." Lancet 346 (1995): 1653-7
  13. "Product Information. Covera-HS (verapamil)." Searle (2001):
  14. Pahor M, Manto A, Pedone C, Carosella L, Guralnik JM, Carbonin P "Age and severe adverse drug reactions caused by nifedipine and verapamil." J Clin Epidemiol 49 (1996): 921-8
View all 14 references
Major

CCBs (applies to Cartia XT) cardiogenic shock/hypotension

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility.

In general, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) should not be used in patients with hypotension (systolic pressure < 90 mm Hg) or cardiogenic shock. Due to potential negative inotropic and peripheral vasodilating effects, the use of CCBs may further depress cardiac output and blood pressure, which can be detrimental in these patients. The use of verapamil and diltiazem is specifically contraindicated under these circumstances.

References

  1. Stehle G, Buss J, Eibach J, et al. "Cardiogenic shock associated with verapamil in a patient with liver cirrhosis." Lancet 336 (1990): 1079
  2. "Product Information. Vascor (bepridil)." McNeil Pharmaceutical (2002):
  3. "Product Information. Cardizem (diltiazem)." Hoechst Marion Roussel (2002):
  4. "Product Information. Calan (verapamil)." Searle (2001):
  5. Kubota K, Pearce GL, Inman WHW "Vasodilation-related adverse events in diltiazem and dihydropyridine calcium antagonists studied by prescription-event monitoring." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 48 (1995): 1-7
  6. Pahor M, Manto A, Pedone C, Carosella L, Guralnik JM, Carbonin P "Age and severe adverse drug reactions caused by nifedipine and verapamil." J Clin Epidemiol 49 (1996): 921-8
View all 6 references
Major

CCBs (applies to Cartia XT) coronary artery disease

Major Potential Hazard, Low plausibility. Applicable conditions: Ischemic Heart Disease

Increased frequency, duration, and/or severity of angina, as well as acute myocardial infarction, have rarely developed during initiation or dosage increase of calcium channel blockers (CCBs), particularly in patients with severe obstructive coronary artery disease and those treated with immediate-release formulations. The mechanism of this effect is not established. Therapy with CCBs should be administered cautiously in patients with significant coronary artery disease.

References

  1. Schanzenbacher P, Deeg P, Liebau G, Kochsiek K "Paradoxical angina after nifedipine: angiographic documentation." Am J Cardiol 53 (1984): 345-6
  2. Manga P, Vythilingum "Unstable angina precipitated by nifedipine." S Afr Med J 66 (1984): 144
  3. Sia STB, MacDonald PS, Triester B, et al. "Aggravation of myocardial ischaemia by nifedipine." Med J Aust 142 (1985): 48-50
  4. Myrhed M, Wiholm B-E "Nifedipine: a survey of adverse effects." Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 58 (1986): 133-6
  5. Lambert CR, Hill JA, Feldman RL, Pepine CJ "Myocardial ischemia during intravenous nicardipine administration." Am J Cardiol 55 (1985): 844-5
  6. Thomassen AR, Bagger JP, Nielsen TT "Hemodynamic and cardiac metabolic changes during nicardipine-induced myocardial ischemia." Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 14 (1988): 41-3
  7. "Product Information. Norvasc (amlodipine)." Pfizer U.S. Pharmaceuticals (2002):
  8. "Product Information. Cardene (nicardipine)." Syntex Laboratories Inc (2002):
  9. "Product Information. Procardia (nifedipine)." Pfizer U.S. Pharmaceuticals (2002):
  10. Furberg CD, Psaty BM, Meyer JV "Nifedipine: dose-related increase in mortality in patients with coronary heart disease." Circulation 92 (1995): 1326-31
  11. Kloner RA "Nifedipine in ischemic heart disease." Circulation 92 (1995): 1074-8
  12. Yusuf S "Calcium antagonists in coronary artery disease and hypertension: time for reevaluation?" Circulation 92 (1995): 1079-82
  13. "Product Information. Sular (nisoldipine)." Astra-Zeneca Pharmaceuticals (2001):
  14. Oei SG, Oei SK, Brolmann HAM "Myocardial infarction during nifedipine therapy for preterm labor." N Engl J Med 340 (1999): 154
  15. Abernathy DR, Schwrtz JB "Calcium-antagonist drugs." N Engl J Med 341 (1999): 1447-57
View all 15 references
Major

CCBs (applies to Cartia XT) liver disease

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility.

Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are extensively metabolized by the liver. The half-lives of CCBs may be prolonged substantially in patients with severe hepatic impairment, with the potential for significant drug accumulation. In addition, the use of some CCBs has been associated with elevations in serum transaminases, both with and without concomitant elevations in alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. While these effects may be transient and reversible, several patients have developed cholestasis or hepatocellular injury that was proven by rechallenge. Therapy with CCBs should be administered cautiously and often at reduced dosages in patients with significantly impaired hepatic function. Periodic monitoring of liver function and for excessive pharmacologic effects (e.g., abnormal prolongation of PR interval) is advised, and the dosage adjusted if necessary.

References

  1. Echizen H, Eichelbaum M "Clinical pharmacokinetics of verapamil, nifedipine and diltiazem." Clin Pharmacokinet 11 (1986): 425-49
  2. Saracheck NS, London RL, Matulewicz TJ, et al. "Diltiazem and granulomatous hepatitis." Gastroenterology 88 (1985): 1260-2
  3. Shallcross H, Padley SP, Glynn MJ, Gibbs DD "Fatal renal and hepatic toxicity after treatment with diltiazem." Br Med J 295 (1987): 1256-7
  4. Colombo G, Zucchella G, Planca E, Grieco A "Intravenous diltiazem in the treatment of unstable angina: a study of efficacy and tolerance." Clin Ther 9 (1987): 536-47
  5. Toft E, Vyberg M, Therkelsen K "Diltiazem-induced granulomatous hepatitis." Histopathology 18 (1991): 474-5
  6. Abramson M, Littlejohn GO "Hepatic reactions to nifedipine." Med J Aust 142 (1985): 47-8
  7. Toner M, White A, Moriarty J, Clancy L "Allergic urticarial eruption, leukocytosis and abnormal liver function tests following nifedipine administration." Chest 93 (1988): 1320-1
  8. Babany G, Uzzan F, Larrey D, et al. "Alcoholic-like liver lesions induced by nifedipine." J Hepatol 9 (1989): 252-5
  9. Brodsky SJ, Cutler SS, Weiner DA, Klein MD "Hepatotoxicity due to treatment with verapamil." Ann Intern Med 94 (1981): 490-1
  10. Somogyi A, Albrecht M, Kliems G, et al. "Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and ECG response of verapamil in patients with liver cirrhosis." Br J Clin Pharmacol 12 (1981): 51-60
  11. Woodcock BG, Rietbrock I, Vohringer HF, Rietbrock N "Verapamil disposition in liver disease and intensive-care patients: kinetics, clearance, and apparent blood flow relationships." Clin Pharmacol Ther 29 (1981): 27-34
  12. Woodcock BG, Rietbrock N "Verapamil bioavailability and dosage in liver disease." Br J Clin Pharmacol 13 (1982): 240-1
  13. Stern EH, Pitchon R, King BD, Wiener I "Possible hepatitis from verapamil." N Engl J Med 306 (1982): 612-3
  14. Stehle G, Buss J, Eibach J, et al. "Cardiogenic shock associated with verapamil in a patient with liver cirrhosis." Lancet 336 (1990): 1079
  15. Hare DL, Horowitz JD "Verapamil hepatotoxicity: a hypersensitivity reaction." Am Heart J 111 (1986): 610-11
  16. Guarascio P, D'Amato C, Sette P, et al. "Liver damage from verapamil." Br Med J 288 (1984): 362-3
  17. Dow RJ, Graham DJM "A reveiw of the human metabolism and pharmacokinetics of nicardipine hydrochloride." Br J Clin Pharmacol 22 (1986): s195-202
  18. McAllister RG Jr, Hamann SR, Blouin RA "Pharmacokinetics of calcium-entry blockers." Am J Cardiol 55 (1985): b30-40
  19. Kates RE "Calcium antagonists: pharmacokinetic properties." Drugs 25 (1983): 113-24
  20. Finucci GF, Padrini R, Piovan D, et al. "Verapamil pharmacokinetics and liver function in patients with cirrhosis." Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 8 (1988): 123-6
  21. Giacomini KM, Massoud N, Wong FM, Giacomini JC "Decreased binding of verapamil to plasma proteins in patients with liver disease." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 6 (1984): 924-8
  22. Razak TA, McNeil JJ, Sewell RB, Drummer OH, Smallwood RA, Conway EL, Louis WJ "The effect of hepatic cirrhosis on the pharmacokinetics and blood pressure response to nicardipine." Clin Pharmacol Ther 47 (1990): 463-9
  23. Rush WR, Alexander O, Hall DJ, Cairncross L, Dow RJ, Graham DJ "The metabolism of nicardipine hydrochloride in healthy male volunteers." Xenobiotica 16 (1986): 341-9
  24. Benet LZ "Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of bepridil." Am J Cardiol 55 (1985): c8-13
  25. Kurosawa S, Kurosawa N, Owada E, et al. "Pharmacokinetics of diltiazem in patients with liver cirrhosis." Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 10 (1990): 311-8
  26. Elliott HL, Meredith PA "The clinical consequences of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of amlodipine." Postgrad Med J 67 (1991): s20-3
  27. Stopher DA, Beresford AP, Macrae PV, Humphrey MJ "The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of amlodipine in humans and animals." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 12 (1988): s55-9
  28. Kleinbloesem CH, van Harten J, Wilson JP, et al. "Nifedipine: kinetics and hemodynamic effects in patients with liver cirrhosis after intravenous and oral administration." Clin Pharmacol Ther 40 (1986): 21-8
  29. Raemsch KD, Sommer J "Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of nifedipine." Hypertension 5 (1983): 18-24
  30. Ramsch KD, Graefe KH, Scherling D, et al. "Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of calcium-blocking agents nifedipine, nitrendipine, and nimodipine." Am J Nephrol 6 (1986): 73-80
  31. Challenor VF, Waller DG, Renwick AG, et al. "The trans-hepatic extraction of nifedipine." Br J Clin Pharmacol 24 (1987): 473-7
  32. Dunselman PH, Edgar B "Felodipine clinical pharmacokinetics." Clin Pharmacokinet 21 (1991): 418-30
  33. Regardh CG, Edgar B, Olsson R, Kendall M, Collste P, Shansky C "Pharmacokinetics of felodipine in patients with liver disease." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 36 (1989): 473-9
  34. Cotting J, Reichen J, Kutz K, Laplanche R, Nuesch E "Pharmacokinetics of isradipine in patients with chronic liver disease." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 38 (1990): 599-603
  35. Tse FL, Jaffe JM "Pharmacokinetics of PN 200-110 (isradipine), a new calcium antagonist, after oral administration in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 32 (1987): 361-5
  36. Graham D, Dow R, Hall D, Alexander O, Mroszczak E, Freedman A "The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of nicardipine hydrochloride in man." Br J Clin Pharmacol 20 (1985): s23-8
  37. Gengo FM, Fagan SC, Krol G, Bernhard H "Nimodipine disposition and haemodynamic effects in patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls." Br J Clin Pharmacol 23 (1987): 47-53
  38. Meredith P, Elliott H "Clinical pharmacokinetics of amlodipine." Clin Pharmacokinet 22 (1992): 22-31
  39. "Product Information. Norvasc (amlodipine)." Pfizer U.S. Pharmaceuticals (2002):
  40. "Product Information. Vascor (bepridil)." McNeil Pharmaceutical (2002):
  41. "Product Information. Cardizem (diltiazem)." Hoechst Marion Roussel (2002):
  42. "Product Information. Plendil (felodipine)." Merck & Company Inc (2002):
  43. "Product Information. Cardene (nicardipine)." Syntex Laboratories Inc (2002):
  44. "Product Information. Procardia (nifedipine)." Pfizer U.S. Pharmaceuticals (2002):
  45. "Product Information. Nimotop (nimodipine)." Bayer (2002):
  46. "Product Information. Calan (verapamil)." Searle (2001):
  47. Johnson KE, Balderston SM, Pieper JA, Mann DE, Reiter MJ "Electrophysiologic effects of verapamil metabolites in the isolated heart." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 17 (1991): 830-7
  48. "Product Information. DynaCirc (isradipine)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
  49. Kumar KL, Colley CA "Verapamil-induced hepatotoxicity." West J Med 160 (1994): 485-6
  50. Traverse JH, Swenson LJ, Mcbride JW "Acute hepatic injury after treatment with diltiazem." Am Heart J 127 (1994): 1636-9
  51. Scherling D, Karl W, Ahr G, Ahr HJ, Wehinger E "Pharmacokinetics of nisoldipine. III. Biotransformation of nisoldipine in rat, dog, monkey, and man." Arzneimittelforschung 38 (1988): 1105-10
  52. "Product Information. Sular (nisoldipine)." Astra-Zeneca Pharmaceuticals (2001):
  53. Abernathy DR, Schwrtz JB "Calcium-antagonist drugs." N Engl J Med 341 (1999): 1447-57
View all 53 references
Major

Diltiazem (applies to Cartia XT) CHF/AMI

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Congestive Heart Failure, Myocardial Infarction

Diltiazem has demonstrated a negative inotropic effect in isolated animal tissue preparations but rarely in clinical situations. Hemodynamic studies in humans with normal ventricular function and in patients with a compromised myocardium have not shown a reduction in cardiac index nor consistent negative effects on contractility. However, worsening of congestive heart failure has been reported in patients with preexisting impairment of ventricular function. Therapy with diltiazem should be administered cautiously, if at all, in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction (e.g., ejection fraction < 30%) or moderate to severe symptoms of cardiac failure and in patients with any degree of ventricular dysfunction if they are receiving a beta-adrenergic blocker. Likewise, diltiazem should not be given to patients with acute myocardial infarction and pulmonary congestion documented by X-ray on admission, since associated heart failure may be acutely worsened. Mild symptoms of cardiac failure should be under control, if possible, prior to initiating diltiazem therapy.

References

  1. "Product Information. Cardizem (diltiazem)." Hoechst Marion Roussel (2002):
  2. Sleight P "Calcium antagonists during and after myocardial infarction." Drugs 51 (1996): 216-25
Major

Diltiazem IV (applies to Cartia XT) accessory AV tracts

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Preexcitation Syndrome

The use of intravenous diltiazem is contraindicated for the management of atrial flutter or fibrillation in patients with an accessory AV tract (e.g., those with Wolff-Parkinson-White or Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome). Diltiazem can cause ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest in such patients, the mechanism of which is related to the drug's ability to shorten the refractory period and accelerate antegrade conduction within the accessory pathway.

References

  1. Schwartz JB, Jeang M, Raizner AE, et al. "Accelerated junctional rhythms during oral verapamil therapy." Am Heart J 107 (1984): 440-3
  2. Schwartz JB "Verapamil in atrial fibrillation: the expected, the unexpected, and the unknown." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 173-6
  3. Hame A, Peter T, Platt M, Mandel WJ "Effects of verapamil on supraventricular tachycardia in patients with overt and concealed wolff-parkinson-white syndrome." Am Heart J 101 (1981): 600-12
  4. Jacob AS, Nielsen DH, Gianelly RE "Fatal ventricular fibrillation following verapamil in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with atrial fibrillation." Ann Emerg Med 14 (1985): 159-60
  5. McGovern B, Garan H, Ruskin JN "Precipitation of cardiac arrest by verapamil in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome." Ann Intern Med 104 (1986): 791-4
  6. "Product Information. Cardizem (diltiazem)." Hoechst Marion Roussel (2002):
  7. Braunwald E, Hauser SL, Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Isselbacher KJ, Longo DL, Martin JB, eds., Wilson JD "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine." New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Health Professionals Division (1998):
View all 7 references
Major

Diltiazem/verapamil IV (applies to Cartia XT) ventricular tachycardia

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Ventricular Arrhythmia

The use of intravenous diltiazem or verapamil is contraindicated in patients with ventricular tachycardia. IV administration of a calcium channel blocker can precipitate cardiac arrest in such patients. Marked hemodynamic deterioration and ventricular fibrillation have occurred in patients with wide-complex ventricular tachycardia (QRS >= 0.12 seconds) treated with IV verapamil.

References

  1. Buxton AE, Marchlinski FE, Doherty JU, et al. "Hazards of intravenous verapamil for sustained ventricular tachycardia." Am J Cardiol 59 (1987): 1107-10
  2. Winters SL, Schweitzer P, Kupersmith J, Gomes JA "Verapamil-induced polymorphous ventricular tachycardia." J Am Coll Cardiol 6 (1985): 257-9
  3. "Product Information. Calan (verapamil)." Searle (2001):
  4. Braunwald E, Hauser SL, Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Isselbacher KJ, Longo DL, Martin JB, eds., Wilson JD "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine." New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Health Professionals Division (1998):
View all 4 references
Moderate

Diltiazem (applies to Cartia XT) renal dysfunction

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility.

Diltiazem is extensively metabolized by the liver and subsequently excreted in the urine, primarily as metabolites. Limited data suggest that the pharmacokinetic disposition of diltiazem is not altered in the presence of renal insufficiency or even end-stage renal disease. However, the effects of possible metabolite accumulation have not been studied. The manufacturers recommend that therapy with diltiazem be administered cautiously in patients with impaired renal function. Laboratory parameters of renal function should be monitored at regular intervals.

References

  1. Echizen H, Eichelbaum M "Clinical pharmacokinetics of verapamil, nifedipine and diltiazem." Clin Pharmacokinet 11 (1986): 425-49
  2. Shallcross H, Padley SP, Glynn MJ, Gibbs DD "Fatal renal and hepatic toxicity after treatment with diltiazem." Br Med J 295 (1987): 1256-7
  3. Tawashi M, Marc-Aurelet J, Bichet D, et al. "Pharmacokinetics of intravenous diltiazem and five of its metabolites in patients with chronic renal failure and in healthy volunteers." Biopharm Drug Dispos 12 (1991): 105-12
  4. McAllister RG Jr, Hamann SR, Blouin RA "Pharmacokinetics of calcium-entry blockers." Am J Cardiol 55 (1985): b30-40
  5. Kates RE "Calcium antagonists: pharmacokinetic properties." Drugs 25 (1983): 113-24
  6. "Product Information. Cardizem (diltiazem)." Hoechst Marion Roussel (2002):
  7. Patel R, Lipper B, Schwartzbard A, Nelson C, Oconnor MA, Frishman W "Toxic effects of diltiazem in a patient with chronic renal failure." J Clin Pharmacol 34 (1994): 273-4
  8. Chen SX, Gu TH, Song DJ, Guo JZ, Wang XM, Gong LS "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of slow release tablet of diltiazem in hypertensive patients with various renal functions." Acta Pharmacol Sin 15 (1994): 263-6
View all 8 references

Cartia XT drug interactions

There are 659 drug interactions with Cartia XT (diltiazem).

Cartia XT alcohol/food interactions

There is 1 alcohol/food interaction with Cartia XT (diltiazem).


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Drug Interaction Classification

These classifications are only a guideline. The relevance of a particular drug interaction to a specific individual is difficult to determine. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting or stopping any medication.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No interaction information available.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.