Acetaminophen / aspirin Side Effects
For the Consumer
Applies to acetaminophen / aspirin: oral packet, oral tablet
What are some side effects that I need to call my doctor about right away?
WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:
- Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
- Signs of liver problems like dark urine, feeling tired, not hungry, upset stomach or stomach pain, light-colored stools, throwing up, or yellow skin or eyes.
- Signs of bleeding like throwing up blood or throw up that looks like coffee grounds; coughing up blood; blood in the urine; black, red, or tarry stools; bleeding from the gums; vaginal bleeding that is not normal; bruises without a reason or that get bigger; or any bleeding that is very bad or that you cannot stop.
- Feeling confused.
- Feeling very tired or weak.
- Very bad belly pain.
- Ringing in ears.
- Hearing loss.
- Very bad headache or if headache is not better after the first dose.
- Pain for more than 10 days.
- Fever for more than 3 days.
- A very bad skin reaction (Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis) may happen. It can cause very bad health problems that may not go away, and sometimes death. Get medical help right away if you have signs like red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin (with or without fever); red or irritated eyes; or sores in your mouth, throat, nose, or eyes.
What are some other side effects of this drug?
All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:
- Belly pain or heartburn.
- Upset stomach.
These are not all of the side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, call your doctor. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.
You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. You may also report side effects at http://www.fda.gov/medwatch.
For Healthcare Professionals
Cardiovascular side effects of aspirin have included salicylate- induced variant angina, ventricular ectopy, conduction abnormalities, and hypotension, particularly during salicylate toxicity. In addition, at least one case of fluid retention simulating acute congestive heart failure has been reported during aspirin therapy.
Cardiovascular side effects including two cases of hypotension have been reported following the administration of acetaminophen.[Ref]
A 29- year- old female with a history of migraine developed chest pain, tachycardia and orthopnea following aspirin consumption at doses of 1500 mg per day for several days. After discontinuation of aspirin therapy, the patient's symptoms promptly resolved. The patient consented to a pharmacological challenge test which once again triggered the symptoms.
Two cases hypotension have been reported following the administration of acetaminophen. Both patients experienced significant decreases in blood pressure. One of the two patients required pressor agents to maintain adequate mean arterial pressures. Neither episode was associated with symptoms of anaphylaxis. Neither patient was rechallenged after resolution of the initial episode.[Ref]
Dermatologic side effects of aspirin have included Stevens-Johnson syndrome and a lichenoid eruption.
Dermatologic side effects including erythematous skin rashes associated with acetaminophen have been reported, but are rare. Acetaminophen associated bullous erythema and purpura fulminans have been reported. One case of toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with acetaminophen administered to a pediatric patient has been reported. Acetaminophen has also been associated with a risk of rare but potentially fatal serious skin reactions know as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP).[Ref]
Gastrointestinal side effects of aspirin have included epigastric distress (in as many as 83% of patients treated with regular aspirin), abdominal discomfort or pain, endoscopically identifiable gastric mucosal lesions, nausea, and vomiting. More serious gastrointestinal effects include hemorrhage, peptic ulcers, perforation, and esophageal ulcerations.
Endoscopically identifiable gastric mucosal lesions occur in most patients who receive a single dose of aspirin. Clinically evident gastrointestinal bleeding has been reported in as many as 3% of treated elderly patients. Anorectal ulceration and rectal stenosis have been reported in patients who abuse aspirin- containing rectal suppositories. One case- controlled study has suggested that an association between aspirin (and other NSAID) consumption and appendicitis may exist.
One study has suggested that acetaminophen may precipitate acute biliary pain and cholestasis. The mechanism of this effect may be related to inhibition of prostaglandin and alterations in the regulation of the sphincter of Oddi.[Ref]
In general, acetaminophen is well- tolerated when administered in therapeutic doses.[Ref]
Hematologic side effects of aspirin have included increased blood fibrinolytic activity. In addition, hypoprothrombinemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocyturia, megaloblastic anemia, and pancytopenia have been reported rarely. Aplastic anemia and eosinophilia have also been reported.
Hematologic side effects including rare cases of thrombocytopenia associated with acetaminophen have been reported. Acute thrombocytopenia has also been reported as having been caused by sensitivity to acetaminophen glucuronide, the major metabolite of acetaminophen. Methemoglobinemia with resulting cyanosis has also been observed in the setting of acute overdose.[Ref]
Alcoholic patients may develop hepatotoxicity after even modest doses of acetaminophen. In healthy patients, approximately 15 grams of acetaminophen is necessary to deplete liver glutathione stores by 70% in a 70 kg person. However, hepatotoxicity has been reported following smaller doses. Glutathione concentrations may be repleted by the antidote N-acetylcysteine. One case report has suggested that hypothermia may also be beneficial in decreasing liver damage during overdose.
In a recent retrospective study of 306 patients admitted for acetaminophen overdose, 6.9% had severe liver injury but all recovered. None of the 306 patients died.
Hepatic side effects of aspirin have included hepatotoxicity and cholestatic hepatitis.
Hepatic side effects of acetaminophen including severe and sometimes fatal dose dependent hepatitis have been reported in alcoholic patients. Hepatotoxicity has been increased during fasting. Several cases of hepatotoxicity from chronic acetaminophen therapy at therapeutic doses have also been reported despite a lack of risk factors for toxicity.[Ref]
Hypersensitivity side effects of aspirin have included bronchospasm, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylaxis. Approximately 10% to 30% of asthmatics are aspirin- sensitive (with the clinical triad of aspirin sensitivity, bronchial asthma, and nasal polyps).
Hypersensitivity side effects including anaphylaxis and fixed drug eruptions have been reported rarely in association with acetaminophen use.[Ref]
The mechanism of aspirin- induced hypersensitivity may be related to an up- regulation of the 5- lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism with a resulting increase in the products of 5- lipoxygenase (such as leukotrienes).[Ref]
In the case of metabolic acidosis, causality is uncertain as more than one drug was ingested. The case of metabolic acidosis followed the ingestion of 75 grams of acetaminophen, 1.95 grams of aspirin, and a small amount of a liquid household cleaner. The patient also had a history of seizures which the authors reported may have contributed to an increased lactate level indicative of metabolic acidosis.[Ref]
Metabolic side effects of aspirin have included dehydration and hyperkalemia. Respiratory alkalosis and metabolic acidosis, particularly during salicylate toxicity, have been reported. A case of hypoglycemia has been reported in a patient on hemodialysis. Salicylates have also been reported to displace triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) from protein binding sites. The initial effect is an increase in serum free T4 concentrations.
Metabolic side effects including metabolic acidosis have been reported following a massive overdose of acetaminophen.[Ref]
Musculoskeletal side effects of aspirin have included rhabdomyolysis.[Ref]
Central nervous system side effects of aspirin have included agitation, cerebral edema, coma, confusion, dizziness, headache, cranial hemorrhage, lethargy and seizures. Tinnitus and subjective hearing loss (or both) may occur. Some investigators have reported that modest doses may result in decreased frequency selectivity and may therefore impair hearing performance, particularly in the setting of background noise.[Ref]
Some investigators have suggested that tinnitus may be a less reliable indicator of salicylate toxicity than previously believed. Patients with high frequency hearing loss may have difficulty perceiving tinnitus. In a study of rheumatoid arthritis patients, those with tinnitus had no greater salicylate levels than those without tinnitus. Elderly patients may be less likely to perceive tinnitus than younger patients.[Ref]
Ocular side effects of aspirin have included cases of localized periorbital edema.[Ref]
Oncologic side effects of aspirin have included reports of pancreatic cancer. Several epidemiologic studies have suggested that chronic aspirin use may decrease the risk of large bowel neoplasms. However, other studies have not found such a beneficial effect.[Ref]
Other side effects of aspirin have included Reye's syndrome with use in children with an acute viral illness. Reye's syndrome has also been reported even more rarely in adults.[Ref]
Reye's syndrome, following use of aspirin, typically involves vomiting, neurologic dysfunction, and hepatic dysfunction during or shortly after an acute viral infection.[Ref]
The mechanism of an aspirin- induced decrease in renal function may be related to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis with consequent decreases in renal blood flow. Vasodilating renal prostaglandins may be particularly important in patients who exhibit arterial underfilling (i.e., heart failure, cirrhosis). The administration of high doses of NSAIDs to such patients has produced acute renal failure in rare instances.
Acute tubular necrosis usually occurs in conjunction with liver failure, but has been observed as an isolated finding in rare cases. A possible increase in the risk of renal cell carcinoma has been associated with chronic acetaminophen use as well.
One case-control study of patients with end-stage renal disease suggested that long term consumption of acetaminophen may significantly increase the risk of end-stage renal disease particularly in patients taking more than two pills per day.
However, a recent cohort study of analgesia use of initially healthy men concluded that moderate use of analgesics including acetaminophen was not associated with increased risk of renal disease.[Ref]
Renal side effects of aspirin have included reduction in glomerular filtration rate (particularly in patients who are sodium restricted or who exhibit diminished effective arterial blood volume, such as patients with advanced heart failure or cirrhosis), interstitial nephritis, papillary necrosis, elevations in serum creatinine, elevations in blood urea nitrogen, proteinuria, hematuria, and renal failure.
Renal side effects of acetaminophen are rare and have included acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis, and interstitial nephritis. Adverse renal effects are most often observed after overdose, after chronic abuse (often with multiple analgesics), or in association with acetaminophen- related hepatotoxicity.[Ref]
Respiratory side effects of aspirin have included hyperpnea, pulmonary edema, and tachypnea.
Aspirin desensitization has been used to decrease disease activity and reduce the need for systemic corticosteroids in patients with aspirin- exacerbated respiratory disease.[Ref]
1. Shriner K, Goetz MB "Severe hepatotoxicity in a patient receiving both acetaminophen and zidovudine." Am J Med 93 (1992): 94-6
2. Perneger TV, Whelton PK, Klag MJ "Risk of kidney failure associated with the use of acetaminophen, aspirin, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs." N Engl J Med 331 (1994): 1675-79
3. Juurlink DN "Drug-induced hepatotoxicity." N Engl J Med 349 (2003): 1974-6; author reply 1974-6
4. Keaton MR "Acute renal failure in an alcoholic during therapeutic acetaminophen ingestion." South Med J 81 (1988): 1163-6
5. Campo A "Acetaminophen, aspirin, and renal failure." N Engl J Med 346 (2002): 1588-9; discussion 1588-9
6. Brotodihardjo AE, Batey RG, Farrell GC, Byth K "Hepatotoxicity from paracetamol self-poisoning in Western Sydney: a continuing challenge." Med J Aust 157 (1992): 382-5
7. Asero R "Intolerance to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs might precede by years the onset of chronic urticaria." J Allergy Clin Immunol 111 (2003): 1095-8
8. Segasothy M, Suleiman AB, Puvaneswary M, Rohana A "Paracetamol: a cause for analgesic nephropathy and end-stage renal disease." Nephron 50 (1988): 50-4
9. Smilkstein MJ, Douglas Dr, Daya MR "Acetaminophen poisoning and liver function." N Engl J Med 331 (1994): 1310-1
10. Joseph M "Adverse drug reactions as cause of admission to hospital: only part of the picture was reported for aspirin." BMJ 329 (2004): 459; author reply 460
11. Whitcomb DC "Acetaminophen poisoning and liver function." N Engl J Med 331 (1994): 1311
12. Shoenfeld Y, Shaklai M, Livni E, Pinkhas J "Thrombocytopenia from acetaminophen." N Engl J Med 303 (1980): 47
13. Weil J, Colinjones D, Langman M, Lawson D, Logan R, Murphy M, Rawlins M, Vessey M, Wainwright P "Prophylactic aspirin and risk of peptic ulcer bleeding." BMJ 310 (1995): 827-30
14. Luthy R, Blaser J, Bonetti A, Simmen H, Wise R, Siegenthaler W "Comparative multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime, moxalactam, and ceftazidime." Rev Infect Dis 4 (1982): s581-4
15. "Product Information. Bayer aspirin (aspirin)." Bayer, West Haven, CT.
16. Moroz LA "Increased blood fibrinolytic activity after aspirin ingestion." N Engl J Med 296 (1977): 525-9
17. Greenberg ER, Baron JA, Freeman DH Jr, Mandel JS, Haile R "Reduced risk of large-bowel adenomas among aspirin users. The Polyp Prevention Study Group." J Natl Cancer Inst 85 (1993): 912-6
18. Doan T "Acetaminophen hypersensitivity and other analgesics - response." Ann Allergy 72 (1994): 285
19. Smigel K "Aspirin's next conquest: does it prevent colon cancer?" J Natl Cancer Inst 86 (1994): 166-8
20. Szczeklik A, Stevenson DD "Aspirin-induced asthma: advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management." J Allergy Clin Immunol 111 (2003): 913-21
21. Mukerji V, Alpert MA, Flaker GC, Beach CL, Weber RD "Cardiac conduction abnormalities and atrial arrhythmias associated with salicylate toxicity." Pharmacotherapy 6 (1986): 41-3
22. Sutor AH "Thrombocyturia after aspirin." N Engl J Med 288 (1973): 794-5
23. Graham DY, Smith JL "Aspirin and the stomach." Ann Intern Med 104 (1986): 390-8
24. The Platelet Receptor Inhibition in Ischemic Syndrome Management (PRISM) Study Investigators "A comparison of aspirin plus tirofiban with aspirin plus heparin for unstable angina." N Engl J Med 338 (1998): 1498-505
25. Wolfe JD, Metzger AL, Goldstein RC "Aspirin hepatitis." Ann Intern Med 80 (1974): 74-6
26. Vitols S "Paracetamol hepatotoxicity at therapeutic doses." J Intern Med 253 (2003): 95-8
27. Van Diem L, Grilliat JP "Anaphylactic shock induced by paracetamol." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 38 (1990): 389-90
28. Lee TH "Mechanism of bronchospasm in aspirin-sensitive asthma." Am Rev Respir Dis 148 (1993): 1442-3
29. Bharija SC, Belhaj MS "Acetylsalicylic acid may induce a lichenoid eruption." Dermatologica 177 (1988): 19
30. Kowalski ML, Sliwinska-Kowalska M, Igarashi Y, White MV, Wojciechowska B, Brayton P, Kaulbach H, Rozniecki J, Kaliner MA "Nasal secretions in response to acetylsalicylic acid." J Allergy Clin Immunol 91 (1993): 580-98
31. Guccione JL, Zemtsov A, Cobos E, Neldner KH "Acquired purpura fulminans induced by alcohol and acetaminophen - successful treatment with heparin and vitamin-k." Arch Dermatol 129 (1993): 1267-9
32. Nasser SMS, Lee TH "Aspirin-induced early and late asthmatic responses." Clin Exp Allergy 25 (1995): 1-3
33. Wilcox CM, Shalek KA, Cotsonis G "Striking prevalence of over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drug use in patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage." Arch Intern Med 154 (1994): 42-6
34. Carlyon RP, Butt M "Effects of aspirin on human auditory filters." Hear Res 66 (1993): 233-44
35. Lee WM "Medical progress: drug-induced hepatotoxicity." N Engl J Med 333 (1995): 1118-27
36. Gann PH, Manson JE, Glynn RJ, Buring JE, Hennekens CH "Low-dose aspirin and incidence of colorectal tumors in a randomized trial." J Natl Cancer Inst 85 (1993): 1220-4
37. Goldberg M "Analgesic nephropathy in 1981: which drug is responsible?" JAMA 247 (1982): 64-5
38. Whitcomb DC, Block GD "Association of acetaminopphen hepatotoxicity with fasting and ethanol use." JAMA 272 (1994): 1845-50
39. Chan TY "Severe asthma attacks precipitated by NSAIDs." Ann Pharmacother 29 (1995): 199
40. Eguia L, Materson BJ "Acetaminophen-related acute renal failure without fulminant liver failure." Pharmacotherapy 17 (1997): 363-70
41. D'Haens G, Breysem Y, Rutgeerts P, van Besien B, Geboes K, Ponette E, Vantrappen G "Proctitis and rectal stenosis induced by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory suppositories." J Clin Gastroenterol 17 (1993): 207-12
42. Pearson RE, Salter FJ "Drug interaction? Orphenadrine with propoxyphene." N Engl J Med 282 (1970): 1215
43. Bonkovsky HL "Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, fasting, and ethanol." JAMA 274 (1995): 301
44. Thomas J, Straus WL, Bloom BS "Over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of gastrointestinal symptoms." Am J Gastroenterol 97 (2002): 2215-9
45. Kumar S, Rex DK "Failure of physicians to recognize acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in chronic alcoholics." Arch Intern Med 151 (1991): 1189-91
46. Hartleb M "Do thyroid hormones promote hepatotoxicity to acetaminophen?" Am J Gastroenterol 89 (1994): 1269-70
47. Lee WM "Acute liver failure." Am J Med 96 (1994): 3-9
48. Ferraris VA, Ferraris SP "Preoperative aspirin ingestion increases operative blood loss after coronary artery bypass grafting - update." Ann Thorac Surg 59 (1995): 1036-7
49. Garg SK, Sarker CR "Aspirin-induced thrombocytopenia on an immune basis." Am J Med Sci 267 (1974): 129-32
50. Dickinson JP, Prentice CRM "Aspirin: benefit and risk in thromboprophylaxis." Qjm Mon J Assoc Physician 91 (1998): 523-38
51. Belay ED, Bresee JS, Holman RC, Khan AS, Shahriari A, Schonberger LB "Reye's syndrome in the United States from 1981 through 1997." N Engl J Med 340 (1999): 1377-82
52. Colwell JA "Aspirin and risk of hemorrhagic stroke." JAMA 282 (1999): 731-2
53. Spurgeon D "Pancreatic cancer is associated with long term use of aspirin." BMJ 328 (2004): 70
54. David DS, Steere AC Jr, Pi-Sunyer XF, Sakai S, Clark SB "Aspirin-induced hypoglycaemia in a patient on haemodialysis." Lancet 2 (1971): 1092-3
55. Muther RS, Potter DM, Bennett WM "Aspirin-induced depression of glomerular filtration rate in normal humans: role of sodium balance." Ann Intern Med 94 (1981): 317-21
56. Halla JT, Hardin JG "Salicylate ototoxicity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a controlled study." Ann Rheum Dis 47 (1988): 134-7
57. Kaysen GA, Pond SM, Roper MH, Menke DJ, Marrama MA "Combined hepatic and renal injury in alcoholics during therapeutic use of acetaminophen." Arch Intern Med 145 (1985): 2019-23
58. Mehta S, Dasarathy S, Tandon RK, Mathur M, Malaviya AN "A prospective randomized study of the injurious effects of aspirin and naproxen on the gastroduodenal mucosa in patients with rheumatoid arthritis." Am J Gastroenterol 87 (1992): 996-1000
59. Marks RD "Aspirin use and fecal occult blood testing." Am J Med 100 (1996): 596-7
60. Berg KJ "Acute acetylsalicylic acid poisoning: treatment with forced alkaline diuresis and diuretics." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 12 (1977): 111-6
61. He J, Whelton PK, Vu B, Klag MJ "Aspirin and risk of hemorrhagic stroke: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials." JAMA 280 (1998): 1930-35
62. Analysis of Reports to the Spontaneous Reporting System of the Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiiologici in Dermatologia. "Cutaneous reactions to analgesic-antipyretics and nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs." Dermatology 186 (1993): 164-9
63. "Multum Information Services, Inc. Expert Review Panel"
64. O'Dell JR, Zetterman RK, Burnett DA "Centrilobular hepatic fibrosis following acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis in an alcoholic." JAMA 255 (1986): 2636-7
65. Everson RB, Schreinemachers DM "Use of aspirin and cancer risk in a prospective cohort study (Meeting abstract)." Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res 34 (1993): a1580
66. Tarone RE, Lipworth L, McLaughlin JK "Serious gastrointestinal events from low dose analgesic use." J Rheumatol 31 (2004): 1008-9; author reply 1010-1
67. Roderick PJ, Wilkes HC, Meade TW "The gastrointestinal toxicity of aspirin: an overview of randomised controlled trials." Br J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1993): 219-26
68. Ingum J, Bjorklund R, Volden R, Marland J "Development of acute tolerance after oral doses of diazepam and flunitrazepam." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 113 (1994): 304-10
69. Keays R, Harrison PM, Wendon JA, et al "Intravenous acetylcysteine in paracetamol induced fulminant hepatic failure: a prospective controlled trial." BMJ 303 (1991): 1026-9
70. Rumore MM, Blaiklock RG "Influence of age-dependent pharmacokinetics and metabolism on acetaminophen hepatotoxicity." J Pharm Sci 81 (1992): 203-7
71. Block R "Liver failure induced by paracetamol." BMJ 306 (1993): 457
72. Epidemiology Office, Divisiion of Viral and Rickettsial Diseasses, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control. "Leads from the MMWR. Reye syndrome surveillance--United States, 1987 and 1988." JAMA 261 (1989): 3520,
73. Vanchieri C "Australian study links certain analgesics to renal cancers." J Natl Cancer Inst 85 (1993): 262-3
74. Williams JO, Mengel CE, Sullivan LW, Haq AS "Megaloblastic anemia associated with chronic ingestion of an analgesic." N Engl J Med 280 (1969): 312-3
75. Lanas A, Serrano P, Bajador E, Esteva F, Benito R, Sainz R "Evidence of aspirin use in both upper and lower gastrointestinal perforation." Gastroenterology 112 (1997): 683-9
76. Volkman JA, Pontikes PJ "Leukotriene modifiers to prevent aspirin-provoked respiratory reactions in asthmatics." Ann Pharmacother 36 (2002): 1457-61
77. Hempel SL, Elliott DE "Chest pain in an aspirin-sensitive asthmatic patient: eosinophilic esophagitis causing esophageal dysmotility." Chest 110 (1996): 1117-20
78. Petty GW, Brown RD, Whisnant JP, Sicks JD, O'Fallon WM, Wiebers DO "Frequency of major complications of aspirin, warfarin, and intravenous heparin for secondary stroke prevention: a population study." Ann Intern Med 130 (1999): 14-22
79. Eldar M, Aderka D, Shoenfeld Y, Livni E, Pinkhas J "Aspirin-induced aplastic anaemia." S Afr Med J 55 (1979): 318
80. Segal R, Lubart E, Leibovitz A, et al. "Early and late effects of low-dose aspirin on renal function in elderly patients." Am J Med 115 (2003): 462-6
81. Bergmann JF, Chassany O, Geneve J, Abiteboul M, Caulin C, Segrestaa JM "Endoscopic evaluation of the effect of ketoprofen, ibuprofen and aspirin on the gastroduodenal mucosa." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 42 (1992): 685-8
82. Thirlby RC "More problems with aspirin: it may cause appendicitis." Gastroenterology 104 (1993): 1571-3
83. Whelton A "Renal effects of over-the-counter analgesics." J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1995): 454-63
84. Wong V, Daly M, Boon A, Heatley V "Paracetamol and acute biliary pain with cholestasis." Lancet 342 (1993): 869
85. Greenberg ER, Baron JA "Prospects for preventing colorectal cancer death." J Natl Cancer Inst 85 (1993): 1182-4
86. Israel E, Fischer AR, Rosenberg MA, Lilly CM, Callery JC, Shapiro J, Cohn J, Rubin P, Drazen JM "The pivotal role of 5-lipoxygenase products in the reaction of aspirin-sensitive asthmatics to aspirin." Am Rev Respir Dis 148 (1993): 1447-51
87. Barrow MV, Quick DT, Cunningham RW "Salicylate hypoprothrombinemia in rheumatoid arthritis with liver disease. Report of two cases." Arch Intern Med 120 (1967): 620-4
88. Koulouris Z, Tierney MG, Jones G "Metabolic acidosis and coma following a severe acetaminophen overdose." Ann Pharmacother 33 (1999): 1191-4
89. Prichard PJ, Kitchingman GK, Walt RP, Daneshmend TK, Hawkey CJ "Human gastric mucosal bleeding induced by low dose aspirin, but not warfarin." BMJ 298 (1989): 493-6
90. Boyer TD, Rouff SL "Acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis and renal failure." JAMA 218 (1971): 440-1
91. Doan T, Greenberger PA "Nearly fatal episodes of hypotension, flushing, and dyspnea in a 47- year-old woman." Ann Allergy 70 (1993): 439-44
92. Higashi N, Taniguchi M, Mita H, Higashi A, Akiyama K "Aspirin-induced urticaria and angioedema, but not bronchoconstriction, associated with cysteinyl leukotriene overproduction in 2 patients with asthma." J Allergy Clin Immunol 110 (2002): 666-7
93. McCredie M, Stewart JH, Day NE "Different roles for phenacetin and paracetamol in cancer of the kidney and renal pelvis." Int J Cancer 53 (1993): 245-9
94. Mofenson HC, Caraccio TR, Nawaz H, Steckler G "Acetaminophen induced pancreatitis." Clin Toxicol 29 (1991): 223-30
95. Minton NA, Henry JA, Frankel RJ "Fatal paracetamol poisoning in an epileptic." Hum Toxicol 7 (1988): 33-4
96. Al-Abbasi AH "Salicylate-induced variant angina." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 1450
97. Cheung L, Meyer KC "Acetaminophen poisoning and liver function." N Engl J Med 331 (1994): 1311-2
98. Kalyoncu AF "Acetaminophen hypersensitivity and other analgesics." Ann Allergy 72 (1994): 285
99. Brown G "Acetaminophen-induced hypotension." Heart Lung 25 (1996): 137-40
100. Levy M, Miller DR, Kaufman DW, Siskind V, Schwingl P, Rosenberg L, Strom B, Shapiro S "Major upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Relation to the use of aspirin and other nonnarcotic analgesics." Arch Intern Med 148 (1988): 281-5
101. Neafsey PJ "Low-dose aspirin interactions." Home Healthc Nurse 22 (2004): 54-5
102. Block R, Jankowski JA, Lacoux P, Pennington CR "Does hypothermia protect against the development of hepatitis in paracetamol overdose?" Anaesthesia 47 (1992): 789-91
103. Sabesin SM, Boyce HW Jr, King CE, Mann JA, Ruoff G, Wall E "Comparative evaluation of gastrointestinal intolerance produced by plain and tri-buffered aspirin tablets." Am J Gastroenterol 83 (1988): 1220-5
104. Silagy CA, McNeil JJ, Donnan GA, Tonkin AM, Worsam B, Campion K "Adverse effects of low-dose aspirin in a healthy elderly population." Clin Pharmacol Ther 54 (1993): 84-9
105. Boettcher FA, Salvi RJ "Salicylate ototoxicity: review and synthesis." Am J Otolaryngol 12 (1991): 33-47
106. Fausa O "Salicylate-induced hypoprothrombinemia: a report of four cases." Acta Med Scand 188 (1970): 403-8
107. Kawada A, Hiruma M, Noguchi H, Ishibashi A "Fixed drug eruption induced by acetaminophen in a 12-year-old girl." Int J Dermatol 35 (1996): 148-9
108. Curry RW, Robinson JD, Sughrue MJ "Acute renal failure after acetaminophen ingestion." JAMA 247 (1982): 1012-4
109. Gursoy M, Haznedaroglu IC, Celik I, Sayinalp N, Ozcebe OI, Dundar SV "Agranulocytosis, plasmacytosis, and thrombocytosis followed by a leukemoid reaction due to acute acetaminophen toxicity." Ann Pharmacother 30 (1996): 762-5
110. Kleinman JG, Breitenfield RV, Roth DA "Transient cholestatic hepatitis in a neonate associated with carbamazepine exposure during pregnancy and breast-feeding." Clin Nephrol 14 (1980): 201-5
111. Thomas RH, Munro DD "Fixed drug eruption due to paracetamol." Br J Dermatol 115 (1986): 357-9
112. Kondo K, Inoue Y, Hamada H, Yokoyama A, Kohno N, Hiwada K "Acetaminophen-induced eosinophilic pneumonia." Chest 104 (1993): 291-2
113. Berges-Gimeno MP, Simon RA, Stevenson DD "Long-term treatment with aspirin desensitization in asthmatic patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease." J Allergy Clin Immunol 111 (2003): 180-6
114. Hirsh J, Dalen JE, Fuster V, Harker LB, Patrono C, Roth G "Aspirin and other platelet-active drugs: the relationship among dose, effectiveness, and side effects." Chest 108 Suppl (1995): s247-57
115. McJunkin B, Barwick KW, Little WC, Winfield JB "Fatal massive hepatic necrosis following acetaminophen overdose." JAMA 236 (1976): 1874-5
116. Filipe PL, Freitas JP, Decastro JC, Silva R "Drug eruption induced by acetaminophen in infectious mononucleosis." Int J Dermatol 34 (1995): 220-1
117. McGovern MC, Glasgow JFT, Stewart MC "Lesson of the week - Reye's syndrome and aspirin: lest we forget." Br Med J 322 (2001): 1591-2
118. Seeff LB, Cuccherini BA, Zimmerman HJ, Adler E, Benjamin SB "Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in alcoholics." Ann Intern Med 104 (1986): 399-404
119. Leung R, Plomley R, Czarny D "Paracetamol anaphylaxis." Clin Exp Allergy 22 (1992): 831-3
120. Cheng TI, Cheng TJ, Chiang SC "Association of aspirin with eosinophilia in peripheral blood (December)." Ann Pharmacother 38 (2004): 2172-3
121. Zimmerman HJ, Maddrey WC "Acetaminophen (paracetamol) hepatotoxicity with regular intake of alcohol: analysis of instances of therapeutic misadventure." Hepatology 22 (1995): 767-73
122. Seaman WE, Ishak KG, Plotz PH "Aspirin-induced hepatotoxicity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus." Ann Intern Med 80 (1974): 1-8
123. Greenberg PD, Cello JP, Rockey DC "Asymptomatic chronic gastrointestinal blood loss in patients taking aspirin or warfarin for cardiovascular disease." Am J Med 100 (1996): 598-604
124. Stalnikowiczdarvasi R "Gastrointestinal bleeding during low-dose aspirin administration for prevention of arterial occlusive events: a critical analysis." J Clin Gastroenterol 21 (1995): 13-6
125. Katz Y, Goldberg N, Kivity S "Localized periorbital edema induced by aspirin." Allergy 48 (1993): 366-9
126. Singer AJ, Carracio TR, Mofenson HC "The temporal profile of increased transaminase levels in patients with acetaminophen-induced liver dysfunction." Ann Emerg Med 26 (1995): 49-53
127. Halevi A, BenAmitai D, Garty BZ "Toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with acetaminophen ingestion." Ann Pharmacother 34 (2000): 32-4
128. Maher JF "Analgesic nephropathy. Observations, interpretations, and perspective on the low incidence in America." Am J Med 76 (1984): 345-8
129. Drenth JP, Frenken LA, Wuis EW, Van der Meer JW "Acute renal failure associated with paracetamol ingestion in an alcoholic patient." Nephron 67 (1994): 483-5
130. Kimberly RP, Plotz PH "Aspirin-induced depression of renal function." N Engl J Med 296 (1977): 418-24
131. Bonkovsky HL, Kane RE, Jones DP, Galinsky RE, Banner B "Acute hepatic and renal toxicity from low doses of acetaminophen in the absence of alcohol abuse or malnutrition - evidence for increased susceptibility to drug toxicity due to cardiopulmonary and renal insufficiency." Hepatology 19 (1994): 1141-8
132. Wijnja L, Snijder JA, Nieweg HO "Acetylsalicylic acid as a cause of pancytopenia from bone-marrow damage." Lancet 2 (1966): 768-70
133. Duchene A, Chadenas D, Marneffe-Lebrequier H "Insuffisance renale aigue isolee apres intoxication volontaire par le paracetamol." Presse Med 20 (1991): 1684-5
134. Johnson GK, Tolman KG "Chronic liver disease and acetaminophen." Ann Intern Med 87 (1977): 302-4
135. Savon JJ, Allen ML, Dimarino AJ, Hermann GA, Krum RP "Gastrointestinal blood loss with low dose (325 mg) plain and enteric-coated aspirin administration." Am J Gastroenterol 90 (1995): 581-5
136. Surks MI, Sievert R "Drugs and thyroid function." N Engl J Med 333 (1995): 1688-94
137. Sbarbaro JA, Bennett RM "Aspirin hepatotoxicity and disseminated intravascular coagulation." Ann Intern Med 86 (1977): 183-5
138. Riegger GA, Kahles HW, Elsner D, Kromer EP, Kochsiek K "Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on renal function in patients with chronic heart failure." Am J Med 90 (1991): 571-5
139. Nelson EB, Temple AR "Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, fasting, and ethanol." JAMA 274 (1995): 301
140. Settipane RA, Stevenson DD "Cross sensitivity with acetaminophen in aspirin-sensitive subjects with asthma." J Allergy Clin Immunol 84 (1989): 26-33
141. Bray GP "Liver failure induced by paracetamol." BMJ 306 (1993): 157-8
142. Cheung L, Potts RG, Meyer KC "Acetaminophen treatment nomogram." N Engl J Med 330 (1994): 1907-8
143. Boissel JP "Individualizing aspirin therapy for prevention of cardiovascular events." JAMA 280 (1998): 1949-50
144. Carmichael J, Shankel SW "Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on prostaglandins and renal function." Am J Med 78 (1985): 992-1000
145. Kurtovic J, Riordan SM "Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity at recommended dosage." J Intern Med 253 (2003): 240-3
146. Bougie DW, Benito AI, Sanchez-Abarca LI, Torres R, Birenbaum J, Aster RH "Acute thrombocytopenia caused by sensitivity to the glucuronide conjugate of acetaminophen." Blood 109 (2007): 3608-9
Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.
Some side effects may not be reported. You may report them to the FDA.
More about acetaminophen/aspirin
- Acetaminophen/aspirin Side Effects
- During Pregnancy
- Drug Interactions
- Support Group
- 2 Reviews
- Drug class: analgesic combinations