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Vilazodone

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Mar 25, 2020.

Pronunciation

(vil AZ oh done)

Index Terms

  • EMD 68843
  • SB659746-A
  • Vilazodone HCl
  • Vilazodone Hydrochloride

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Kit, Oral, as hydrochloride:

Viibryd Starter Pack: 10 & 20 mg [contains fd&c red #40, fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow)]

Tablet, Oral, as hydrochloride:

Viibryd: 10 mg [contains fd&c red #40]

Viibryd: 20 mg [contains fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow)]

Viibryd: 40 mg [contains brilliant blue fcf (fd&c blue #1)]

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Viibryd
  • Viibryd Starter Pack

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antidepressant, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor/5-HT1A Receptor Partial Agonist

Pharmacology

Vilazodone inhibits CNS neuron serotonin uptake; minimal or no effect on reuptake of norepinephrine or dopamine. It also binds selectively with high affinity to 5-HT1A receptors and is a 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist. 5-HT1A receptor activity may be altered in depression and anxiety.

Metabolism

Extensively hepatic, via CYP3A4 (major pathway) and 2C19 and 2D6 (minor pathways)

Excretion

Urine (1% as unchanged drug); feces (2% as unchanged drug)

Onset of Action

Depression: Initial effects may be observed within 1 to 2 weeks of treatment, with continued improvements through 4 to 6 weeks (Papakostas 2006; Posternak 2005; Szegedi 2009; Taylor 2006).

Time to Peak

Serum: 4 to 5 hours

Half-Life Elimination

Terminal: ~25 hours

Protein Binding

~96% to 99%

Use: Labeled Indications

Major depressive disorder: Treatment of major depressive disorder in adults.

Contraindications

Use of MAO inhibitors (concurrently or within 14 days of discontinuing either vilazodone or the MAO inhibitor), including MAO inhibitors such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Hypersensitivity to vilazodone or any component of the formulation

Dosing: Adult

Major depressive disorder, unipolar (alternative agent): Oral: Initial: 10 mg once daily for 7 days, then increase to 20 mg once daily; may increase up to 40 mg once daily after an additional ≥7 days based on response and tolerability (maximum dose: 40 mg/day).

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Discontinuation of therapy: The half-life of vilazodone is approximately 24 hours, decreasing the likelihood of withdrawal symptoms compared to drugs with half-lives significantly less than 24 hours. Although withdrawal symptoms due to abrupt discontinuation of vilazodone have not been described, it is recommended that patients receiving 40 mg/day be tapered to 20 mg once daily for 4 days, then 10 mg once daily for 3 days; in patients taking 20 mg/day, taper dose to 10 mg once daily for 7 days (Hirsch 2020a; manufacturer's labeling). Patients with a prior history of antidepressant withdrawal symptoms or on a high dose may require a slower taper (eg, over 4 weeks) (Hirsch 2020a). If intolerable withdrawal symptoms occur, resume the previously prescribed dose and/or decrease dose at a more gradual rate (Shelton 2001). Select patients (eg, those with a history of discontinuation syndrome) on long-term treatment (>6 months) may benefit from tapering over >3 months (WFSBP [Bauer 2015]). Evidence supporting ideal taper rates is limited (Shelton 2001; WFSBP [Bauer 2015]).

Switching antidepressants: Evidence for ideal antidepressant switching strategies is limited; strategies include cross-titration (gradually discontinuing the first antidepressant while at the same time gradually increasing the new antidepressant) and direct switch (abruptly discontinuing the first antidepressant and then starting the new antidepressant at an equivalent dose or lower dose and increasing it gradually). Cross-titration (eg, over 1 to 4 weeks depending upon sensitivity to discontinuation symptoms and adverse effects) is standard for most switches but is contraindicated when switching to or from a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). A direct switch may be an appropriate approach when switching to another agent in the same or similar class (eg, when switching between a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and vilazodone), when the antidepressant to be discontinued has been used for <1 week, or when the discontinuation is for adverse effects. When choosing the switch strategy, consider the risk of discontinuation symptoms, potential for drug interactions, other antidepressant properties (eg, half-life, adverse effects, pharmacodynamics), and the degree of symptom control desired (Hirsch 2020b; Ogle 2013; WFSBP [Bauer 2013]).

Switching to or from an MAOI:

Allow 14 days to elapse between discontinuing an MAOI and initiation of vilazodone.

Allow 14 days to elapse between discontinuing vilazodone and initiation of an MAOI.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Administration

Administer with food.

Dietary Considerations

Take with food.

Storage

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (50°F to 86°F).

Drug Interactions

Acalabrutinib: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Agents with Antiplatelet Properties (e.g., P2Y12 inhibitors, NSAIDs, SSRIs, etc.): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of other Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Monitor therapy

Alcohol (Ethyl): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of psychomotor impairment may be enhanced. Management: Patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors should be advised to avoid alcohol. Monitor for increased psychomotor impairment in patients who consume alcohol during treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Almotriptan: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Alosetron: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Amphetamines: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability). Initiate amphetamines at lower doses, monitor frequently, and adjust doses as needed. Monitor therapy

Anticoagulants: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. Exceptions: Bemiparin; Enoxaparin; Heparin. Monitor therapy

Antiemetics (5HT3 Antagonists): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Exceptions: Alosetron; Ondansetron; Ramosetron. Monitor therapy

Antipsychotic Agents: Serotonergic Agents (High Risk) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonergic agents may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Apixaban: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Apixaban. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely. Monitor therapy

Aspirin: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Monitor therapy

Bemiparin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Bemiparin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of bemiparin with antiplatelet agents. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Brexanolone: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Brexanolone. Monitor therapy

Bromopride: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Avoid combination

BuPROPion: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vilazodone. Monitor therapy

BusPIRone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Cephalothin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cephalothin. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Citalopram: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Citalopram may enhance the serotonergic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. In addition, monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Monitor therapy

Collagenase (Systemic): Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Collagenase (Systemic). Specifically, the risk of injection site bruising and/or bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Cyclobenzaprine: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May decrease the serum concentration of Vilazodone. Management: Consider increasing vilazodone dose by as much as 2-fold (do not exceed 80 mg/day), based on response, in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inducers for > 14 days. Reduce to the original vilazodone dose over 1 to 2 weeks after inducer discontinuation. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May increase the serum concentration of Vilazodone. Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Vilazodone. Management: Limit the maximum vilazodone dose to 20 mg daily in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. The original vilazodone dose can be resumed following discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Exceptions: Nefazodone. Consider therapy modification

Cyproheptadine: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Dabigatran Etexilate: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Dabigatran Etexilate. Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may increase the serum concentration of Dabigatran Etexilate. This mechanism applies specifically to clopidogrel. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely; Canadian labeling recommends avoiding prasugrel or ticagrelor. Monitor therapy

Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Seek alternatives to the CYP3A4 substrate when possible. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor clinical effects of the substrate closely (particularly therapeutic effects). Consider therapy modification

Dapoxetine: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Do not use serotonergic agents (high risk) with dapoxetine or within 7 days of serotonergic agent discontinuation. Do not use dapoxetine within 14 days of monoamine oxidase inhibitor use. Dapoxetine labeling lists this combination as contraindicated. Avoid combination

Dasatinib: May enhance the anticoagulant effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Monitor therapy

Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Deoxycholic Acid: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Deoxycholic Acid. Specifically, the risk for bleeding or bruising in the treatment area may be increased. Monitor therapy

Desmopressin: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Desmopressin. Monitor therapy

Dexmethylphenidate-Methylphenidate: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Dextromethorphan: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Digoxin: Vilazodone may increase the serum concentration of Digoxin. Monitor therapy

DULoxetine: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the antiplatelet effect of DULoxetine. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of DULoxetine. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. In addition, monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Monitor therapy

Edoxaban: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Edoxaban. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Eletriptan: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Enoxaparin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Enoxaparin. Management: Discontinue antiplatelet agents prior to initiating enoxaparin whenever possible. If concomitant administration is unavoidable, monitor closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Enzalutamide: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Concurrent use of enzalutamide with CYP3A4 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Use of enzalutamide and any other CYP3A4 substrate should be performed with caution and close monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Erdafitinib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Ergot Derivatives: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Exceptions: Lisuride; Nicergoline. Monitor therapy

Fat Emulsion (Fish Oil Based): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Fenfluramine: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Gilteritinib: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Management: Avoid use of this combination if possible. If the combination cannot be avoided, monitor closely for evidence of reduced response to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Glucosamine: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Heparin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Heparin. Management: Decrease the dose of heparin or agents with antiplatelet properties if coadministration is required. Consider therapy modification

Herbs (Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Properties) (eg, Alfalfa, Anise, Bilberry): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Bleeding may occur. Management: Avoid combination when possible. If used, monitor more closely for evidence of bleeding. Discontinue herbal products with anticoagulant or antiplatelet actions 2 weeks prior to surgical, dental, or invasive procedures. Consider therapy modification

Ibritumomab Tiuxetan: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ibritumomab Tiuxetan. Both agents may contribute to impaired platelet function and an increased risk of bleeding. Monitor therapy

Ibrutinib: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Inotersen: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Ioflupane I 123: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may diminish the diagnostic effect of Ioflupane I 123. Monitor therapy

Ivosidenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Lasmiditan: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Levomethadone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Limaprost: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Linezolid: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Lorcaserin (Withdrawn From US Market): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Metaxalone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Methadone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Methylene Blue: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of Methylene Blue. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

MetyroSINE: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Mitotane: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Doses of CYP3A4 substrates may need to be adjusted substantially when used in patients being treated with mitotane. Consider therapy modification

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (Antidepressant): Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (Antidepressant). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Multivitamins/Fluoride (with ADE): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Nefazodone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Vilazodone. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Nefazodone may increase the serum concentration of Vilazodone. Management: Limit maximum vilazodone dose to 20 mg daily and monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes). Consider therapy modification

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (COX-2 Selective): Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the antiplatelet effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (COX-2 Selective). Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (COX-2 Selective) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective): Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the antiplatelet effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective). Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Management: Consider alternatives to NSAIDs. Monitor for evidence of bleeding and diminished antidepressant effects. It is unclear whether COX-2-selective NSAIDs reduce risk. Consider therapy modification

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Topical): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Obinutuzumab: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Obinutuzumab. Specifically, the risk of serious bleeding-related events may be increased. Monitor therapy

Omega-3 Fatty Acids: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Ondansetron: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Opioid Agonists: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Exceptions: Alfentanil; Benzhydrocodone; Buprenorphine; Butorphanol; Codeine; Dihydrocodeine; FentaNYL; HYDROcodone; Levomethadone; Meperidine; Methadone; Oliceridine; OxyCODONE; SUFentanil; TraMADol. Monitor therapy

Opioid Agonists (metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Opioid Agonists (metabolized by CYP3A4): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Exceptions: Levomethadone; Methadone. Monitor therapy

Oxitriptan: Serotonergic Agents (High Risk) may enhance the serotonergic effect of Oxitriptan. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Ozanimod: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). Management: Concomitant use of ozanimod with serotonergic agents is not recommended. If combined, monitor patients closely for the development of hypertension, including hypertensive crises. Consider therapy modification

Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased by concurrent use of these agents. Monitor therapy

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Pimozide: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Pimozide. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs as appropriate. Avoid combination

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Ramosetron: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Rasagiline: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of Rasagiline. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Rivaroxaban: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Rivaroxaban. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely; Canadian labeling recommends avoiding prasugrel or ticagrelor. Monitor therapy

Safinamide: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Use the lowest effective dose of SSRIs in patients treated with safinamide and monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity. Consider therapy modification

Salicylates: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Increased risk of bleeding may result. Monitor therapy

Sarilumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of other Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of other Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. In addition, monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Exceptions: Citalopram; Dapoxetine; Vortioxetine. Monitor therapy

Selegiline: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of Selegiline. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Selumetinib: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Serotonergic Agents (High Risk, Miscellaneous): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Serotonergic Non-Opioid CNS Depressants: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Non-Opioid CNS Depressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Serotonergic Opioids (High Risk): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) if these agents are combined. Exceptions: TraMADol. Monitor therapy

Serotonin 5-HT1D Receptor Agonists (Triptans): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Exceptions: Almotriptan; Eletriptan. Monitor therapy

Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the antiplatelet effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. In addition, monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Exceptions: DULoxetine. Monitor therapy

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

St John's Wort: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. St John's Wort may decrease the serum concentration of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Syrian Rue: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the hyponatremic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Thrombolytic Agents: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Thrombolytic Agents. Monitor therapy

Thyroid Products: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may diminish the therapeutic effect of Thyroid Products. Thyroid product dose requirements may be increased. Monitor therapy

Tipranavir: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

TraMADol: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk for serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity and seizures may be increased. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) and seizures when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Tricyclic Antidepressants: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Vilazodone. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) if these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Urokinase: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Urokinase. Avoid combination

Vitamin E (Systemic): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. Monitor therapy

Vortioxetine: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Vortioxetine may enhance the serotonergic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. In addition, monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Monitor therapy

Zanubrutinib: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Adverse Reactions

>10%:

Central nervous system: Headache (15%)

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (26% to 29%), nausea (22% to 24%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Palpitations (1% to 2%)

Central nervous system: Dizziness (6% to 8%), insomnia (6% to 7%), drowsiness (4% to 5%), fatigue (4%), abnormal dreams (3%), restlessness (2% to 3%), paresthesia (2%), delayed ejaculation (1% to 2%), migraine (≥1%), sedation (>1%), panic attack (≤1%), ventricular premature contractions (≤1%)

Dermatologic: Hyperhidrosis (≤1%), night sweats (≤1%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Decreased libido (2% to 4%), weight gain (2%)

Gastrointestinal: Xerostomia (7% to 8%), abdominal pain (4% to 7%), vomiting (4% to 5%), dyspepsia (3%), flatulence (3%), increased appetite (3%), abdominal distension (2%), gastroenteritis (2%)

Genitourinary: Erectile dysfunction (≤3%), orgasm disturbance (1% to 2%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Arthralgia (2%), tremor (>1%)

Ophthalmic: Blurred vision (≤1%), xerophthalmia (≤1%)

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Acute pancreatitis, angle-closure glaucoma, cataract, hallucination, hyponatremia, irritability, mania, seizure, serotonin syndrome, skin rash, sleep paralysis, suicidal ideation, suicidal tendencies, urticaria

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Suicidal thoughts and behavior:

Antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in pediatric and young adult patients in short-term studies. Closely monitor all antidepressant-treated patients for clinical worsening and for emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Vilazodone is not approved for use in pediatric patients.

Warnings/Precautions

Major psychiatric warnings:

• Suicidal thinking/behavior: [US Boxed Warning]: Antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in pediatric and young adult patients; consider risk prior to prescribing. Short-term studies did not show an increased risk in patients >24 years of age and showed a decreased risk in patients ≥65 years of age. Closely monitor patients for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior, particularly during the initial 1 to 2 months of therapy or during periods of dosage adjustments (increases or decreases); the patient’s family or caregiver should be instructed to closely observe the patient and communicate condition with health care provider. A medication guide concerning the use of antidepressants should be dispensed with each prescription. Vilazodone is not approved for use in pediatric patients.

• The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in major depression and may persist until remission occurs. Worsening depression and severe abrupt suicidality that are not part of the presenting symptoms may require discontinuation or modification of drug therapy. Use caution in high-risk patients during initiation of therapy.

• Prescriptions should be written for the smallest quantity consistent with good patient care. The patient's family or caregiver should be alerted to monitor patients for the emergence of suicidality and associated behaviors such as anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, impulsivity, akathisia, hypomania, and mania; patients should be instructed to notify their health care provider if any of these symptoms or worsening depression or psychosis occur.

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Bleeding risk: May impair platelet aggregation resulting in increased risk of bleeding events, particularly if used concomitantly with aspirin, NSAIDs, warfarin, or other anticoagulants. Bleeding (including GI bleeding) related to SSRI or SNRI use has been reported to range from relatively minor bruising and epistaxis to life-threatening hemorrhage.

• Fractures: Bone fractures have been associated with antidepressant treatment. Consider the possibility of a fragility fracture if an antidepressant-treated patient presents with unexplained bone pain, point tenderness, swelling, or bruising (Rabenda 2013; Rizzoli 2012).

• Ocular effects: May cause mild pupillary dilation which in susceptible individuals can lead to an episode of narrow-angle glaucoma. Consider evaluating patients who have not had an iridectomy for narrow-angle glaucoma risk factors.

• Serotonin syndrome: Potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome (SS) has occurred with serotonergic agents (eg, SSRIs, SNRIs), particularly when used in combination with other serotonergic agents (eg, triptans, TCAs, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, buspirone, St John’s wort, tryptophan) or agents that impair metabolism of serotonin (eg, MAO inhibitors, including linezolid and intravenous methylene blue). Monitor patients closely for signs of SS such as mental status changes (eg, agitation, hallucinations, delirium, coma); autonomic instability (eg, tachycardia, labile blood pressure, diaphoresis); neuromuscular changes (eg, tremor, rigidity, myoclonus); GI symptoms (eg, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea); and/or seizures. Discontinue treatment (and any concomitant serotonergic agent) immediately if signs/symptoms arise.

• Sexual dysfunction: May cause or exacerbate sexual dysfunction.

• SIADH and hyponatremia: SSRIs and SNRIs have been associated with the development of SIADH; hyponatremia has been reported (including severe cases with serum sodium <110 mmol/L), predominately in the elderly; reversible with discontinuation of treatment. Volume depletion and/or concurrent use of diuretics likely increases risk.

Disease-related concerns:

• Mania/hypomania: May precipitate a shift to mania or hypomania in patients with bipolar disorder. Monotherapy in patients with bipolar disorder should be avoided. Combination therapy with an antidepressant and a mood stabilizer may be effective for acute treatment of bipolar major depressive episodes, but should be avoided in acute mania or mixed episodes, as well as maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder due to the mood-destabilizing effects of antidepressants (CANMAT [Yatham 2018]; WFSBP [Grunze 2018]). Patients presenting with depressive symptoms should be screened for bipolar disorder. Vilazodone is not FDA approved for the treatment of bipolar depression.

• Seizure disorder: Use with caution in patients with a previous seizure disorder or condition predisposing to seizures such as brain damage or alcoholism.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Discontinuation syndrome: Abrupt discontinuation or interruption of antidepressant therapy has been associated with a discontinuation syndrome. Symptoms arising may vary with antidepressant however commonly include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, lightheadedness, dizziness, diminished appetite, sweating, chills, tremors, paresthesias, fatigue, somnolence, and sleep disturbances (eg, vivid dreams, insomnia). Less common symptoms include electric shock-like sensations, cardiac arrhythmias (more common with tricyclic antidepressants), myalgias, parkinsonism, arthralgias, and balance difficulties. Psychological symptoms may also emerge such as agitation, anxiety, akathisia, panic attacks, irritability, aggressiveness, worsening of mood, dysphoria, mood lability, hyperactivity, mania/hypomania, depersonalization, decreased concentration, slowed thinking, confusion, and memory or concentration difficulties. Greater risks for developing a discontinuation syndrome have been associated with antidepressants with shorter half-lives, longer durations of treatment, and abrupt discontinuation. For antidepressants of short or intermediate half-lives, symptoms may emerge within 2 to 5 days after treatment discontinuation and last 7 to 14 days (APA 2010; Fava 2006; Haddad 2001; Shelton 2001; Warner 2006).

Monitoring Parameters

Monitor patient periodically for symptom resolution, mental status for depression, suicidal ideation (especially at the beginning of therapy or when doses are increased or decreased), anxiety, social functioning, mania, panic attacks, signs/symptoms of serotonin syndrome; akathisia

Pregnancy Considerations

Nonteratogenic effects in the newborn following selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)/serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) exposure late in the third trimester include respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypo- or hypertonia, hyper-reflexia, jitteriness, irritability, constant crying, and tremor. Symptoms may be due to the toxicity of the SSRIs/SNRIs or a discontinuation syndrome and may be consistent with serotonin syndrome associated with SSRI treatment. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn has also been reported with SSRI exposure. The long-term effects of in utero SSRI exposure on infant development and behavior are not known.

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends that therapy with SSRIs or SNRIs during pregnancy be individualized; treatment of depression during pregnancy should incorporate the clinical expertise of the mental health clinician, obstetrician, primary health care provider, and pediatrician. According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), the risks of medication treatment should be weighed against other treatment options and untreated depression. For women who discontinue antidepressant medications during pregnancy and who may be at high risk for postpartum depression, the medications can be restarted following delivery. Treatment algorithms have been developed by the ACOG and the APA for the management of depression in women prior to conception and during pregnancy. Consideration should be given to using an agent with some safety information in pregnant women (ACOG 2008; APA 2010; Yonkers 2009).

Pregnant women exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy are encouraged to enroll in the National Pregnancy Registry for Antidepressants (NPRAD). Women 18 to 45 years of age or their health care providers may contact the registry by calling 1-844-405-6185. Enrollment should be done as early in pregnancy as possible.

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to treat low mood (depression).

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Trouble sleeping

• Nausea

• Vomiting

• Diarrhea

• Dry mouth

• Fatigue

• Dizziness

• Headache

• Abdominal pain

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Depression like thoughts of suicide, anxiety, agitation, irritability, panic attacks, mood changes, behavioral changes, or confusion

• Low sodium like headache, trouble focusing, trouble with memory, confusion, weakness, seizures, or change in balance

• Bleeding like vomiting blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds; coughing up blood; blood in the urine; black, red, or tarry stools; bleeding from the gums; abnormal vaginal bleeding; bruises without a reason or that get bigger; or any severe or persistent bleeding.

• Seizures

• Vision changes

• Eye pain

• Eye redness

• Eye swelling

• Serotonin syndrome like dizziness, severe headache, agitation, sensing things that seem real but are not, fast heartbeat, abnormal heartbeat, flushing, tremors, sweating a lot, change in balance, severe nausea, or severe diarrhea

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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