Skip to Content

Aspirin and Dipyridamole

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Jul 17, 2020.

Pronunciation

(AS pir in & dye peer ID a mole)

Index Terms

  • Aspirin and Extended-Release Dipyridamole
  • Aspirin/Dipyridamole
  • Dipyridamole and Aspirin

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Capsule Extended Release 12 Hour, Oral:

Aggrenox: Aspirin 25 mg [immediate release] and dipyridamole 200 mg [extended release]

Generic: Aspirin 25 mg [immediate release] and dipyridamole 200 mg [extended release]

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Aggrenox

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antiplatelet Agent

Pharmacology

The antithrombotic action results from additive antiplatelet effects. Dipyridamole inhibits the uptake of adenosine into platelets, endothelial cells, and erythrocytes. Aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation by irreversible inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase and thus inhibits the generation of thromboxane A2.

Use: Labeled Indications

Stroke prevention: Reduction in the risk of stroke in patients who have had transient ischemia of the brain or complete ischemic stroke due to thrombosis.

Off Label Uses

Carotid artery stenosis, symptomatic (including recent carotid endarterectomy)

Based on the American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines on Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, aspirin/dipyridamole ER (eg, Aggrenox) is an effective and recommended treatment option for the secondary prevention in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis (including recent carotid endarterectomy) [Guyatt 2012].

Hemodialysis graft patency

Data from 1 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial showed a statistically significant but modest improvement in primary graft patency at 1 year in patients receiving aspirin/dipyridamole ER. Patients in this trial received a new arteriovenous hemodialysis graft and were at a low risk of bleeding [Dixon 2009].

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to aspirin, dipyridamole, or any component of the formulation; allergy to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); patients with the syndrome of asthma, rhinitis, and nasal polyps; children or adolescents with viral infections.

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Patients with hereditary fructose and/or galactose intolerance; active GI ulcer or bleeding disorders; last trimester of pregnancy

Dosing: Adult

Stroke prevention: Oral: One capsule (aspirin 25 mg/dipyridamole ER 200 mg) twice daily. Note: If patient experiences intolerable headache during initial therapy, reduce dose to one capsule (aspirin 25 mg/dipyridamole ER 200 mg) at bedtime and low-dose aspirin in the morning. Return to usual dose (one capsule twice daily) as soon as tolerance to headache develops (usually within a week).

Carotid artery stenosis, symptomatic (including recent carotid endarterectomy) (off-label use): Oral: One capsule (aspirin 25 mg/dipyridamole ER 200 mg) twice daily (ACCP [Guyatt 2012]).

Hemodialysis graft patency (off-label use): Oral: One capsule (aspirin 25 mg/dipyridamole ER 200 mg) twice daily (Dixon 2009).

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Administration

Oral: Administer with or without food. Capsule should be swallowed whole; do not crush or chew.

Bariatric surgery: Capsule, extended release: Some institutions may have specific protocols that conflict with these recommendations; refer to institutional protocols as appropriate. Cannot open capsule and cannot separate into its separate components on a same mg basis since aspirin is not available in that strength. Switch to a different antiplatelet medication.

Storage

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Protect from excessive moisture.

Drug Interactions

Acalabrutinib: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Dipyridamole may diminish the therapeutic effect of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Adenosine: Dipyridamole may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Adenosine. Specifically, cardiovascular effects of adenosine may be enhanced. Adenosine dose reduction may be needed. Management: For patients requiring pharmacologic stress testing with adenosine, hold dipyridamole tablets for 48 hours. Hold aspirin/dipyridamole capsules for 24 to 48 hours to decrease the risk of cardiovascular adverse effects. Consider therapy modification

Agents with Antiplatelet Properties (e.g., P2Y12 inhibitors, NSAIDs, SSRIs, etc.): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Increased risk of bleeding may result. Monitor therapy

Agents with Antiplatelet Properties (e.g., P2Y12 inhibitors, NSAIDs, SSRIs, etc.): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of other Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects: Salicylates may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Monitor therapy

Ajmaline: Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ajmaline. Specifically, the risk for cholestasis may be increased. Monitor therapy

Alcohol (Ethyl): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aspirin. Specifically, alcohol may increase the bleeding risk of aspirin. Alcohol (Ethyl) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Aspirin. Specifically, alcohol may interfere with the controlled release mechanism of extended release aspirin. Monitor therapy

Alendronate: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Alendronate. Specifically, the incidence of upper gastrointestinal adverse events may be increased Monitor therapy

Ammonium Chloride: May increase the serum concentration of Salicylates. Monitor therapy

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: Salicylates may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Anticoagulants: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. Exceptions: Bemiparin; Enoxaparin; Heparin. Monitor therapy

Anticoagulants: Salicylates may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. Monitor therapy

Apixaban: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Apixaban. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely. Consider therapy modification

Bemiparin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Bemiparin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of bemiparin with antiplatelet agents. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Benzbromarone: Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of Benzbromarone. Monitor therapy

Beta-Blockers: Dipyridamole may enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Exceptions: Levobunolol; Metipranolol. Monitor therapy

Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Monitor therapy

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Salicylate toxicity might be enhanced by this same combination. Management: Avoid these combinations when possible.Dichlorphenamide use with high-dose aspirin as contraindicated. If another combination is used, monitor patients closely for adverse effects. Tachypnea, anorexia, lethargy, and coma have been reported. Exceptions: Brinzolamide; Dorzolamide. Consider therapy modification

Carisoprodol: Aspirin may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Carisoprodol. Specifically, Meprobamate concentrations may be increased. Aspirin may decrease the serum concentration of Carisoprodol. Monitor therapy

Cephalothin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cephalothin. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Cladribine: Inhibitors of Equilibrative Nucleoside (ENT1) and Concentrative Nucleoside (CNT3) Transport Proteins may increase the serum concentration of Cladribine. Management: Avoid concomitant use of ENT1 or CNT3 inhibitors during the 4 to 5 day oral cladribine treatment cycles whenever possible. If combined, consider an ENT1 or CNT3 inhibitor dose reduction and separation in the timing of administration. Consider therapy modification

Collagenase (Systemic): Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Collagenase (Systemic). Specifically, the risk of injection site bruising and/or bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Corticosteroids (Systemic): Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Corticosteroids (Systemic). These specifically include gastrointestinal ulceration and bleeding. Corticosteroids (Systemic) may decrease the serum concentration of Salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids may result in salicylate toxicity. Monitor therapy

Dabigatran Etexilate: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Dabigatran Etexilate. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely; Canadian labeling states that low dose aspirin could be considered, but the use of antiplatelets are not recommended for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. Consider therapy modification

Dasatinib: May enhance the anticoagulant effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Monitor therapy

Deoxycholic Acid: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Deoxycholic Acid. Specifically, the risk for bleeding or bruising in the treatment area may be increased. Monitor therapy

Dexibuprofen: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Dexibuprofen. Dexibuprofen may diminish the cardioprotective effect of Aspirin. Avoid combination

Dexketoprofen: Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Dexketoprofen. Dexketoprofen may diminish the therapeutic effect of Salicylates. Salicylates may decrease the serum concentration of Dexketoprofen. Management: The use of high-dose salicylates (3 g/day or more in adults) together with dexketoprofen is inadvisable. Consider administering dexketoprofen 30-120 min after or at least 8 hrs before cardioprotective doses of aspirin to minimize any possible interaction. Avoid combination

Edoxaban: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Edoxaban. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Aspirin may increase the serum concentration of Edoxaban. Management: Carefully consider the anticipated risks and benefits of this combination. If combined, increased monitoring for bleeding is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Enoxaparin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Enoxaparin. Management: Discontinue antiplatelet agents prior to initiating enoxaparin whenever possible. If concomitant administration is unavoidable, monitor closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Fat Emulsion (Fish Oil Based): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Felbinac: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aspirin. Monitor therapy

Floctafenine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aspirin. An increased risk of bleeding may be associated with use of this combination. Floctafenine may diminish the cardioprotective effect of Aspirin. Avoid combination

Ginkgo Biloba: May enhance the anticoagulant effect of Salicylates. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination of agents. Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding (especially intracranial bleeding) if salicylates are used in combination with ginkgo biloba. Consider therapy modification

Glucosamine: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Gold Sodium Thiomalate: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Gold Sodium Thiomalate. Specifically, liver function tests may be elevated when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Heparin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Heparin. Management: Decrease the dose of heparin or agents with antiplatelet properties if coadministration is required. Consider therapy modification

Herbs (Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Properties) (eg, Alfalfa, Anise, Bilberry): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Bleeding may occur. Management: Avoid combination when possible. If used, monitor more closely for evidence of bleeding. Discontinue herbal products with anticoagulant or antiplatelet actions 2 weeks prior to surgical, dental, or invasive procedures. Consider therapy modification

Herbs (Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Properties) (eg, Alfalfa, Anise, Bilberry): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Bleeding may occur. Management: Avoid coadministration of herbs possessing anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties and salicylates. If coadministered, monitor for bleeding. Discontinue anticoagulant/antiplatelet herbs 2 weeks prior to surgical, dental or invasive procedures. Consider therapy modification

Hyaluronidase: Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of Hyaluronidase. Management: Patients receiving salicylates (particularly at larger doses) may not experience the desired clinical response to standard doses of hyaluronidase. Larger doses of hyaluronidase may be required. Consider therapy modification

Ibritumomab Tiuxetan: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ibritumomab Tiuxetan. Both agents may contribute to impaired platelet function and an increased risk of bleeding. Monitor therapy

Ibrutinib: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Influenza Virus Vaccine (Live/Attenuated): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Specifically, Reye's syndrome may develop. Avoid combination

Inotersen: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Ketorolac (Nasal): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aspirin. An increased risk of bleeding may be associated with use of this combination. Ketorolac (Nasal) may diminish the cardioprotective effect of Aspirin. Avoid combination

Ketorolac (Systemic): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aspirin. An increased risk of bleeding may be associated with use of this combination. Ketorolac (Systemic) may diminish the cardioprotective effect of Aspirin. Avoid combination

Lesinurad: Aspirin may diminish the therapeutic effect of Lesinurad. Monitor therapy

Limaprost: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Loop Diuretics: Salicylates may diminish the diuretic effect of Loop Diuretics. Loop Diuretics may increase the serum concentration of Salicylates. Monitor therapy

Macimorelin: Aspirin may diminish the diagnostic effect of Macimorelin. Avoid combination

Methotrexate: Salicylates may increase the serum concentration of Methotrexate. Salicylate doses used for prophylaxis of cardiovascular events are not likely to be of concern. Management: Consider avoiding coadministration of methotrexate and salicylates. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for increased toxic effects of methotrexate. Salicylate doses used for prophylaxis of cardiovascular events are not likely to be of concern. Consider therapy modification

Multivitamins/Fluoride (with ADE): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Aspirin may decrease the serum concentration of Multivitamins/Fluoride (with ADE). Specifically, aspirin may decrease the absorption of ascorbic acid. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Aspirin may decrease the serum concentration of Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron). Specifically, aspirin may decrease absorption of ascorbic acid. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Aspirin may decrease the serum concentration of Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron). Specifically, aspirin may decrease the absorption of ascorbic acid. Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nicorandil. Specifically, the risk of gastrointestinal ulceration and hemorrhage may be increased. Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (COX-2 Selective): Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (COX-2 Selective). Management: Concurrent use of aspirin at doses beyond cardioprotective levels is not recommended. While concurrent use of low-dose aspirin with a COX-2 inhibitor is permissable, patients should be monitored closely for signs/symptoms of GI ulceration/bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. An increased risk of bleeding may be associated with use of this combination. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may diminish the cardioprotective effect of Salicylates. Salicylates may decrease the serum concentration of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective). Management: Nonselective NSAIDs may reduce aspirin's cardioprotective effects. Administer ibuprofen 30-120 minutes after immediate-release aspirin, 2 to 4 hours after extended-release aspirin, or 8 hours before aspirin. Consider therapy modification

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Topical): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Specifically, the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is increased. Management: Coadministration of salicylates and topical NSAIDs is not recommended. If salicylates and topical NSAIDs are coadministered, ensure the benefits outweigh the risks and monitor for increased NSAID toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Obinutuzumab: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Obinutuzumab. Specifically, the risk of serious bleeding-related events may be increased. Monitor therapy

Omacetaxine: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Omacetaxine. Specifically, the risk for bleeding-related events may be increased. Management: Avoid concurrent use of aspirin with omacetaxine in patients with a platelet count of less than 50,000/uL. Avoid combination

Omega-3 Fatty Acids: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased by concurrent use of these agents. Monitor therapy

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Potassium Phosphate: May increase the serum concentration of Salicylates. Monitor therapy

PRALAtrexate: Salicylates may increase the serum concentration of PRALAtrexate. Salicylate doses used for prophylaxis of cardiovascular events are unlikely to be of concern. Management: Consider avoiding concomitant use of salicylates and pralatrexate. If coadministered, monitor for increased pralatrexate adverse effects. Salicylate doses used for prophylaxis of cardiovascular events are not likely to be of concern. Consider therapy modification

Probenecid: Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of Probenecid. Monitor therapy

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Regadenoson: Dipyridamole may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Regadenoson. Specifically, adenosine mediated effects may be enhanced. Management: Avoid dipyridamole for 48 hours prior to the administration of regadenoson when possible. Consider therapy modification

Riociguat: Dipyridamole may enhance the hypotensive effect of Riociguat. Avoid combination

Rivaroxaban: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Rivaroxaban. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely. Consider therapy modification

Salicylates: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Increased risk of bleeding may result. Monitor therapy

Salicylates: May enhance the anticoagulant effect of other Salicylates. Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Monitor therapy

Selumetinib: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Monitor therapy

Sincalide: Drugs that Affect Gallbladder Function may diminish the therapeutic effect of Sincalide. Management: Consider discontinuing drugs that may affect gallbladder motility prior to the use of sincalide to stimulate gallbladder contraction. Consider therapy modification

Spironolactone: Aspirin may diminish the therapeutic effect of Spironolactone. Monitor therapy

Sucroferric Oxyhydroxide: May decrease the serum concentration of Aspirin. Management: Administer aspirin at least 1 hour before administration of sucroferric oxyhydroxide. Consider therapy modification

Sulfinpyrazone: Salicylates may decrease the serum concentration of Sulfinpyrazone. Avoid combination

Talniflumate: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Talniflumate. Management: When possible, consider alternatives to this combination. Concurrent use is generally not recommended. Consider therapy modification

Thiopental: Aspirin may decrease the protein binding of Thiopental. Monitor therapy

Thrombolytic Agents: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Thrombolytic Agents. Monitor therapy

Thrombolytic Agents: Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Thrombolytic Agents. An increased risk of bleeding may occur. Monitor therapy

Ticagrelor: Aspirin may enhance the antiplatelet effect of Ticagrelor. Aspirin may diminish the therapeutic effect of Ticagrelor. More specifically, the benefits of ticagrelor relative to clopidogrel may be diminished in adult patients receiving daily aspirin doses greater than 100-150 mg daily. Management: Avoid daily aspirin doses greater than 100 mg in adults receiving ticagrelor. Canadian recommendations are to avoid adult daily aspirin doses greater than 150 mg. Daily low-dose aspirin (U.S.: 75-100 mg; Canada: 75-150 mg) is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Tiludronate: Aspirin may decrease the serum concentration of Tiludronate. Monitor therapy

Tipranavir: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Tricyclic Antidepressants (Tertiary Amine): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Monitor therapy

Urokinase: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Urokinase. Avoid combination

Valproate Products: Salicylates may increase the serum concentration of Valproate Products. Monitor therapy

Varicella Virus-Containing Vaccines: Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Varicella Virus-Containing Vaccines. Specifically, the risk for Reye's syndrome may increase. Avoid combination

Vitamin E (Systemic): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Salicylates may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. Management: Avoid as needed use of salicylates in patients taking vitamin K antagonists. Aspirin (80 to 325 mg/day) may be used with warfarin for prevention of cardiovascular events. If coadministering salicylates and vitamin K antagonists, monitor for bledding. Consider therapy modification

Zanubrutinib: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Test Interactions

See individual agents.

Adverse Reactions

>10%:

Central nervous system: Headache (39%; tolerance usually develops)

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain (18%), dyspepsia (18%), nausea (16%), diarrhea (13%)

1% to 10%:

Gastrointestinal: Vomiting (8%), gastrointestinal hemorrhage (3%)

Hematologic & oncologic: Hemorrhage (3%)

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Agitation, alopecia, anaphylaxis, angina pectoris, angioedema, anorexia, aplastic anemia, bronchospasm, bruise, cardiac arrhythmia, cerebral edema, cerebral hemorrhage, chest pain, cholelithiasis, confusion, dehydration, disorder of hemostatic components of blood, disseminated intravascular coagulation, dizziness, dyspnea, ecchymoses, flushing, gastritis, gastrointestinal perforation, gastrointestinal ulcer, gingival hemorrhage, hearing loss, hematemesis, hematoma, hematuria, hemoptysis, hepatic failure, hepatic insufficiency, hepatitis, hyperkalemia, hypersensitivity angiitis, hypersensitivity reaction, hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, hypotension, hypothermia, interstitial nephritis, intracranial hemorrhage, jaundice, laryngeal edema, melena, metabolic acidosis, migraine, myalgia, nonthrombocytopenic purpura, palpitations, pancreatitis, pancytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, proteinuria, pruritus, rectal hemorrhage, renal failure syndrome, renal insufficiency, renal papillary necrosis, respiratory alkalosis, Reye's syndrome, rhabdomyolysis, skin rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, subarachnoid hemorrhage, supraventricular tachycardia, syncope, tachycardia, tachypnea, thrombocythemia, thrombocytopenia, urticaria

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Bleeding: Aspirin may increase the risk of bleeding; risk factors include the use of other drugs that increase the risk of bleeding (eg, anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, heparin, fibrinolytic therapy, chronic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Use with caution in patients with acquired or inherited platelet and bleeding disorders; monitor for signs and symptoms of GI ulcers and bleeding. Use in active GI ulcer or bleeding disorders is contraindicated in the Canadian labeling.

• GI effects: Stomach pain, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, and GI bleeding may occur. Avoid use in patients with a history of active peptic ulcer disease. Use with caution in patients with erosive gastritis or peptic ulcer disease.

• Hepatic effects: Elevated hepatic enzymes and hepatic failure have been reported with dipyridamole.

• Salicylate sensitivity: Patients with sensitivity to tartrazine dyes, nasal polyps, and asthma may have an increased risk of salicylate sensitivity.

• Tinnitus: Discontinue use if tinnitus or impaired hearing occurs.

Disease-related concerns:

• Cardiovascular disease: Dipyridamole produces peripheral vasodilation; may exacerbate preexisting hypotension and/or chest pain in patients with coronary artery disease. Use with caution in patients with hypotension, unstable angina, and/or recent myocardial infarction (MI); discontinue use 24 hours prior to pharmacologic (IV dipyridamole) stress testing. Note: Amount of aspirin provided may not be adequate for cardiac indications (eg, angina pectoris, MI prophylaxis).

• Ethanol use: Heavy ethanol use (>3 drinks/day) may increase bleeding risk and may enhance gastric mucosal irritation and bleeding.

• Hepatic impairment: Avoid use in severe hepatic impairment.

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment (GFR ≥10 mL/minute); avoid use in severe impairment (GFR <10 mL/minute).

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Pharmacologic stress testing: Interrupt therapy for 24 to 48 hours prior to stress testing with adenosine, IV dipyridamole, or regadenoson; may increase risk for cardiovascular adverse effects and impair the test sensitivity.

Special populations:

• Pediatric: Avoid use in children due to risk of Reye syndrome associated with aspirin component.

• Surgical patients: Aspirin should be avoided (if possible) in surgical patients for 1 to 2 weeks prior to surgery, to reduce the risk of excessive bleeding. Consider risk versus benefit when discontinuing prior to surgery.

Dosage form specific issues:

• Interchangeability: Aspirin/dipyridamole ER combination product is not interchangeable with the individual components of aspirin and dipyridamole.

• Lactose/sucrose: Formulation may contain lactose and/or sucrose; use in patients with fructose and/or galactose intolerance is contraindicated in the Canadian labeling.

Monitoring Parameters

Signs and symptoms of GI ulcers and bleeding; signs or symptoms of stroke or transient ischemic attack in patients taking concomitant aspirin therapy for cardiac indications.

Pregnancy Considerations

Refer to individual monographs

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to prevent strokes.

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Heartburn

• Nausea

• Vomiting

• Diarrhea

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Bleeding like vomiting blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds; coughing up blood; blood in the urine; black, red, or tarry stools; bleeding from the gums; abnormal vaginal bleeding; bruises without a reason or that get bigger; or any severe or persistent bleeding.

• Liver problems like dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or yellow skin.

• Kidney problems like unable to pass urine, blood in the urine, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain.

• Weakness on 1 side of the body, trouble speaking or thinking, change in balance, drooping on one side of the face, or blurred eyesight

• Severe headache

• Chest pain

• Confusion

• Trouble with memory

• Severe loss of strength and energy

• Severe dizziness

• Passing out

• Severe abdominal pain

• Noise or ringing in the ears

• Hearing loss

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.