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Kanamycin Disease Interactions

There are 6 disease interactions with kanamycin:

Major

Aminoglycosides (Includes Kanamycin) ↔ Dehydration

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Dehydration, Diarrhea, Vomiting

Adequate hydration is crucial to minimize the risk of oto- and nephrotoxicity associated with the use of aminoglycosides. Dehydration should preferably be corrected prior to initiation of therapy. In patients who may be at risk for dehydration, such as those with severe and/or prolonged diarrhea or vomiting, fluid status should be monitored closely. If signs of renal irritation develop during therapy, hydration should be increased as indicated, accompanied by a reduction in dosage if necessary. Therapy should be withdrawn if urinary output decreases progressively or azotemia increases.

References

  1. "Product Information. Streptomycin (streptomycin)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  2. "Product Information. Netromycin (netilmicin)." Schering Laboratories, Kenilworth, NJ.
  3. "Product Information. Garamycin (gentamicin)." Schering-Plough Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Mycifradin (neomycin)." Emerson Laboratories, Texarkana, TX.
  5. "Product Information. Nebcin (tobramycin)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  6. "Product Information. Amikin (amikacin)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
View all 6 references
Major

Aminoglycosides (Includes Kanamycin) ↔ Neuromuscular Blockade

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Botulism, Hypocalcemia, Myoneural Disorder, Parkinsonism

Aminoglycosides can cause dose-related neuromuscular blockade and muscle weakness, particularly in patients with neuromuscular disease or hypocalcemia and in patients receiving general anesthetics, neuromuscular blocking agents, or massive transfusions of citrate-anticoagulated blood. Although aminoglycoside-induced neuromuscular blockade is generally self-limiting, it may rarely result in respiratory paralysis. Neomycin is thought to be the most potent neuromuscular blocking agent in the class. However, the risk is greatest with intraperitoneal or intrapleural instillation of large doses or rapid intravenous administration of parenteral aminoglycosides. Therapy with aminoglycosides should be administered cautiously in patients with neuromuscular disorders (e.g., myasthenia gravis, parkinsonian syndrome, botulism) or hypocalcemia. If signs of respiratory paralysis occur during aminoglycoside therapy, the drug should be discontinued and mechanical respiratory assistance provided if necessary.

References

  1. "Product Information. Mycifradin (neomycin)." Emerson Laboratories, Texarkana, TX.
  2. "Product Information. Amikin (amikacin)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  3. "Product Information. Nebcin (tobramycin)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  4. Ristuccia AM, Cunha BA "The aminoglycosides." Med Clin North Am 66 (1982): 303-12
  5. "Product Information. Streptomycin (streptomycin)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  6. "Product Information. Garamycin (gentamicin)." Schering-Plough Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  7. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  8. "Product Information. Netromycin (netilmicin)." Schering Laboratories, Kenilworth, NJ.
  9. Kaeser HE "Drug-induced myasthenic syndromes." Acta Neurol Scand 70 (1984): 39-47
View all 9 references
Major

Aminoglycosides (Includes Kanamycin) ↔ Ototoxicity

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Hearing Loss, Tinnitus

Aminoglycosides can cause eighth cranial nerve damage, resulting in vestibular and/or auditory toxicities. Symptoms include dizziness, nystagmus, vertigo, ataxia, tinnitus, and varying degrees of hearing impairment. Permanent hearing loss may occur, including, rarely, total or partial irreversible bilateral deafness after the drug has been discontinued. Therapy with aminoglycosides, particularly if prolonged (> 10 days), should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting vestibular and/or auditory impairment, since it may delay the recognition or confound the diagnosis of a drug-induced ototoxic effect. To minimize the risk of toxicity, patients should be adequately hydrated, the usual aminoglycoside dosage should not be exceeded, use with other ototoxic agents should be avoided, and peak and trough serum aminoglycoside concentrations should be periodically determined and dosage adjusted to maintain desired levels. Serial audiograms should be obtained in patients old enough to be tested, since loss of high-frequency perception usually precedes clinical hearing loss. The dosage should be reduced or therapy withdrawn promptly if signs and symptoms of toxicity develop.

References

  1. Gendeh BS, Said H, Gibb AG, Aziz NS, Kong N, Zahir ZM "Gentamicin ototoxicity in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis." J Laryngol Otol 107 (1993): 681-5
  2. "Product Information. Garamycin (gentamicin)." Schering-Plough Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  3. "Product Information. Streptomycin (streptomycin)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  4. Ballantyne J "Ototoxicity: a clinical review." Audiology 12 (1973): 325-36
  5. Danhauer FJ, Fortner CL, Schimpff SC, DeJongh CA, Wesley MN, Wiernik PH "Ototoxicity and pharmacokinetically determined dosages of amikacin in granulocytopenic cancer patients." Clin Pharm 1 (1982): 539-43
  6. Bock BV, Edelstein PH, Meyer RD "Prospective comparative study of efficacy and toxicity of netilmicin and amikacin." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 17 (1980): 217-25
  7. Esterhai JL, Bednar J, Kimmelman CP "Gentamicin-induced ototoxicity complicating treatment of chronic osteomyelitis." Clin Orthop Aug (1986): 185-6
  8. Hybels RL "Drug toxicity of the inner ear." Med Clin North Am 63 (1979): 309-19
  9. Smith CR, Lipsky JJ, Laskin OL, et al "Double-blind comparison of the nephrotoxicity and auditory toxicity of gentamicin and tobramycin." N Engl J Med 302 (1980): 1106-9
  10. Gatell JM, SanMiguel JG, Araujo V, et al "Prospective randomized double-blind comparison of nephrotoxicity and auditory toxicity of tobramycin and netilmicin." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 26 (1984): 766-9
  11. Barza M, Lauermann MW, Tally FP, Gorbach SL "Prospective, randomized trial of netilmicin and amikacin, with emphasis on eighth-nerve toxicity." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 17 (1980): 707-14
  12. Minor LB "Gentamicin-induced bilateral vestibular hypofunction." JAMA 279 (1998): 541-4
  13. Bernstein JM, Gorse GJ, Linzmayer I, et al "Relative efficacy and toxicity of netilmicin and tobramycin in oncology patients." Arch Intern Med 146 (1986): 2329-34
  14. Barza M, Lauermann MW, Tally FP, Gorbach SL "Prospective, randomized trial of netilmicin and amikacin, with emphasis on eighth-nerve toxicity." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 17 (1980): 707-14
  15. Bock BV, Edelstein PH, Meyer RD "Prospective comparative study of efficacy and toxicity of netilmicin and amikacin." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 17 (1980): 217-25
  16. Marlowe FI "Ototoxic agents." Otolaryngol Clin North Am 11 (1978): 791-800
  17. Tablan OC, Reyes MP, Rintelmann WF, Lerner AM "Renal and auditory toxicity of high-dose, prolonged therapy with gentamicin and tobramycin in pseudomonas endocarditis." J Infect Dis 149 (1984): 257-63
  18. Ajodhia JM, Dix MR "Drug-induced deafness and its treatment." Practitioner 216 (1976): 561-70
  19. Sheffield PA, Turner JS Jr "Ototoxic drugs: a review of clinical aspects, histopathologic changes and mechanisms of action." South Med J 64 (1971): 359-63
  20. Bernstein JM, Gorse GJ, Linzmayer MI, et al "Relative efficacy and toxicity of netilmicin and tobramycin in oncology patients." Arch Intern Med 146 (1986): 2329-34
  21. Deka RC, Ghosh P, Kacker SK "Streptomycin ototoxicity: an audiologic and vestibular study." Ear Nose Throat J 56 (1977): 218-24
  22. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program "Drug-induced deafness." JAMA 224 (1973): 515-6
  23. Ristuccia AM, Cunha BA "The aminoglycosides." Med Clin North Am 66 (1982): 303-12
  24. "Product Information. Mycifradin (neomycin)." Emerson Laboratories, Texarkana, TX.
  25. Gailiunas P, Dominguez-Moreno M, Lazarus JM, et al "Vestibular toxicity of gentamicin: incidence in patients receiving long-term hemodialysis therapy." Arch Intern Med 138 (1978): 1621-4
  26. "Product Information. Nebcin (tobramycin)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  27. "Product Information. Netromycin (netilmicin)." Schering Laboratories, Kenilworth, NJ.
  28. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  29. ElBakri F, Pallett A, Smith AG, Duncombe AS "Ototoxicity induced by once-daily gentamicin." Lancet 351 (1998): 1407-8
  30. Mathog RH, Klein WJ "Ototoxicity of ethacrynic acid and aminoglycoside antibiotics in uremia." N Engl J Med 280 (1969): 1223-4
  31. "Product Information. Amikin (amikacin)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  32. Uziel A "Non-genetic factors affecting hearing development." Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 421 (1985): 57-61
  33. Lerner SA, Schmitt BA, Seligsohn R, Matz G "Comparative study of ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity in patients randomly assigned to treatment with amikacin or gentamicin." Am J Med 80 Suppl 6 (1986): 98-104
View all 33 references
Major

Aminoglycosides (Includes Kanamycin) ↔ Renal Dysfunction

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction

Aminoglycosides are potentially oto- and nephrotoxic. Eighth cranial nerve damage may manifest as vestibular and/or auditory toxicities, including dizziness, nystagmus, vertigo, ataxia, tinnitus, and varying degrees of hearing impairment. Nephrotoxicity is usually evidenced by tubular necrosis; increases in BUN, nonprotein nitrogen, and serum creatinine concentration; decreases in urine specific gravity and creatinine clearance; proteinuria; and cells or casts in the urine. Rarely, renal electrolyte wasting may occur, resulting in hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypokalemia that may be associated with paresthesia, tetany, confusion, and positive Chvostek and Trousseau signs. Although aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity is generally reversible following discontinuation of the drug, death from uremia has occurred rarely. Therapy with aminoglycosides should be administered cautiously at reduced dosages in patients with renal impairment, since they may be at increased risk for oto- and nephrotoxicity due to drug accumulation. To minimize the risk of toxicity, patients should be adequately hydrated, the usual aminoglycoside dosage should not be exceeded, use with other neuro- and nephrotoxic agents should be avoided, and peak and trough serum aminoglycoside concentrations should be periodically determined and dosage adjusted to maintain desired levels. Renal and eighth cranial nerve function should be closely monitored, and the dosage reduced or therapy withdrawn if toxicity develops.

References

  1. Williams PJ, Hull JH, Sarubbi FA, Rogers JF, WArgin WA "Factors associated with nephrotoxicity and clinical outcome in patients receiving amikacin." J Clin Pharmacol 26 (1986): 79-86
  2. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  3. Contreras AM, Gamba G, Cortes J, et al "Serial trough and peak amikacin levels in plasma as predictors of nephrotoxicity." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 33 (1989): 973-6
  4. Kumin GD "Clinical nephrotoxicity of tobramycin and gentamicin." JAMA 244 (1980): 1808-10
  5. Jaffe, Meyers BR, Hirschman SZ "Pharmacokinetics of tobramycin in patients with stable renal impairment, patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, and patients on chronic hemodialysis." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 5 (1974): 611-6
  6. Lerner SA, Schmitt BA, Seligsohn R, Matz G "Comparative study of ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity in patients randomly assigned to treatment with amikacin or gentamicin." Am J Med 80 Suppl 6 (1986): 98-104
  7. Sarubbi FA, Hull JH "Amikacin serum concentrations: prediction of levels and dosage guidelines." Ann Intern Med 89 (1978): 612-8
  8. Gyselnyck AM, Forrey A, Cutler R "Pharmacokinetics of gentamicin: distribution and plasma and renal clearance." J Infect Dis 124 (1971): s70
  9. "Product Information. Netromycin (netilmicin)." Schering Laboratories, Kenilworth, NJ.
  10. Bock BV, Edelstein PH, Meyer RD "Prospective comparative study of efficacy and toxicity of netilmicin and amikacin." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 17 (1980): 217-25
  11. Matzke GR, Millikin, Kovarik JM "Variability in pharmacokinetic values for gentamicin, tobramycin, and netilmicin in patients with renal insufficiency." Clin Pharm 8 (1989): 800-6
  12. "Product Information. Streptomycin (streptomycin)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  13. "Product Information. Garamycin (gentamicin)." Schering-Plough Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  14. Matz GJ, Naunton RF "Ototoxic drugs and poor renal function." JAMA 206 (1968): 2119
  15. Trollfors B, Alestig K, Krantz I, Norrby R "Quantitative nephrotoxicity of gentamicin in nontoxic doses." J Infect Dis 141 (1980): 306-9
  16. French MA, Cerra FB, Plaut ME, Schentag JJ "Amikacin and gentamicin accumulation pharmacokinetics and nephrotoxicity in critically ill patients." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 19 (1981): 147-52
  17. Pedersen SS, Jensen J, Osterhammel D, Osterhammel P "Cumulative and acute toxicity of repeated high-dose tobramycin treatment in cystic fibrosis." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 31 (1987): 594-9
  18. Bhattacharya BK, Gorringe H, Farr MJ "Netilmicin and nephrotoxicity." Lancet 2 (1983): 216-7
  19. Pines A, Goldhammer E, Kaplinsky N, Frankl O "Hypopotassemia associated with tobramycin treatment." Infection 10 (1982): 101-
  20. Craig WA, Gudmundsson S, Reich RM "Netilmicin sulfate: a comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetics, adverse reactions and clinical efficacy." Pharmacotherapy 3 (1983): 305-15
  21. Fanning WL, Gump D, Jick H "Gentamicin and cephalothin-associated rises in blood urea nitrogen." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 10 (1976): 80-2
  22. Humbert G, Leroy A, Fillastre JP, Oksenhendler G "Pharmacokinetics of netilmicin in the presence of normal or impaired renal function." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 14 (1978): 40-4
  23. Smith CR, Lipsky JJ, Laskin OL, et al "Double-blind comparison of the nephrotoxicity and auditory toxicity of gentamicin and tobramycin." N Engl J Med 302 (1980): 1106-9
  24. Pechere JC, Dugal R, Pechere MM "Pharmacokinetics of netilmicin in renal insufficiency and haemodialysis." Clin Pharmacokinet 3 (1978): 395-406
  25. Kunin CM, Finland M "Persistence of antibiotics in blood of patients with acute renal failure. III. Penicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin and kanamycin." J Clin Invest 38 (1959): 1509-19
  26. Cimino MA, Rotstein C, Slaughter RL, Emrich LJ "Relationship of serum antibiotic concentrations to nephrotoxicity in cancer patients receiving concurrent aminoglycoside and vancomycin therapy." Am J Med 83 (1987): 1091-7
  27. Gatell JM, SanMiguel JG, Araujo V, et al "Prospective randomized double-blind comparison of nephrotoxicity and auditory toxicity of tobramycin and netilmicin." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 26 (1984): 766-9
  28. Schentag JJ, Lasezkay G, Cumbo TJ, et al "Accumulation pharmacokinetics of tobramycin." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 13 (1978): 649-56
  29. Russo ME, Atkin-Thor E "Gentamicin and ticarcillin in subjects with end-stage renal disease." Clin Nephrol 15 (1981): 175-80
  30. McHenry MC, Wagner JG, Hall PM, Vidt DG, Gavan TL "Pharmacokinetics of amikacin in patients with impaired renal function." J Infect Dis 134 Suppl (1976): s343-54
  31. Plantier J, Forrey AW, O'Neill MA, Blair AD, Christopher TG, Cutler RE "Pharmacokinetics of amikacin in patients with normal or impaired renal function: radioenzymatic acetylation assay." J Infect Dis 134 Suppl (1976): s323-30
  32. Pijck J, Hallynck T, Soep H, Baert L, Daniels R, Boelaert J "Pharmacokinetics of amikacin in patients with renal insufficiency: relation of half-life and creatinine clearance." J Infect Dis 134 (1976): s331-41
  33. Letona JM, Barbolla L, Frieyro E, et al "Immune haemolytic anaemia and renal failure induced by streptomycin." Br J Haematol 35 (1977): 561-71
  34. Dahlgren JG, Anderson ET, Hewitt WL "Gentamicin blood levels: a guide to nephrotoxicity." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 8 (1975): 58-62
  35. "Product Information. Mycifradin (neomycin)." Emerson Laboratories, Texarkana, TX.
  36. "Product Information. Nebcin (tobramycin)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  37. Herrero A, Alarco FR, Diez JM, Mahiques E, Domingo JV "Pharmacokinetics of netilmicin in renal insufficiency and hemodialysis." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 26 (1988): 84-7
  38. Tablan OC, Reyes MP, Rintelmann WF, Lerner AM "Renal and auditory toxicity of high-dose, prolonged therapy with gentamicin and tobramycin in pseudomonas endocarditis." J Infect Dis 149 (1984): 257-63
  39. Madhavan T, Yaremchuk K, Levin N, et al "Effect of renal failure and dialysis on the serum concentration of the aminoglycoside amikacin." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 10 (1976): 464-5
  40. Wilkinson R, Lucas GL, Heath DA, et al "Hypomagnesaemic tetany associated with prolonged treatment with aminoglycosides." Br Med J 292 (1986): 818-9
  41. Luft FC, Brannon DR, Stropes LL, Costello RJ, Sloan RS, Maxwell DR "Pharmacokinetics of netilmicin in patients with renal impairment and in patients on dialysis." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 14 (1978): 403-7
  42. Schentag JJ, Cerra FB, Plaut ME "Clinical and pharmacokinetic characteristics of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity in 201 critically ill patients." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 21 (1982): 721-6
  43. Gilbert DN, Bennett WM "Use of antimicrobial agents in renal failure." Infect Dis Clin North Am 3 (1989): 517-31
  44. Bernstein JM, Gorse GJ, Linzmayer MI, et al "Relative efficacy and toxicity of netilmicin and tobramycin in oncology patients." Arch Intern Med 146 (1986): 2329-34
  45. Watson AJ, Watson MM, Keogh JA "Metabolic abnormalities associated with tobramycin therapy." Isr J Med Sci 153 (1984): 96-9
  46. "Product Information. Amikin (amikacin)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  47. Beauchamp D, Gourde P, Theriault G, Bergeron MG "Age-dependent gentamicin experimental nephrotoxicity." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 260 (1992): 444-9
  48. Yoshikawa TT, Nagami PH "Adverse drug reactions in TB therapy: risks and recommendations." Geriatrics 37 (1982): 61-3, 67-8
  49. Federspil P, Schatzle W, Tiesler E "Pharmacokinetics and ototoxicity of gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin." J Infect Dis 134 (1976): s200-5
  50. Contrepois A, Brion N, Garaud JJ, et al "Renal disposition of gentamicin, dibekacin, tobramycin, netilmicin, and amikacin in humans." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 27 (1985): 520-4
  51. Siegenthaler WE, Bonetti A, Luthy R "Aminoglycoside antibiotics in infectious diseases: an overview." Am J Med 80 (1986): 2-14
  52. Bergeron MG, Lessard C, Ronald A, Stiver G, Van Roogen CE, Chadwick P "Three to eight weeks of therapy with netilmicin: toxicity in normal and diabetic patients." J Antimicrob Chemother 12 (1983): 245-8
  53. Emanuelli G, Anfossi G, Calcamuggi G, Marcarino C, Lanzio M "Urinary enzyme release following aminoglycoside administration in single low dose." Enzyme 39 (1988): 119-22
  54. McQueen EG "Antibiotic allergy and acute renal failure." N Z Med J 64 (1965): 561-3
  55. Keys TF, Kurtz SB, Jones JD, Muller SM "Renal toxicity during therapy with gentamicin or tobramycin." Mayo Clin Proc 56 (1981): 556-9
  56. Solberg CO, Madsen ST, Digranes A, et al "High dose netilmicin therapy: efficacy, tolerance and tissue penetration." J Antimicrob Chemother 6 (1980): 133-41
  57. Ristuccia AM, Cunha BA "The aminoglycosides." Med Clin North Am 66 (1982): 303-12
View all 57 references
Major

Aminoglycosides (Oral) (Includes Kanamycin) ↔ Intestinal Obstruction

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Intestinal Obstruction

The use of oral aminoglycosides is contraindicated in patients with intestinal obstruction. Orally administered aminoglycosides are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and primarily eliminated unchanged in the feces. Drug retention and enhanced systemic absorption may occur in the presence of intestinal obstruction, increasing the risk of oto- and nephrotoxicity associated with these drugs.

References

  1. "Product Information. Humatin (paromomycin)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. Mycifradin (neomycin)." Emerson Laboratories, Texarkana, TX.
  3. Ristuccia AM, Cunha BA "The aminoglycosides." Med Clin North Am 66 (1982): 303-12
Moderate

Antibiotics (Includes Kanamycin) ↔ Colitis

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Colitis/Enteritis (Noninfectious)

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with most antibacterial agents and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening, with an onset of up to two months following cessation of therapy. Antibiotic therapy can alter the normal flora of the colon and permit overgrowth of Clostridium difficile, whose toxin is believed to be a primary cause of antibiotic- associated colitis. The colitis is usually characterized by severe, persistent diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps, and may be associated with the passage of blood and mucus. The most common culprits are clindamycin, lincomycin, the aminopenicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin), and the cephalosporins. Therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics and other agents with significant antibacterial activity should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of gastrointestinal diseases, particularly colitis. There is some evidence that pseudomembranous colitis, if it occurs, may run a more severe course in these patients and that it may be associated with flares in their underlying disease activity. The offending antibiotic(s) should be discontinued if significant diarrhea occurs during therapy. Stool cultures for Clostridium difficile and stool assay for C. difficile toxin may be helpful diagnostically. A large bowel endoscopy may be considered to establish a definitive diagnosis in cases of severe diarrhea.

References

  1. Moriarty HJ, Scobie BA "Pseudomembranous colitis in a patient on rifampicin and ethambutol." N Z Med J 04/23/80 (1980): 294-5
  2. Thomas E, Mehta JB "Pseudomembranous colitis due to oxacillin therapy." South Med J 77 (1984): 532-3
  3. Davies J, Beck E "Recurrent colitis following antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Postgrad Med J 57 (1981): 599-601
  4. Saadah HA "Carbenicillin and pseudomembranous enterocolitis." Ann Intern Med 93 (1980): 645
  5. Lyon JA "Imipenem/cilastatin: the first carbapenem antibiotic." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 19 (1985): 894-8
  6. Trexler MF, Fraser TG, Jones MP "Fulminant pseudomembranous colitis caused by clindamycin phosphate vaginal cream." Am J Gastroenterol 92 (1997): 2112-3
  7. Daly JJ, Chowdary KV "Pseudomembranous colitis secondary to metronidazole." Dig Dis Sci 28 (1983): 573-4
  8. Bauwens JE, McFarland LV, Melcher SA "Recurrent clostridium difficile disease following ciprofloxacin use." Ann Pharmacother 31 (1997): 1090
  9. O'Meara TF, Simmons RA "Carbenicillin and pseudomembranous enterocolitis." Ann Intern Med 92 (1980): 440-1
  10. Meadowcroft AM, Diaz PR, Latham GS "Clostridium difficile toxin-induced colitis after use of clindmycin phosphate vaginal cream." Ann Pharmacother 32 (1998): 309-11
  11. Dan M, Samra Z "Clostridium difficile colitis associated with ofloxacin therapy." Am J Med 87 (1989): 479
  12. Milstone EB, McDonald AJ, Scholhamer CF Jr "Pseudomembranous colitis after topical application of clindamycin." Arch Dermatol 117 (1981): 154-5
  13. Harmon T, Burkhart G, Applebaum H "Perforated pseudomembranous colitis in the breast-fed infant." J Pediatr Surg 27 (1992): 744-6
  14. Ehrenpreis ED, Lievens MW, Craig RM "Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea after norfloxacin." J Clin Gastroenterol 12 (1990): 188-9
  15. Burt RA "A review of the drug events reported by 12,917 patients treated with cephalexin." Postgrad Med J 59 (1983): 47-50,51-3
  16. Cone JB, Wetzel W "Toxic megacolon secondary to pseudomembranous colitis." Dis Colon Rectum 25 (1982): 478-82
  17. Cannon SR, Dyson PH, Sanderson PJ "Pseudomembranous colitis associated with antibiotic prophylaxis in orthopaedic surgery." J Bone Joint Surg Br 70-B (1988): 600-2
  18. Miller DL, Sedlack JD, Holt RW "Perforation complicating rifampin-associated pseudomembranous enteritis." Arch Surg 124 (1989): 1082
  19. Miller SN, Ringler RP "Vancomycin-induced pseudomembranous colitis." J Clin Gastroenterol 9 (1987): 114-5
  20. Calandra GB, Brown KR, Grad LC, et al "Review of adverse experiences and tolerability in the first 2,516 patients treated with imipenem/cilastatin." Am J Med 78 (1985): 73-8
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  22. Osler T, Lott D, Bordley J, et al "Cefazolin-induced pseudomembranous colitis resulting in perforation of the sigmoid colon." Dis Colon Rectum 29 (1986): 140-3
  23. Parry MF, Rha CK "Pseudomembranous colitis caused by topical clindamycin phosphate." Arch Dermatol 122 (1986): 583-4
  24. Clissold SP, Todd PA, Campoli-Richards DM "Imipenem/cilastatin: a review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy." Drugs 33 (1987): 185-241
  25. Pokorney BH, Nichols TW, Jr "Pseudomembranous colitis. A complication of sulfasalazine therapy in a patient with Crohn's colitis." Am J Gastroenterol 76 (1981): 374-6
  26. Bingley PJ, Harding GM "Clostridium difficile colitis following treatment with metronidazole and vancomycin." Postgrad Med J 63 (1987): 993-4
  27. Hutcheon DF, Milligan FD, Yardley JH, Hendrix TR "Cephalosporin-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Am J Dig Dis 23 (1978): 321-6
  28. Sankarankutty M, McGeorge D, Galasko CS "Pseudomembranous colitis following cephradine prophylaxis." Postgrad Med J 58 (1982): 726-8
  29. Gordin F, Gibert C, Schmidt ME "Clostridium difficile colitis associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole given as prophylaxis for pneumocystis carinii pneumonia." Am J Med 96 (1994): 94-5
  30. Sugarman B "Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pseudomembranous colitis, and spinal cord injury." South Med J 78 (1985): 711-3
  31. Bernstein L "Adverse reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, with particular reference to long-term therapy." Can Med Assoc J 112 (1975): s96-8
  32. Midtvedt T, Carlstedt-Duke B, Hoverstad T, et al "Influence of peroral antibiotics upon the biotransformatory activity of the intestinal microflora in healthy subjects." Eur J Clin Invest 16 (1986): 11-7
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  34. Ring FA, Hershfield NB, Machin GA, Scott RB "Sulfasalazine-induced colitis complicating idiopathic ulcerative colitis." Can Med Assoc J 131 (1984): 43-5
  35. Golledge CL, Riley TV "Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea after doxycycline malaria prophylaxis." Lancet 345 (1995): 1377-8
  36. Friedman RJ, Mayer IE, Galambos JT, Hersh T "Oxacillin-induced pseudomembranous colitis." Am J Gastroenterol 73 (1980): 445-7
  37. Edlund C, Lidbeck A, Kager L, Nord CE "Effect of enoxacin on colonic microflora of healthy volunteers." Eur J Clin Microbiol 6 (1987): 298-300
  38. Van Ness MM, Cattau EL Jr "Fulminant colitis complicating antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis: case report and review of the clinical manifestations and treatment." Am J Gastroenterol 82 (1987): 374-7
  39. Boriello SP, Jones RH, Phillips I "Rifampicin-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Br Med J 281 (1980): 1180-1
  40. Klinger D, Radford P, Collin J "Pneumoperitoneum without faecal peritonitis in a patient with pseudomembranous colitis." Br Med J 288 (1984): 1271-2
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kanamycin drug Interactions

There are 307 drug interactions with kanamycin

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No information available.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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