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Amlodipine / benazepril Disease Interactions

There are 12 disease interactions with amlodipine / benazepril:

Major

Ace Inhibitors (Includes Amlodipine/benazepril) ↔ Angioedema

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Angioedema

Patients with a history of angioedema unrelated to ACE inhibitors may be at increased risk of angioedema while receiving an ACE inhibitor. Patients should be advised to immediately report any signs or symptoms suggestive of angioedema (swelling of face, extremities, eyes, lips, or tongue, or difficulty swallowing or breathing) and to stop taking the medication until otherwise directed by their physician. Emergency therapy and/or measures to prevent airway obstruction are required for angioedema involving the tongue, glottis, or larynx. The use of these agents is contraindicated in patients with hereditary angioedema or a history of idiopathic angioedema. Treatment with ACE inhibitors should be discontinued permanently if angioedema develops in association with therapy.

References

  1. Seidman MD, Lewandowski CA, Sarpa JR, et al "Angioedema related to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors." Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 102 (1990): 727-31
  2. Gianos ME, Klaustermeyer WB, Kurohara M, et al "Enalapril induced angioedema." Am J Emerg Med 8 (1990): 124-6
  3. Chin HL, Buchan DA "Severe angioedema after long-term use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ." Ann Intern Med 112 (1990): 312-3
  4. Gonzalo FE, Montagut LB, Vecina ST "Angioedema caused by ramipril." Ann Pharmacother 29 (1995): 431-2
  5. Gannon TH, Eby TL "Angioedema from angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors: a cause of upper airway obstruction." Laryngoscope 100 (1990): 1156-60
  6. Hedner T, Samuelsson O, Lunde H, et al "Angio-oedema in relation to treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors." Br Med J 304 (1992): 941-6
  7. Orfan N, Patterson R, Dykewicz MS "Severe angioedema related to ACE inhibitors in patients with a history of idiopathic angioedema." JAMA 264 (1990): 1287-9
  8. "Product Information. Lotensin (benazepril)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
  9. Roberts JR, Wuerz RC "Clinical characteristics of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema." Ann Emerg Med 20 (1991): 555-8
  10. Werber JL, Pincus RL "Oropharyngeal angioedema associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors." Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 101 (1989): 96-8
  11. "Product Information. Capoten (captopril)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  12. "Product Information. Mavik (trandolapril)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  13. Jett GK "Captopril-induced angioedema ." Ann Emerg Med 13 (1984): 489-90
  14. Gimenez JC "Angioneurotic edema produced by enalapril." Ann Pharmacother 29 (1995): 317
  15. Kaplan NM "The CARE study: a postmarketing evaluation of ramipril in 11,100 patients." Clin Ther 18 (1996): 658-70
  16. Abidin MR, Eisele DW "Angioedema after long-term use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ." Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 117 (1991): 1059
  17. Frontera Y, Piecuch JF "Multiple episodes of angioedema associated with lisinopril, an ACE inhibitor." J Am Dent Assoc 126 (1995): 217-20
  18. Soo Hoo GW, Dao HT, Klaustermeyer WB "Severe angioedema and respiratory distress associated with lisinopril use." West J Med 158 (1993): 412-7
  19. Wood SM, Mann RD, Rawlins MD "Angio-oedema and urticaria associated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors." Br Med J 294 (1987): 91-2
  20. Jason DR "Fatal angioedema associated with captopril." J Forensic Sci 37 (1992): 1418-21
  21. "Product Information. Vasotec (enalapril)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  22. Alderman CP "Adverse effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors." Ann Pharmacother 30 (1996): 55-61
  23. "Product Information. Monopril (fosinopril)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  24. Suarez M, Ho PW, Johnson ES, Perez G "Angioneurotic edema, agranulocytosis, and fatal septicemia following captopril therapy." Am J Med 81 (1986): 336-8
  25. "Product Information. Accupril (quinapril)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  26. "Product Information. Prinivil (lisinopril)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  27. McElligott S, Perlroth M, Raish L "Angioedema after substituting lisinopril for captopril ." Ann Intern Med 116 (1992): 426-7
  28. "Product Information. Aceon (perindopril)." Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc, Marietta, GA.
  29. O'Mara NB, O'Mara EM Jr "Delayed onset of andioedema with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: case report and review of the literature." Pharmacotherapy 16 (1996): 675-9
  30. "Product Information. Univasc (moexipril)." Schwarz Pharma, Mequon, WI.
  31. Gunkel AR, Thurner KH, Kanonier G, Sprinzl GM, Thumfart WF "Angioneurotic edema as a reaction to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors." Am J Otolaryngol 17 (1996): 87-91
  32. Gonnering RS, Hirsch SR "Delayed drug-induced periorbital angioedema ." Am J Ophthalmol 110 (1990): 566-8
  33. "Product Information. Altace (ramipril)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  34. Forslund T, Tohmo H, Weckstrom G, Stenborg M, Jarvinen S "Angio-oedema induced by enalapril." J Intern Med 238 (1995): 179-81
View all 34 references
Major

Ace Inhibitors (Includes Amlodipine/benazepril) ↔ Bone Marrow Suppression

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Collagen Vascular Disease, Renal Dysfunction, Bone Marrow Depression/Low Blood Counts

ACE inhibitors may cause bone marrow suppression, rarely in uncomplicated individuals but more frequently in patients with renal impairment, especially if they also have a collagen-vascular disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus or scleroderma. Neutropenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, eosinophilia and thrombocytopenia have been reported, mostly with captopril. Therapy with ACE inhibitors should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting blood dyscrasias or complications that may increase the risk of bone marrow depression during ACE inhibitor therapy. Monitoring of blood counts, particularly white blood cells, should be considered.

References

  1. Davies RO, Irvin JD, Kramsch PK, Walker JF, Moncloa F "Enalapril worldwide experience." Am J Med 77 (1984): 23-35
  2. Knapp LE, Frank GJ, McLain R, Rieger MM, Posvar E, Singer R "The safety and tolerability of quinapril." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 15 (1990): s47-55
  3. "Product Information. Altace (ramipril)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  4. "Product Information. Lotensin (benazepril)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
  5. Shindo K, Matsuya F, Ura T, et al "Captopril-associated granulocytopenia in hypertension after renal transplantation." Clin Nephrol 22 (1984): 314-6
  6. Elijovisch F, Krakoff LR "Captopril associated granulocytopenia in hypertension after renal transplantation ." Lancet 1 (1980): 927-8
  7. Edwards IR, Coulter DM, Beasley DM, MacIntosh D "Captopril: 4 years of post marketing surveillance of all patients in New Zealand." Br J Clin Pharmacol 23 (1987): 529-36
  8. Gavras I, Graff LG, Rose BD, et al "Fatal pancytopenia associated with the use of captopril." Ann Intern Med 94 (1981): 58-9
  9. Grosbois B, Milton D, Beneton C, Jacomy D "Thrombocytopenia induced by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors." Br Med J 298 (1989): 189-90
  10. Loftus WK, Ierino F, Mathew TH "Enalapril and anaemia ." Med J Aust 148 (1988): 209-10
  11. "Product Information. Capoten (captopril)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  12. Forslund T, Borgmastars H, Fyrquist F "Captopril-associated leucopenia confirmed by rechallenge in patient with renal failure ." Lancet 1 (1981): 166
  13. Torello J, Duran JA, Abadin JA "Captopril-associated aplastic anemia ." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 24 (1990): 543-4
  14. Strair RK, Mitch WE, Faller DV, Skorecki KL "Reversible captopril-associated bone marrow aplasia ." Can Med Assoc J 132 (1985): 320-2
  15. "Product Information. Mavik (trandolapril)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  16. Suarez M, Ho PW, Johnson ES, Perez G "Angioneurotic edema, agranulocytosis, and fatal septicemia following captopril therapy." Am J Med 81 (1986): 336-8
  17. Waeber B, Gavras I, Brunner HR, Gavras H "Safety and efficacy of chronic therapy with captopril in hypertensive patients: an update." J Clin Pharmacol 21 (1981): 508-16
  18. Alderman CP "Adverse effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors." Ann Pharmacother 30 (1996): 55-61
  19. "Product Information. Vasotec (enalapril)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  20. Hirakata H, Onoyama K, Iseki K, et al "Worsening of anemia induced by long-term use of captopril in hemodialysis patients." Am J Nephrol 4 (1984): 355-60
  21. "Product Information. Aceon (perindopril)." Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc, Marietta, GA.
  22. Beroniade V "Severe side-effects of captopril in advanced chronic kidney insufficiency." Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 20 (1983): 530-7
  23. el-Makri A, Larabi MS, Kechrid C, et al "Fatal bone-marrow suppression associated with captopril." Br Med J 283 (1981): 277-8
  24. "Product Information. Prinivil (lisinopril)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  25. Pillans PI, Koopowitz A "Captopril-associated agranulocytosis: a report of 3 cases." S Afr Med J 79 (1991): 399-400
  26. Harrison BD, Laidlaw ST, Reilly JT "Fatal aplastic anaemia associated with lisinopril." Lancet 346 (1995): 247-8
  27. Chalmers D, Whitehead A, Lawson DH "Postmarketing surveillance of captopril for hypertension." Br J Clin Pharmacol 34 (1992): 215-23
  28. "Product Information. Accupril (quinapril)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  29. Vidt DG, Bravo EL, Fouad FM "Captopril." N Engl J Med 306 (1982): 214-9
  30. "Product Information. Univasc (moexipril)." Schwarz Pharma, Mequon, WI.
  31. Materson BJ "Adverse effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in antihypertensive therapy with focus on quinapril." Am J Cardiol 69 (1992): c46-53
  32. Onoyama K, Sanai T, Motomura K, Fujishima M "Worsening of anemia by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and its prevention by antiestrogenic steroid in chronic hemodialysis patients." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 13 (1989): s27-30
  33. Israeli A, Or R, Leitersdorf E "Captopril-associated transient aplastic anemia." Acta Haematol 73 (1985): 106-7
  34. Vlahakos DV, Canzanello VJ, Madaio MP, Madias NE "Enalapril-associated anemia in renal transplant recipients treated for hypertension." Am J Kidney Dis 17 (1991): 199-205
  35. Elis A, Lishner M, Lang R, Ravid M "Agranulocytosis associated with enalapril." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 25 (1991): 461-2
  36. Kim CR, Maley MB, Mohler ER "Captopril and aplastic anemia." Ann Intern Med 111 (1989): 187-8
  37. "Product Information. Monopril (fosinopril)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  38. Elijovisch F, Krakoff LR "Captopril associated granulocytopenia in hypertension after renal transplantation." Lancet 1 (1980): 927-8
View all 38 references
Major

Ace Inhibitors (Includes Amlodipine/benazepril) ↔ Chf

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Congestive Heart Failure

ACE inhibitors can cause marked renal impairment in patients whose renal function depends on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In addition, symptomatic and sometimes excessive hypotension can occur in susceptible individuals, particularly during the initiation of treatment, which may compromise renal and myocardial perfusion. In patients with severe congestive heart failure (CHF), treatment with ACE inhibitors may be associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and, rarely, renal failure, myocardial ischemia and death. Therapy with ACE inhibitors should be initiated under very close medical supervision in patients with severe CHF, especially when accompanied by volume and/or sodium depletion. Patients should be monitored closely for several hours after an initial dose until blood pressure has stabilized, and followed closely for the first 2 weeks of treatment and whenever the dosage of ACE inhibitor or diuretic is increased. If feasible, the risk of severe hypotension may be minimized by reducing or temporarily withholding the dosing of diuretics and/or liberalizing dietary sodium intake for 2 to 3 days prior to starting ACE inhibitor therapy. In patients who experience a worsening of renal function, discontinuation of ACE inhibitor therapy is usually not required provided there is symptomatic improvement of the heart failure and renal deterioration is well-tolerated. Transient hypotension is also not a contraindication to further treatment with ACE inhibitors. After blood pressure stabilizes, therapy can usually be reinstated with caution, although a lower dosage of the ACE inhibitor and/or dosage reduction or discontinuation of concomitantly administered diuretics may be necessary.

References

  1. Moyses C, Higgins TJ "Safety of long-term use of lisinopril for congestive heart failure." Am J Cardiol 70 (1992): c91-7
  2. "Product Information. Altace (ramipril)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  3. "Product Information. Lotensin (benazepril)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
  4. Moyses C, Higgins TJ "Safety of long-term use of lisinopril for congestive heart failure." Am J Cardiol 70 (1992): c91-7
  5. "Product Information. Capoten (captopril)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  6. Heintz B, Verho M, Brockmeier D, Kirsten R, Nelson K, Maigatter S, Lefevre G, Kierdorf H, Sieberth HG "Influence of ramipril on renal function in patients with chronic congestive heart failure." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 18 (1991): s174-9
  7. Kober L, Torp-Pedersen C, Carlsen JE, Bagger H, Eliasen P, Lyngborg K, Videbaek J, Cole DS, Auclert L, Pauly NC, et al "A clinical trial of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor trandolapril in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation (TRACE) Study Group." N Engl J Med 333 (1995): 1670-6
  8. "Product Information. Vasotec (enalapril)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  9. Schwartz D, Averbuch M, Pines A, et al "Renal toxicity of enalapril in very elderly patients with progressive, severe congestive heart failure." Chest 100 (1991): 1558-61
  10. Antonios TFT, Macgregor GA "Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in hypertension: potential problems." J Hypertens 13 Suppl (1995): s11-6
  11. "Product Information. Mavik (trandolapril)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  12. Kostis JB, Shelton BJ, Yusuf S, Weiss MB, Capone RJ, Pepine CJ, Gosselin G, Delahaye F, Probstfield JL, Cahill L, Dutton D "Tolerability of enalapril initiation by patients with left ventricular dysfunction: results of the medication challenge phase of the studies of left ventricular dysfunction." Am Heart J 128 (1994): 358-64
  13. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  14. "Product Information. Accupril (quinapril)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  15. "Product Information. Aceon (perindopril)." Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc, Marietta, GA.
  16. Dietz R, Nagel F, Osterziel KJ "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and renal function in heart failure." Am J Cardiol 70 (1992): c119-25
  17. Kostis JB, Shelton B, Gosselin G, Goulet C, Hood WB, Kohn RM, Kubo SH, Schron E, Weiss MB, Willis PW, Young JB, Probstfie "Adverse effects of enalapril in the studies of left ventricular dysfunction (SOLVD)." Am Heart J 131 (1996): 350-5
  18. Ljungman S, Kjekshus J, Swedberg K "Renal function in severe congestive heart failure during treatment with enalapril." Am J Cardiol 70 (1992): 479-87
  19. "Product Information. Univasc (moexipril)." Schwarz Pharma, Mequon, WI.
  20. "Product Information. Monopril (fosinopril)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  21. "Product Information. Prinivil (lisinopril)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
View all 21 references
Major

Ace Inhibitors (Includes Amlodipine/benazepril) ↔ Hemodialysis

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: hemodialysis

Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients undergoing hemodialysis with high-flux polyacrylonitrile membranes and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. The frequency and mechanism of this interaction have not been established, and it is not known whether the interaction occurs with other membrane types. Therapy with ACE inhibitors should be administered cautiously in patients requiring hemodialysis.

References

  1. "Product Information. Capoten (captopril)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. Lotensin (benazepril)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
  3. "Product Information. Altace (ramipril)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  4. "Product Information. Accupril (quinapril)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  5. "Product Information. Aceon (perindopril)." Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc, Marietta, GA.
  6. "Product Information. Prinivil (lisinopril)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  7. "Product Information. Univasc (moexipril)." Schwarz Pharma, Mequon, WI.
  8. "Product Information. Monopril (fosinopril)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  9. "Product Information. Vasotec (enalapril)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  10. "Product Information. Mavik (trandolapril)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
View all 10 references
Major

Ace Inhibitors (Includes Amlodipine/benazepril) ↔ Hyperkalemia

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction, Hyperkalemia, Diabetes Mellitus

In patients with hyperkalemia, especially that associated with impaired renal function or congestive heart failure, ACE inhibitors may further raise serum potassium levels. Therapy with ACE inhibitors should be administered cautiously in patients with or predisposed to hyperkalemia, and serum potassium levels should be carefully monitored. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia during ACE inhibitor therapy include renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and the concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes.

References

  1. "Product Information. Mavik (trandolapril)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  2. Kostis JB, Shelton BJ, Yusuf S, Weiss MB, Capone RJ, Pepine CJ, Gosselin G, Delahaye F, Probstfield JL, Cahill L, Dutton D "Tolerability of enalapril initiation by patients with left ventricular dysfunction: results of the medication challenge phase of the studies of left ventricular dysfunction." Am Heart J 128 (1994): 358-64
  3. "Product Information. Vasotec (enalapril)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  4. Alderman CP "Adverse effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors." Ann Pharmacother 30 (1996): 55-61
  5. "Product Information. Accupril (quinapril)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  6. "Product Information. Monopril (fosinopril)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  7. "Product Information. Aceon (perindopril)." Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc, Marietta, GA.
  8. "Product Information. Prinivil (lisinopril)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  9. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  10. "Product Information. Univasc (moexipril)." Schwarz Pharma, Mequon, WI.
  11. Kostis JB, Shelton B, Gosselin G, Goulet C, Hood WB, Kohn RM, Kubo SH, Schron E, Weiss MB, Willis PW, Young JB, Probstfie "Adverse effects of enalapril in the studies of left ventricular dysfunction (SOLVD)." Am Heart J 131 (1996): 350-5
  12. "Product Information. Lotensin (benazepril)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
  13. "Product Information. Altace (ramipril)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  14. Antonios TFT, Macgregor GA "Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in hypertension: potential problems." J Hypertens 13 Suppl (1995): s11-6
  15. Kindler J, Schunkert H, Gassmann M, Lahn W, Irmisch R, Debusmann ER, Ocon-Pujadas J, Ritz E, Sieberth HG "Therapeutic efficacy and tolerance of ramipril in hypertensive patients with renal failure." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 13 (1989): s55-8
  16. Tramonti G, Donadio C, Confessore N, Bianchi C "Antihypertensive activity and renal effects of benazepril in humans." Kidney Int (suppl 5) (1996): s107-8
  17. Moyses C, Higgins TJ "Safety of long-term use of lisinopril for congestive heart failure." Am J Cardiol 70 (1992): c91-7
  18. "Product Information. Capoten (captopril)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
View all 18 references
Major

Ace Inhibitors (Includes Amlodipine/benazepril) ↔ Hypotension

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Diarrhea, Vomiting, hemodialysis, Cerebrovascular Insufficiency, Dehydration, Ischemic Heart Disease, Hyponatremia

ACE inhibitors can cause symptomatic hypotension, most often during the initiation of therapy and in patients who are volume- and/or sodium-depleted or treated for congestive heart failure (CHF). Therapy with ACE inhibitors should be administered cautiously in such patients and in those predisposed to hypovolemic or hyponatremic states (e.g., patients on diuretic therapy, especially if it was recently instituted; those on dietary salt restriction; those with severe or prolonged diarrhea or vomiting; and renal dialysis patients). Volume and/or sodium depletion should be corrected prior to initiating therapy with ACE inhibitors, and the patient should be hemodynamically stable. If concomitant diuretics and/or dietary sodium restriction are employed, reducing or temporarily withholding the dosing of diuretics and/or liberalizing dietary sodium intake for 2 to 3 days in advance can help minimize the risk of severe hypotension in patients who are able to tolerate such adjustments. ACE inhibitors should also be used cautiously in patients in whom excessive hypotension may have serious consequences, such as patients with coronary or cerebrovascular insufficiency. Patients at risk for excessive hypotension should initiate ACE inhibitor therapy under very close medical supervision, and followed closely for the first 2 weeks of treatment and whenever the dosage of ACE inhibitor or diuretic is increased.

References

  1. "Product Information. Vasotec (enalapril)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  2. Kostis JB, Shelton BJ, Yusuf S, Weiss MB, Capone RJ, Pepine CJ, Gosselin G, Delahaye F, Probstfield JL, Cahill L, Dutton D "Tolerability of enalapril initiation by patients with left ventricular dysfunction: results of the medication challenge phase of the studies of left ventricular dysfunction." Am Heart J 128 (1994): 358-64
  3. Alderman CP "Adverse effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors." Ann Pharmacother 30 (1996): 55-61
  4. Chalmers D, Whitehead A, Lawson DH "Postmarketing surveillance of captopril for hypertension." Br J Clin Pharmacol 34 (1992): 215-23
  5. Schnaper HW "Comparison of the efficacy and safety of quinapril vs. captopril in treatment of moderate to severe hypertension." Angiology 40 (1989): 389-95
  6. "Product Information. Mavik (trandolapril)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  7. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  8. Kaplan NM "The CARE study: a postmarketing evaluation of ramipril in 11,100 patients." Clin Ther 18 (1996): 658-70
  9. Balfour J, Goa K "Benazepril: A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy in hypertension and congestive heart failure." Drugs 42 (1991): 511-39
  10. Young BA "ACE inhibitor first dose effect." Med J Aust 158 (1993): 577
  11. Schoenberger JA, Testa M, Ross AD, et al "Efficacy, safety, and quality-of-life assessment of captopril antihypertensive therapy in clinical practice." Arch Intern Med 150 (1990): 301-6
  12. "Product Information. Monopril (fosinopril)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  13. Lang RM, Dibianco R, Broderick GT, Gottlieb SS, Kostis J, Lyle PA, Makris L, Rajfer SI, Rucinska EJ "First-dose effects of enalapril 2.5 mg and captopril 6.25 mg in patients with heart failure: a double-blind, randomized, multicenter study." Am Heart J 128 (1994): 551-6
  14. "Product Information. Aceon (perindopril)." Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc, Marietta, GA.
  15. Forette B, Koen R, Vivaut E "Efficacy and safety of quinapril in the elderly hypertensive patient." Am Heart J 123 (1992): 1426-32
  16. Edwards IR, Coulter DM, Beasley DM, MacIntosh D "Captopril: 4 years of post marketing surveillance of all patients in New Zealand." Br J Clin Pharmacol 23 (1987): 529-36
  17. "Product Information. Accupril (quinapril)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  18. Inman WH, Rawson NS, Wilton LV, et al "Postmarketing surveillance of enalapril. I: results of prescription-event monitoring." Br Med J 297 (1988): 826-9
  19. "Product Information. Univasc (moexipril)." Schwarz Pharma, Mequon, WI.
  20. "Product Information. Altace (ramipril)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  21. Schmitt JK, Koch KS, Midha M "Profound hypotension in a tetraplegic patient following angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril. case report." Paraplegia 32 (1994): 871-4
  22. Antonios TFT, Macgregor GA "Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in hypertension: potential problems." J Hypertens 13 Suppl (1995): s11-6
  23. Russell RM, Jones RM "Postoperative hypotension associated with enalapril." Anaesthesia 44 (1989): 837-8
  24. Larochelle P, Haynes B, Maron N, Dugas S "A postmarketing surveillance evaluation of quinapril in 3742 canadian hypertensive patients - the ACCEPT study." Clin Ther 16 (1994): 838-53
  25. Osterziel KJ, Karr M, Busch C, Dietz R "Comparison of the first-dose effect of captopril and lisinopril in heart failure." Am J Cardiol 70 (1992): c137-9
  26. "Product Information. Lotensin (benazepril)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
  27. "Product Information. Prinivil (lisinopril)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  28. Howes LG, Nguyen T, Jackson B "Safety and efficacy of quinapril in hypertensive geriatric patients." J Am Geriatr Soc 44 (1996): 1135
  29. Black J, Hunt TL, Godley PJ "Initiation of captopril therapy: the first-dose effect." J Clin Pharmacol 26 (1986): 539-40
  30. Cooper WD, Sheldon D, Brown D, et al "Post-marketing surveillance of enalapril: experience in 11,710 hypertensive patients in general practice." J R Coll Gen Pract 37 (1987): 346-9
  31. "Product Information. Capoten (captopril)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  32. MacNab M, Mallows S "Safety profile of benazepril in essential hypertension." Clin Cardiol 14 Suppl I (1991): iv33-7
View all 32 references
Major

Ccbs (Includes Amlodipine/benazepril) ↔ Cardiogenic Shock/Hypotension

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Cardiogenic Shock, Hypotension

In general, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) should not be used in patients with hypotension (systolic pressure < 90 mm Hg) or cardiogenic shock. Due to potential negative inotropic and peripheral vasodilating effects, the use of CCBs may further depress cardiac output and blood pressure, which can be detrimental in these patients. The use of verapamil and diltiazem is specifically contraindicated under these circumstances.

References

  1. "Product Information. Calan (verapamil)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  2. Stehle G, Buss J, Eibach J, et al "Cardiogenic shock associated with verapamil in a patient with liver cirrhosis." Lancet 336 (1990): 1079
  3. "Product Information. Vascor (bepridil)." McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Cardizem (diltiazem)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  5. Kubota K, Pearce GL, Inman WHW "Vasodilation-related adverse events in diltiazem and dihydropyridine calcium antagonists studied by prescription-event monitoring." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 48 (1995): 1-7
  6. Pahor M, Manto A, Pedone C, Carosella L, Guralnik JM, Carbonin P "Age and severe adverse drug reactions caused by nifedipine and verapamil." J Clin Epidemiol 49 (1996): 921-8
View all 6 references
Major

Ccbs (Includes Amlodipine/benazepril) ↔ Coronary Artery Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, Low plausibility

Applies to: Ischemic Heart Disease

Increased frequency, duration, and/or severity of angina, as well as acute myocardial infarction, have rarely developed during initiation or dosage increase of calcium channel blockers (CCBs), particularly in patients with severe obstructive coronary artery disease and those treated with immediate-release formulations. The mechanism of this effect is not established. Therapy with CCBs should be administered cautiously in patients with significant coronary artery disease.

References

  1. Myrhed M, Wiholm B-E "Nifedipine: a survey of adverse effects." Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 58 (1986): 133-6
  2. Kloner RA "Nifedipine in ischemic heart disease." Circulation 92 (1995): 1074-8
  3. Thomassen AR, Bagger JP, Nielsen TT "Hemodynamic and cardiac metabolic changes during nicardipine-induced myocardial ischemia." Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 14 (1988): 41-3
  4. Manga P, Vythilingum "Unstable angina precipitated by nifedipine." S Afr Med J 66 (1984): 144
  5. Lambert CR, Hill JA, Feldman RL, Pepine CJ "Myocardial ischemia during intravenous nicardipine administration." Am J Cardiol 55 (1985): 844-5
  6. Abernathy DR, Schwrtz JB "Calcium-antagonist drugs." N Engl J Med 341 (1999): 1447-57
  7. Oei SG, Oei SK, Brolmann HAM "Myocardial infarction during nifedipine therapy for preterm labor." N Engl J Med 340 (1999): 154
  8. Sia STB, MacDonald PS, Triester B, et al "Aggravation of myocardial ischaemia by nifedipine." Med J Aust 142 (1985): 48-50
  9. Furberg CD, Psaty BM, Meyer JV "Nifedipine: dose-related increase in mortality in patients with coronary heart disease." Circulation 92 (1995): 1326-31
  10. "Product Information. Procardia (nifedipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  11. "Product Information. Cardene (nicardipine)." Syntex Laboratories Inc, Palo Alto, CA.
  12. Schanzenbacher P, Deeg P, Liebau G, Kochsiek K "Paradoxical angina after nifedipine: angiographic documentation." Am J Cardiol 53 (1984): 345-6
  13. "Product Information. Sular (nisoldipine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  14. Yusuf S "Calcium antagonists in coronary artery disease and hypertension: time for reevaluation?" Circulation 92 (1995): 1079-82
  15. "Product Information. Norvasc (amlodipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
View all 15 references
Major

Ccbs (Includes Amlodipine/benazepril) ↔ Liver Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are extensively metabolized by the liver. The half-lives of CCBs may be prolonged substantially in patients with severe hepatic impairment, with the potential for significant drug accumulation. In addition, the use of some CCBs has been associated with elevations in serum transaminases, both with and without concomitant elevations in alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. While these effects may be transient and reversible, several patients have developed cholestasis or hepatocellular injury that was proven by rechallenge. Therapy with CCBs should be administered cautiously and often at reduced dosages in patients with significantly impaired hepatic function. Periodic monitoring of liver function and for excessive pharmacologic effects (e.g., abnormal prolongation of PR interval) is advised, and the dosage adjusted if necessary.

References

  1. Stern EH, Pitchon R, King BD, Wiener I "Possible hepatitis from verapamil." N Engl J Med 306 (1982): 612-3
  2. Giacomini KM, Massoud N, Wong FM, Giacomini JC "Decreased binding of verapamil to plasma proteins in patients with liver disease." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 6 (1984): 924-8
  3. "Product Information. Calan (verapamil)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  4. "Product Information. Procardia (nifedipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  5. Graham D, Dow R, Hall D, Alexander O, Mroszczak E, Freedman A "The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of nicardipine hydrochloride in man." Br J Clin Pharmacol 20 (1985): s23-8
  6. Regardh CG, Edgar B, Olsson R, Kendall M, Collste P, Shansky C "Pharmacokinetics of felodipine in patients with liver disease." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 36 (1989): 473-9
  7. Cotting J, Reichen J, Kutz K, Laplanche R, Nuesch E "Pharmacokinetics of isradipine in patients with chronic liver disease." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 38 (1990): 599-603
  8. Elliott HL, Meredith PA "The clinical consequences of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of amlodipine." Postgrad Med J 67 (1991): s20-3
  9. "Product Information. Plendil (felodipine)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  10. Dunselman PH, Edgar B "Felodipine clinical pharmacokinetics." Clin Pharmacokinet 21 (1991): 418-30
  11. Guarascio P, D'Amato C, Sette P, et al "Liver damage from verapamil." Br Med J 288 (1984): 362-3
  12. Ramsch KD, Graefe KH, Scherling D, et al "Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of calcium-blocking agents nifedipine, nitrendipine, and nimodipine." Am J Nephrol 6 (1986): 73-80
  13. Babany G, Uzzan F, Larrey D, et al "Alcoholic-like liver lesions induced by nifedipine." J Hepatol 9 (1989): 252-5
  14. "Product Information. DynaCirc (isradipine)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
  15. Scherling D, Karl W, Ahr G, Ahr HJ, Wehinger E "Pharmacokinetics of nisoldipine. III. Biotransformation of nisoldipine in rat, dog, monkey, and man." Arzneimittelforschung 38 (1988): 1105-10
  16. Stopher DA, Beresford AP, Macrae PV, Humphrey MJ "The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of amlodipine in humans and animals." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 12 (1988): s55-9
  17. Brodsky SJ, Cutler SS, Weiner DA, Klein MD "Hepatotoxicity due to treatment with verapamil." Ann Intern Med 94 (1981): 490-1
  18. Rush WR, Alexander O, Hall DJ, Cairncross L, Dow RJ, Graham DJ "The metabolism of nicardipine hydrochloride in healthy male volunteers." Xenobiotica 16 (1986): 341-9
  19. Kurosawa S, Kurosawa N, Owada E, et al "Pharmacokinetics of diltiazem in patients with liver cirrhosis." Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 10 (1990): 311-8
  20. "Product Information. Vascor (bepridil)." McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  21. Benet LZ "Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of bepridil." Am J Cardiol 55 (1985): c8-13
  22. Abramson M, Littlejohn GO "Hepatic reactions to nifedipine." Med J Aust 142 (1985): 47-8
  23. McAllister RG Jr, Hamann SR, Blouin RA "Pharmacokinetics of calcium-entry blockers." Am J Cardiol 55 (1985): b30-40
  24. Toner M, White A, Moriarty J, Clancy L "Allergic urticarial eruption, leukocytosis and abnormal liver function tests following nifedipine administration." Chest 93 (1988): 1320-1
  25. Raemsch KD, Sommer J "Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of nifedipine." Hypertension 5 (1983): 18-24
  26. Gengo FM, Fagan SC, Krol G, Bernhard H "Nimodipine disposition and haemodynamic effects in patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls." Br J Clin Pharmacol 23 (1987): 47-53
  27. Shallcross H, Padley SP, Glynn MJ, Gibbs DD "Fatal renal and hepatic toxicity after treatment with diltiazem." Br Med J 295 (1987): 1256-7
  28. Toft E, Vyberg M, Therkelsen K "Diltiazem-induced granulomatous hepatitis." Histopathology 18 (1991): 474-5
  29. Woodcock BG, Rietbrock N "Verapamil bioavailability and dosage in liver disease." Br J Clin Pharmacol 13 (1982): 240-1
  30. Kumar KL, Colley CA "Verapamil-induced hepatotoxicity." West J Med 160 (1994): 485-6
  31. "Product Information. Cardizem (diltiazem)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  32. Meredith P, Elliott H "Clinical pharmacokinetics of amlodipine." Clin Pharmacokinet 22 (1992): 22-31
  33. Challenor VF, Waller DG, Renwick AG, et al "The trans-hepatic extraction of nifedipine." Br J Clin Pharmacol 24 (1987): 473-7
  34. Traverse JH, Swenson LJ, Mcbride JW "Acute hepatic injury after treatment with diltiazem." Am Heart J 127 (1994): 1636-9
  35. Abernathy DR, Schwrtz JB "Calcium-antagonist drugs." N Engl J Med 341 (1999): 1447-57
  36. Kleinbloesem CH, van Harten J, Wilson JP, et al "Nifedipine: kinetics and hemodynamic effects in patients with liver cirrhosis after intravenous and oral administration." Clin Pharmacol Ther 40 (1986): 21-8
  37. Tse FL, Jaffe JM "Pharmacokinetics of PN 200-110 (isradipine), a new calcium antagonist, after oral administration in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 32 (1987): 361-5
  38. Finucci GF, Padrini R, Piovan D, et al "Verapamil pharmacokinetics and liver function in patients with cirrhosis." Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 8 (1988): 123-6
  39. Woodcock BG, Rietbrock I, Vohringer HF, Rietbrock N "Verapamil disposition in liver disease and intensive-care patients: kinetics, clearance, and apparent blood flow relationships." Clin Pharmacol Ther 29 (1981): 27-34
  40. Kates RE "Calcium antagonists: pharmacokinetic properties." Drugs 25 (1983): 113-24
  41. "Product Information. Norvasc (amlodipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  42. Johnson KE, Balderston SM, Pieper JA, Mann DE, Reiter MJ "Electrophysiologic effects of verapamil metabolites in the isolated heart." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 17 (1991): 830-7
  43. Razak TA, McNeil JJ, Sewell RB, Drummer OH, Smallwood RA, Conway EL, Louis WJ "The effect of hepatic cirrhosis on the pharmacokinetics and blood pressure response to nicardipine." Clin Pharmacol Ther 47 (1990): 463-9
  44. Echizen H, Eichelbaum M "Clinical pharmacokinetics of verapamil, nifedipine and diltiazem." Clin Pharmacokinet 11 (1986): 425-49
  45. "Product Information. Sular (nisoldipine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  46. Stehle G, Buss J, Eibach J, et al "Cardiogenic shock associated with verapamil in a patient with liver cirrhosis." Lancet 336 (1990): 1079
  47. "Product Information. Cardene (nicardipine)." Syntex Laboratories Inc, Palo Alto, CA.
  48. Colombo G, Zucchella G, Planca E, Grieco A "Intravenous diltiazem in the treatment of unstable angina: a study of efficacy and tolerance." Clin Ther 9 (1987): 536-47
  49. Hare DL, Horowitz JD "Verapamil hepatotoxicity: a hypersensitivity reaction." Am Heart J 111 (1986): 610-11
  50. "Product Information. Nimotop (nimodipine)." Bayer, West Haven, CT.
  51. Dow RJ, Graham DJM "A reveiw of the human metabolism and pharmacokinetics of nicardipine hydrochloride." Br J Clin Pharmacol 22 (1986): s195-202
  52. Saracheck NS, London RL, Matulewicz TJ, et al "Diltiazem and granulomatous hepatitis." Gastroenterology 88 (1985): 1260-2
  53. Somogyi A, Albrecht M, Kliems G, et al "Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and ECG response of verapamil in patients with liver cirrhosis." Br J Clin Pharmacol 12 (1981): 51-60
View all 53 references
Moderate

Ace Inhibitors (Includes Amlodipine/benazepril) ↔ Liver Disease

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Rarely, elevations of liver enzymes and/or serum bilirubin have occurred with the use of ACE inhibitors. Patients receiving ACE inhibitors who develop jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes should discontinue the ACE inhibitor and receive appropriate medical follow-up.

Moderate

Ace Inhibitors (Includes Amlodipine/benazepril) ↔ Renal Dysfunction

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction

With the exception of fosinopril, ACE inhibitors (and/or their active metabolites in some cases) are primarily eliminated by the kidney and may accumulate in patients with renal impairment. ACE inhibitors can also worsen renal function in some patients by blocking the effect of angiotensin II-mediated efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction, thereby decreasing glomerular filtration. Therapy with ACE inhibitors should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting renal dysfunction, particularly those with renovascular disease. Patients with moderate to severe renal impairment usually require lower or less frequent doses and smaller increments in dose. In addition, a dosage reduction or discontinuation of any concomitantly administered diuretics may be helpful. Fosinopril probably does not require dosage adjustments unless hepatic function is also significantly impaired.

In patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis or renal artery stenosis in a solitary kidney, ACE inhibitors may reduce renal perfusion to a critically low level. Renal function should be monitored closely for the first few weeks of therapy.

References

  1. Champ JD "Case report: azotemia secondary to enalapril and diuretic use and the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension." Am J Med Sci 305 (1993): 25-7
  2. "Moexipril: another ace inhibitor for hypertension." Med Lett Drugs Ther 37 (1995): 75-6
  3. Forette B, Koen R, Vivaut E "Efficacy and safety of quinapril in the elderly hypertensive patient." Am Heart J 123 (1992): 1426-32
  4. Ljungman S, Kjekshus J, Swedberg K "Renal function in severe congestive heart failure during treatment with enalapril." Am J Cardiol 70 (1992): 479-87
  5. Dietz R, Nagel F, Osterziel KJ "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and renal function in heart failure." Am J Cardiol 70 (1992): c119-25
  6. Olivier PB, German ML, Carette BD, Millart HG, Trenque TC "Elevation of serum creatinine following fosinopril therapy." Ann Pharmacother 33 (1999): 382-3
  7. Frank GJ, Knapp LE, Olson SC, Phelps MC, Quade MM, Rieger MM, Sedman AJ "Overview of quinapril, a new ACE inhibitor." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 15 (1990): s14-23
  8. "Product Information. Aceon (perindopril)." Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc, Marietta, GA.
  9. "Product Information. Monopril (fosinopril)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  10. "Product Information. Accupril (quinapril)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  11. "Product Information. Univasc (moexipril)." Schwarz Pharma, Mequon, WI.
  12. "Product Information. Altace (ramipril)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  13. Inman WH, Rawson NS, Wilton LV, et al "Postmarketing surveillance of enalapril. I: results of prescription-event monitoring." Br Med J 297 (1988): 826-9
  14. Thind GS "Renal insufficiency during angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in hypertensive patients with no renal artery stenosis." J Clin Hypertens 1 (1985): 337-43
  15. O'Donnell D "Renal failure due to enalapril and captopril in bilateral renal artery stenosis: greater awareness needed." Med J Aust 148 (1988): 525-7
  16. "Product Information. Lotensin (benazepril)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
  17. "Product Information. Prinivil (lisinopril)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  18. Knapp LE, Frank GJ, McLain R, Rieger MM, Posvar E, Singer R "The safety and tolerability of quinapril." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 15 (1990): s47-55
  19. Cetnarowski-Cropp AB "Quinapril: a new second-generation ACE inhibitor." DICP 25 (1991): 499-504
  20. Heeg JE, de Jong PE, de Zeeuw D "Lisinopril and renal failure ." Lancet 1 (1989): 846
  21. Frank GJ, Knapp LE, McLain RW "Overall tolerance and safety of quinapril in clinical trials." Angiology 40 (1989): 405-15
  22. Antonios TFT, Macgregor GA "Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in hypertension: potential problems." J Hypertens 13 Suppl (1995): s11-6
  23. Howes LG, Nguyen T, Jackson B "Safety and efficacy of quinapril in hypertensive geriatric patients." J Am Geriatr Soc 44 (1996): 1135
  24. Heintz B, Verho M, Brockmeier D, Kirsten R, Nelson K, Maigatter S, Lefevre G, Kierdorf H, Sieberth HG "Influence of ramipril on renal function in patients with chronic congestive heart failure." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 18 (1991): s174-9
  25. Persson B, Stimpel M "Evaluation of the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of moexipril, a new ACE inhibitor, compared to hydrochlorothiazide in elderly patients." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 50 (1996): 259-64
  26. Thomson AH, Kelly JG, Whiting B "Lisinopril population pharmacokinetics in elderly and renal disease patients with hypertension." Br J Clin Pharmacol 27 (1989): 57-65
  27. Schwartz D, Averbuch M, Pines A, et al "Renal toxicity of enalapril in very elderly patients with progressive, severe congestive heart failure." Chest 100 (1991): 1558-61
  28. Murray BM, Venuto RC, Kohli R, Cunningham EE "Enalapril-associated acute renal failure in renal transplants: possible role of cyclosporine." Am J Kidney Dis 16 (1990): 66-9
  29. "Product Information. Mavik (trandolapril)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  30. Sica DA, Cutler RE, Parmer RJ, Ford NF "Comparison of the steady-state pharmacokinetics of fosinopril, lisinopril and enalapril in patients with chronic renal insufficiency." Clin Pharmacokinet 20 (1991): 420-7
  31. "Product Information. Vasotec (enalapril)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  32. Alderman CP "Adverse effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors." Ann Pharmacother 30 (1996): 55-61
View all 32 references
Moderate

Ccbs (Includes Amlodipine/benazepril) ↔ Chf/Ami

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Congestive Heart Failure, Myocardial Infarction

Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) may have varying degrees of negative inotropic effect. Congestive heart failure (CHF), worsening of CHF, and pulmonary edema have occurred in some patients treated with a CCB, primarily verapamil. Some CCBs have also caused mild to moderate peripheral edema due to localized vasodilation of dependent arterioles and small blood vessels, which can be confused with the effects of increasing left ventricular dysfunction. Although some CCBs have been used in the treatment of CHF, therapy with CCBs should be administered cautiously in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction (e.g., ejection fraction < 30%) or moderate to severe symptoms of cardiac failure and in patients with any degree of ventricular dysfunction if they are receiving a beta-adrenergic blocker. Likewise, caution is advised in patients with acute myocardial infarction and pulmonary congestion documented by X-ray on admission, since associated heart failure may be acutely worsened by administration of a CCB.

References

  1. Batlouni M, Armaganijan D, Ghorayeb N, Magliano MF "Clinical efficacy and tolerability of isradipine in the treatment of mild-to-moderate hypertension in young and elderly patients." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 19 (1992): s53-7
  2. Sleight P "Calcium antagonists during and after myocardial infarction." Drugs 51 (1996): 216-25
  3. Brogden RN, Sorkin EM "Isradipine: an update of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension." Drugs 49 (1995): 618-49
  4. "Product Information. Procardia (nifedipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  5. Fagan TC, Haggert BE, Liss C "Efficacy and tolerability of extended-release felodipine and extended-release nifedipine in patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension." Clin Ther 16 (1994): 634-46
  6. Batra AK, Segall PH, Ahmed T "Pulmonary edema with nifedipine in primary pulmonary hypertension." Respiration 47 (1985): 161-3
  7. Kubota K, Pearce GL, Inman WHW "Vasodilation-related adverse events in diltiazem and dihydropyridine calcium antagonists studied by prescription-event monitoring." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 48 (1995): 1-7
  8. Elkayam U "Calcium channel blockers in heart failure." Cardiology 89 (1998): 38-46
  9. "Product Information. Norvasc (amlodipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  10. Prigogine T, Waterlot Y, Gottignies P, et al "Acute nonhemodynamic pulmonary edema with nifedipine in primary pulmonary hypertension." Chest 100 (1991): 563-4
  11. Walton T, Symes LR "Felodipine and isradipine: new calcium-channel-blocking agents for the treatment of hypertension." Clin Pharm 12 (1993): 261-75
  12. Yedinak KC, Lopez LM "Felodipine: a new dihydropyridine calcium-channel antagonist." DICP 25 (1991): 1193-206
  13. Lorimer AR, Pringle SD "The safety of felodipine." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 15 (1990): s85-9
  14. Scheidt S, LeWinter MM, Hermanovich J, Venkataraman K, Freedman D "Efficacy and safety of nicardipine for chronic, stable angina pectoris: a multicenter randomized trial." Am J Cardiol 58 (1986): 715-21
  15. "Product Information. DynaCirc (isradipine)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
  16. Taylor SH, Frais MA, Lee P, Verma SP, Jackson N, Reynolds G, Silke B "A study of the long-term efficacy and tolerability of oral nicardipine in hypertensive patients." Br J Clin Pharmacol 20 (1985): s139-42
  17. Johnson BF, Eisner GM, Mcmahon FG, Jain AK, Rudd P, Sowers JR "A multicenter comparison of adverse reaction profiles of isradipine and enalapril at equipotent doses in patients with essential hypertension." J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1995): 484-92
  18. "Product Information. Sular (nisoldipine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  19. Schaefer RM, Aldons PM, Burgess ED, Tilvis R, Singh GP, Rehn L, Morgan TO "Improved tolerability of felodipine compared with amlodipine in elderly hypertensives: A randomised, double-blind study in 535 patients, focusing on vasodilatory adverse events." Int J Clin Pract 52 (1998): 381
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  21. Blecker D "Antihypertensive therapy with isradipine in patients with special safety concerns." Angiology 45 (1994): 997-1008
  22. Gillmer DJ, Kark P "Pulmonary oedema precipitated by nifedipine." Br Med J 280 (1980): 1420-1
  23. "Product Information. Cardene (nicardipine)." Syntex Laboratories Inc, Palo Alto, CA.
  24. Sundstedt CD, Ruegg PC, Keller A, Waite R "A multicenter evaluation of the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of isradipine in the treatment of essential hypertension." Am J Med 86 (1989): 98-102
  25. Dubois C, Blanchard D "Efficacy and safety of nicardipine in 29,104 patients with hypertension." Clin Ther 11 (1989): 452-60
  26. "Product Information. Plendil (felodipine)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  27. Abernathy DR, Schwrtz JB "Calcium-antagonist drugs." N Engl J Med 341 (1999): 1447-57
  28. "Product Information. Nimotop (nimodipine)." Bayer, West Haven, CT.
  29. Ruegg PC, Nelson DJ "Safety and efficacy of isradipine, alone and in combination, in the treatment of angina pectoris." Am J Med 86 (1989): 70-4
View all 29 references

amlodipine / benazepril drug Interactions

There are 928 drug interactions with amlodipine / benazepril

amlodipine / benazepril alcohol/food Interactions

There are 4 alcohol/food interactions with amlodipine / benazepril

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No information available.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

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