(tran DOE la pril)
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product
Mavik: 1 mg [scored]
Mavik: 2 mg, 4 mg [DSC]
Generic: 1 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg
Brand Names: U.S.
- Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor
Trandolapril is an ACE inhibitor which prevents the formation of angiotensin II from angiotensin I. Trandolapril must undergo enzymatic hydrolysis, mainly in liver, to its biologically active metabolite, trandolaprilat. A CNS mechanism may also be involved in the hypotensive effect as angiotensin II increases adrenergic outflow from the CNS. Vasoactive kallikreins may be decreased in conversion to active hormones by ACE inhibitors, thus reducing blood pressure.
Slowed with food
Trandolapril: ~18 L
Hepatically hydrolyzed to active metabolite, trandolaprilat and at least 7 other metabolites
Urine (~33% as trandolapril and trandolaprilat); feces (~66%)
Renal clearance: 1 to 4 L/hour (dose dependent); reduced in renal impairment
Time to Peak
Trandolapril: ~1 hour; Trandolaprilat: 4 to 10 hours
Trandolapril: ~6 hours; Trandolaprilat: Effective: 22.5 hours
Trandolapril: ~80%; Trandolaprilat: 65% to 94% (concentration dependent)
Special Populations: Renal Function Impairment
Plasma trandolapril and trandolaprilat are approximately 2-fold greater and renal Cl is decreased ~85% in patients with CrCl <30 mL/minute and in hemodialysis patients.
Special Populations: Hepatic Function Impairment
In patients with mild to moderate alcoholic cirrhosis, plasma concentrations of trandolapril and trandolaprilat were 9- and 2-fold greater, respectively, but inhibition of ACE activity was not affected.
Special Populations: Elderly
Plasma concentration of trandolapril is increased.
Use: Labeled Indications
Hypertension: Management of hypertension alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents
Post-myocardial infarction (MI) heart failure or left-ventricular dysfunction: Treatment of post-MI heart failure (HF) in patients who are symptomatic from HF within the first few days after sustaining acute MI or post-MI left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in stable patients who have evidence of left-ventricular systolic dysfunction (identified by wall motion abnormalities).
Hypertension: The 2014 guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults (Eighth Joint National Committee [JNC 8]) recommends initiation of pharmacologic treatment to lower blood pressure for the following patients:
• Patients ≥60 years of age with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥150 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg. Goal of therapy is SBP <150 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg.
• Patients <60 years of age with SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP is ≥90 mm Hg. Goal of therapy is SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg.
• Patients ≥18 years of age with diabetes and SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg. Goal of therapy is SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg.
• Patients ≥18 years of age with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg. Goal of therapy is SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension: Regardless of race or diabetes status, the use of an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) as initial therapy is recommended to improve kidney outcomes. In the general nonblack population (without CKD) including those with diabetes, initial antihypertensive treatment should consist of a thiazide-type diuretic, calcium channel blocker, ACEI, or ARB. In the general black population (without CKD) including those with diabetes, initial antihypertensive treatment should consist of a thiazide-type diuretic or a calcium channel blocker instead of an ACEI or ARB.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension: The American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology and American Society of Hypertension (AHA/ACC/ASH) 2015 scientific statement for the treatment of hypertension in patients with CAD recommends the use of an ACE inhibitor (or an ARB) as part of a regimen in patients with hypertension and chronic stable angina if there is prior MI, LV systolic dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, or CKD. A BP target of <140/90 mm Hg is reasonable for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. A lower target BP (<130/80 mm Hg) may be appropriate in some individuals with CAD, previous MI, stroke or transient ischemic attack, or CAD risk equivalents (AHA/ACC/ASH [Rosendorff 2015]).
Heart failure: The American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association (ACCF/AHA) 2013 heart failure guidelines recommend the use of ACE inhibitors, along with other guideline directed medical therapies, to prevent heart failure in patients with a reduced ejection fraction who have a history of MI (Stage B HF), to prevent heart failure in any patient with a reduced ejection fraction (Stage B HF), or to treat those with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (Stage C HFrEF) (ACCF/AHA [Yancy 2013]).
STEMI: The 2013 ACCF/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) states that an ACE inhibitor should be initiated within the first 24 hours after STEMI in patients with anterior MI, heart failure, or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 0.4 or less. It is also reasonable to initiate an ACE inhibitor in all patients with STEMI (O’Gara 2013).
To delay the progression of nephropathy and reduce risks of cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus
Hypersensitivity to trandolapril or any component of the formulation; coadministration with aliskiren in patients with diabetes; hereditary/idiopathic angioedema; history of angioedema related to previous treatment with an ACE inhibitor.
Documentation of allergenic cross-reactivity for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors is limited. However, because of similarities in chemical structure and/or pharmacologic actions, the possibility of cross-sensitivity cannot be ruled out with certainty.
Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Hypersensitivity to other ACE inhibitors; women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant; breast-feeding; concomitant use with aliskiren in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment (GFR <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2); hypotensive or hemodynamically unstable states; hemodynamically significant bilateral artery stenosis or severe artery stenosis of a solitary functioning kidney; concomitant use with angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients with diabetic nephropathy; hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption
Patients not receiving a diuretic: Initial: 1 mg once daily (2 mg daily in black patients). Adjust dosage at intervals of ≥1 week according to blood pressure response; usual dosage (ASH/ISH [Weber 2014]): 2 to 8 mg daily. There is little experience with doses >8 mg daily. Patients inadequately treated with once daily dosing at 4 mg may be treated with twice daily dosing. If blood pressure is not adequately controlled with trandolapril monotherapy, a diuretic may be added.
Patients receiving a diuretic: Consider discontinuing diuretic therapy 2 to 3 days before initiating trandolapril if possible; if blood pressure is not controlled by trandolapril alone, diuretic therapy should be resumed; if unable to discontinue diuretic, initiate trandolapril 0.5 mg once daily and monitor closely until blood pressure is stable; titrate to response as tolerated.
Post-MI heart failure or LV dysfunction: Oral: Initial: 1 mg once daily; titrate (as tolerated) toward target dose of 4 mg once daily. If 4 mg dose is not tolerated, patients may continue therapy with the greatest tolerated dose. The American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines recommend the use of a 0.5 mg test dose with titration up to 4 mg daily as tolerated (O’Gara 2013).
Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (off-label use): Oral: Initial: 1 mg once daily; target dose: 4 mg once daily (ACCF/AHA [Yancy 2013]).
Refer to adult dosing.
Dosing: Renal Impairment
CrCl ≥30 mL/minute: No dosage adjustment necessary.
CrCl <30 mL/minute: Initial: 0.5 mg once daily; titrate as tolerated to optimal response.
Alternate dosing (Aronoff 2007): Recommendations based on an initial dose of 1 to 2 mg/day in normal renal function;
GFR >50 mL/minute: No dosage adjustment necessary
GFR 10 to 50 mL/minute: Administer 50% to 100% of dose
GFR <10 mL/minute: Administer 50% of dose
Dosing: Hepatic Impairment
Mild to severe impairment: There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling; consider lower doses in patients with hepatic impairment.
Cirrhosis: Initial: 0.5 mg once daily; titrate as tolerated to optimal response.
Oral: Administer without regard to meals.
Use potassium-containing salt substitutes cautiously in patients with diabetes, renal impairment, or those maintained on potassium supplements or potassium-sparing diuretics.
Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F).
Alfuzosin: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Aliskiren: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Aliskiren may enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Aliskiren may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Management: Aliskiren use with ACEIs or ARBs in patients with diabetes is contraindicated. Combined use in other patients should be avoided, particularly when CrCl is less than 60 mL/min. If combined, monitor potassium, creatinine, and blood pressure closely. Consider therapy modification
Allopurinol: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the potential for allergic or hypersensitivity reactions to Allopurinol. Consider therapy modification
Amifostine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Amifostine. Management: When amifostine is used at chemotherapy doses, blood pressure lowering medications should be withheld for 24 hours prior to amifostine administration. If blood pressure lowering therapy cannot be withheld, amifostine should not be administered. Consider therapy modification
Amphetamines: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may increase the serum concentration of ACE Inhibitors. Management: In US labeling, use of telmisartan and ramipril is not recommended. It is not clear if any other combination of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB would be any safer. Consider alternatives to the combination when possible. Consider therapy modification
Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]): Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]). Monitor therapy
Aprotinin: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
AzaTHIOprine: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the myelosuppressive effect of AzaTHIOprine. Monitor therapy
Barbiturates: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Benperidol: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Canagliflozin: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Canagliflozin may enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Ciprofloxacin (Systemic): ACE Inhibitors may enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Ciprofloxacin (Systemic). Monitor therapy
Dapoxetine: May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Diazoxide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
DPP-IV Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Monitor therapy
Drospirenone: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Drospirenone. Monitor therapy
DULoxetine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of DULoxetine. Monitor therapy
Eplerenone: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Everolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Monitor therapy
Ferric Gluconate: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ferric Gluconate. Monitor therapy
Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex. Specifically, the risk for angioedema or allergic reactions may be increased. Monitor therapy
Gold Sodium Thiomalate: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Gold Sodium Thiomalate. An increased risk of nitritoid reactions has been appreciated. Monitor therapy
Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract): ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract). Specifically, ACE inhibitors may increase the risk of severe allergic reaction to Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract). Consider therapy modification
Heparin: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Heparin (Low Molecular Weight): May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Herbs (Hypertensive Properties): May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy
Herbs (Hypotensive Properties): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Hypotension-Associated Agents: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotension-Associated Agents. Monitor therapy
Icatibant: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Iron Dextran Complex: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Iron Dextran Complex. Specifically, patients receiving an ACE inhibitor may be at an increased risk for anaphylactic-type reactions. Management: Follow iron dextran recommendations closely regarding both having resuscitation equipment and trained personnel on-hand prior to iron dextran administration and the use of a test dose prior to the first therapeutic dose. Consider therapy modification
Lanthanum: May decrease the serum concentration of ACE Inhibitors. Management: Administer angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors at least two hours before or after lanthanum. Consider therapy modification
Levodopa: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Levodopa. Monitor therapy
Lithium: ACE Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Lithium. Management: Lithium dosage reductions will likely be needed following the addition of an ACE inhibitor. Monitor patient response to lithium closely following addition or discontinuation of concurrent ACE inhibitor treatment. Consider therapy modification
Loop Diuretics: May enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Loop Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Lormetazepam: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Methylphenidate: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy
Molsidomine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Naftopidil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Nicergoline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Nicorandil: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Nicorandil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Nitroprusside: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Nitroprusside. Monitor therapy
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the combination may result in a significant decrease in renal function. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Obinutuzumab: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Management: Consider temporarily withholding blood pressure lowering medications beginning 12 hours prior to obinutuzumab infusion and continuing until 1 hour after the end of the infusion. Consider therapy modification
Pentoxifylline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Potassium Salts: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Pregabalin: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Pregabalin. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Monitor therapy
Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Quinagolide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Sacubitril: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sacubitril. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased with this combination. Avoid combination
Salicylates: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Sirolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Sodium Phosphates: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Sodium Phosphates. Specifically, the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy may be enhanced. Management: Consider avoiding this combination by temporarily suspending treatment with ACEIs, or seeking alternatives to oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. If the combination cannot be avoided, maintain adequate hydration and monitor renal function closely. Consider therapy modification
Temsirolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: May enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
TiZANidine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Tolvaptan: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Trimethoprim: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Yohimbine: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy
May lead to false-negative aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) (Funder 2016)
Frequency ranges include data from hypertension and heart failure trials. Higher rates of adverse reactions have generally been noted in patients with heart failure. However, the frequency of adverse effects associated with placebo is also increased in this population.
Cardiovascular: Hypotension (≤11%)
Central nervous system: Dizziness (1% to 23%)
Respiratory: Cough (2% to 35%)
1% to 10%:
Cardiovascular: Syncope (6%), bradycardia (≤5%), cardiogenic shock (4%), intermittent claudication (4%), cerebrovascular accident (3%)
Endocrine & metabolic: Hyperkalemia (5%), hypocalcemia (5%)
Gastrointestinal: Gastritis (4%), diarrhea (1%)
Neuromuscular & skeletal: Myalgia (5%), weakness (3%)
Renal: Increased blood urea nitrogen (9%), increased serum creatinine (1% to 5%)
<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Abdominal distention, abdominal pain, agranulocytosis, alopecia, angina pectoris, angioedema, anxiety, bronchitis, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac failure, chest pain, constipation, decreased libido, depression, diaphoresis, drowsiness, dyspepsia, dyspnea, edema, epistaxis, fever, first degree atrioventricular block, flushing, gout, hallucination, hepatitis, hyponatremia, impotence, increased serum ALT, increased serum AST, increased serum bilirubin, increased serum transaminases, insomnia, ischemic heart disease, jaundice, laryngeal edema, leukopenia, malaise, myalgia, myocardial infarction, nausea, neutropenia, palpitations, pancreatitis, pancytopenia, paresthesia, pemphigus, pharyngitis, pruritus, renal failure, skin rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, symptomatic hypotension, tachycardia, thrombocytopenia, toxic epidermal necrolysis, transient ischemic attacks, upper respiratory tract infection, ventricular tachycardia, vertigo, vomiting, xerostomia
Concerns related to adverse reactions:
• Angioedema: At any time during treatment (especially following first dose) angioedema may occur rarely with ACE inhibitors; it may involve the head and neck (potentially compromising the airway) or the intestine (presenting with abdominal pain). African-Americans and patients with idiopathic or hereditary angioedema may be at an increased risk. Risk may also be increased with concomitant use of mTOR inhibitor (eg, everolimus, sirolimus, temsirolimus) therapy. Prolonged frequent monitoring may be required especially if tongue, glottis, or larynx are involved as they are associated with airway obstruction. Patients with a history of airway surgery may have a higher risk of airway obstruction. Aggressive early and appropriate management is critical. Use in patients with previous angioedema associated with ACE inhibitor therapy is contraindicated.
• Cholestatic jaundice: A rare toxicity associated with ACE inhibitors includes cholestatic jaundice, which may progress to fulminant hepatic necrosis (some fatal); discontinue if marked elevation of hepatic transaminases or jaundice occurs.
• Cough: An ACE inhibitor cough is a dry, hacking, nonproductive one that usually occurs within the first few months of treatment and should generally resolve within 1 to 4 weeks after discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor. Other causes of cough should be considered (eg, pulmonary congestion in patients with heart failure) and excluded prior to discontinuation.
• Hematologic effects: Another ACE inhibitor, captopril, has been associated with neutropenia with myeloid hypoplasia and agranulocytosis; anemia and thrombocytopenia have also occurred. Patients with renal impairment are at high risk of developing neutropenia. Patients with both renal impairment and collagen vascular disease (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus) are at an even higher risk of developing neutropenia. Periodically monitor CBC with differential in these patients.
• Hyperkalemia: May occur with ACE inhibitors; risk factors include renal dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and/or potassium-containing salts. Use cautiously, if at all, with these agents and monitor potassium closely.
• Hypersensitivity reactions: Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions can occur with ACE inhibitors. Severe anaphylactoid reactions may be seen during hemodialysis (eg, CVVHD) with high-flux dialysis membranes (eg, AN69), and rarely, during low density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate cellulose. Rare cases of anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients undergoing sensitization treatment with hymenoptera (bee, wasp) venom while receiving ACE inhibitors.
• Hypotension/syncope: Symptomatic hypotension with or without syncope can occur with ACE inhibitors (usually with the first several doses); effects are most often observed in volume-depleted patients; correct volume depletion prior to initiation; close monitoring of patient is required especially with initial dosing and dosing increases; blood pressure must be lowered at a rate appropriate for the patient's clinical condition. Although dose reduction may be necessary, hypotension is not a reason for discontinuation of future ACE inhibitor use especially in patients with heart failure where a reduction in systolic blood pressure is a desirable observation.
• Renal function deterioration: May be associated with deterioration of renal function and/or increases in BUN and serum creatinine, particularly in patients with low renal blood flow (eg, renal artery stenosis, heart failure) whose glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is dependent on efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction by angiotensin II; deterioration may result in oliguria, acute renal failure, and progressive azotemia. Small benign increases in serum creatinine may occur following initiation; consider discontinuation only in patients with progressive and/or significant deterioration in renal function (Bakris 2000).
• Aortic stenosis: Use with caution in patients with aortic stenosis; may reduce coronary perfusion resulting in ischemia.
• Cardiovascular disease: Initiation of therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease or cerebrovascular disease warrants close observation due to the potential consequences posed by falling blood pressure (eg, MI, stroke). Fluid replacement, if needed, may restore blood pressure; therapy may then be resumed. Discontinue therapy in patients whose hypotension recurs.
• Collagen vascular disease: Use with caution in patients with collagen vascular disease especially with concomitant renal impairment; may be at increased risk for hematologic toxicity.
• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment; dosage adjustment recommended in patients with cirrhosis and lower doses should be considered in patients with hepatic impairment.
• Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with outflow tract obstruction: Use with caution in patients with HCM and outflow tract obstruction since reduction in afterload may worsen symptoms associated with this condition (ACCF/AHA [Gersh 2011]).
• Renal artery stenosis: Use with caution in patients with unstented unilateral/bilateral renal artery stenosis. When unstented bilateral renal artery stenosis is present, use is generally avoided due to the elevated risk of deterioration in renal function unless possible benefits outweigh risks.
• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment; dosage adjustment recommended in patients with CrCl <30 mL/minute. Avoid rapid dosage escalation, which may lead to further renal impairment.
Concurrent drug therapy issues:
• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.
• Black patients: ACE inhibitors' effectiveness is less in black patients than in non-blacks. In addition, ACE inhibitors cause a higher rate of angioedema in black than in non-black patients.
• Pregnancy: [US Boxed Warning]: Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. Discontinue as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected.
Dosage forms specific issues:
• Lactose: Formulation may contain lactose.
• Surgery: In patients on chronic ACE inhibitor therapy, intraoperative hypotension may occur with induction and maintenance of general anesthesia; use with caution before, during, or immediately after major surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass, intraoperative blood loss, or vasodilating anesthesia increases endogenous renin release. Use of ACE inhibitors perioperatively will blunt angiotensin II formation and may result in hypotension. However, discontinuation of therapy prior to surgery is controversial. If continued preoperatively, avoidance of hypotensive agents during surgery is prudent (Hillis 2011).
Blood pressure; BUN, serum creatinine and electrolytes; if patient has collagen vascular disease and/or renal impairment, periodically monitor CBC with differential
2013 ACCF/AHA Heart Failure guideline recommendations: Within 1 to 2 weeks after initiation and periodically thereafter, reassess renal function and serum potassium especially in patients with preexisting hypotension, hyponatremia, diabetes mellitus, azotemia, or those taking potassium supplements (ACCF/AHA [Yancy 2013]).
Pregnancy Risk Factor
[US Boxed Warning]: Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. Discontinue as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected. Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system are associated with oligohydramnios. Oligohydramnios, due to decreased fetal renal function, may lead to fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal malformations. The use of these drugs in pregnancy is also associated with anuria, hypotension, renal failure, skull hypoplasia, and death in the fetus/neonate. Teratogenic effects may occur following maternal use of an ACE inhibitor during the first trimester, although this finding may be confounded by maternal disease. Because adverse fetal events are well documented with exposure later in pregnancy, ACE inhibitor use in pregnant women is not recommended (Seely 2014; Weber 2014). Infants exposed to an ACE inhibitor in utero should be monitored for hyperkalemia, hypotension, and oliguria. Oligohydramnios may not appear until after irreversible fetal injury has occurred. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required to reverse hypotension or improve renal function, although data related to the effectiveness in neonates is limited.
Chronic maternal hypertension itself is also associated with adverse events in the fetus/infant and mother. ACE inhibitors are not recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated hypertension in pregnancy (ACOG 2013) and they are specifically contraindicated for the treatment of hypertension and chronic heart failure during pregnancy by some guidelines (Regitz-Zagrosek 2011). In addition, ACE inhibitors should generally be avoided in women of reproductive age (ACOG 2013). If treatment for hypertension or chronic heart failure in pregnancy is needed, other agents should be used (ACOG 2013; Regitz-Zagrosek 2011).
• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)
• Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of infection, signs of kidney problems (urinary retention, hematuria, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain), signs of high potassium (abnormal heartbeat, confusion, dizziness, passing out, weakness, shortness of breath, or numbness or tingling feeling), severe dizziness, passing out, persistent cough, severe abdominal pain, severe nausea, vomiting, or signs of liver problems (dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or jaundice) (HCAHPS).
• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.
Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.
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- Drug class: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors
Other brands: Mavik