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Levomilnacipran

Pronunciation

(lee voe mil NA si pran)

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Capsule ER 24 Hour Therapy Pack, Oral:

Fetzima Titration: 20 & 40 mg (28 ea)

Capsule Extended Release 24 Hour, Oral:

Fetzima: 20 mg, 40 mg, 80 mg, 120 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Fetzima
  • Fetzima Titration

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antidepressant, Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor

Pharmacology

Levomilnacipran, the more active enantiomer of milnacipran, is a potent inhibitor of norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake (Montgomery, 2013).

Distribution

Vd: 387 to 473 L

Metabolism

Hepatic to inactive metabolites

Excretion

Urine (58% as unchanged drug)

Time to Peak

6 to 8 hours

Half-Life Elimination

12 hours

Protein Binding

22%

Special Populations: Renal Function Impairment

Moderate-to-severe: Clearance may be decreased.

Use: Labeled Indications

Major depressive disorder: Treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD)

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to levomilnacipran, milnacipran, or any component of the formulation; use of MAO inhibitors intended to treat psychiatric disorders (concurrently or within 7 days of discontinuing levomilnacipran, or within 2 weeks of discontinuing the MAO inhibitor); initiation of levomilnacipran in a patient receiving linezolid or intravenous methylene blue

Dosing: Adult

Depression: Oral: Initial: 20 mg once daily for 2 days; increase to 40 mg once daily; may then be increased in increments of 40 mg at intervals of 2 or more days; Maintenance: 40-120 mg once daily; Maximum: 120 mg daily

Discontinuation of therapy: Upon discontinuation of antidepressant therapy, gradually taper the dose to minimize the incidence of withdrawal symptoms and allow for the detection of re-emerging symptoms. Evidence supporting ideal taper rates is limited. APA and NICE guidelines suggest tapering therapy over at least several weeks with consideration to the half-life of the antidepressant; antidepressants with a shorter half-life may need to be tapered more conservatively. In addition for long-term treated patients, WFSBP guidelines recommend tapering over 4-6 months. If intolerable withdrawal symptoms occur following a dose reduction, consider resuming the previously prescribed dose and/or decrease dose at a more gradual rate (APA, 2010; Bauer, 2002; Haddad, 2001; NCCMH, 2010; Schatzberg, 2006; Shelton, 2001; Warner, 2006).

MAO inhibitor recommendations:

Switching to or from an MAO inhibitor intended to treat psychiatric disorders:

Allow 14 days to elapse between discontinuing an MAO inhibitor intended to treat psychiatric disorders and initiation of levomilnacipran.

Allow 7 days to elapse between discontinuing levomilnacipran and initiation of an MAO inhibitor intended to treat psychiatric disorders.

Use with other MAO inhibitors (linezolid or IV methylene blue):

Do not initiate levomilnacipran in patients receiving linezolid or IV methylene blue; consider other interventions for psychiatric condition.

If urgent treatment with linezolid or IV methylene blue is required in a patient already receiving levomilnacipran and potential benefits outweigh potential risks, discontinue levomilnacipran promptly and administer linezolid or IV methylene blue. Monitor for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid or IV methylene blue, whichever comes first. May resume levomilnacipran 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid or IV methylene blue.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Renal Impairment

CrCl ≥ 60 mL/minute: No dosage adjustment necessary.

CrCl 30-59 mL/minute: 80 mg once daily (maximum).

CrCl 15-29 mL/minute: 40 mg once daily (maximum).

End-stage renal disease (ESRD): Use is not recommended.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment

No dosage adjustment necessary.

Administration

Administer with or without food at approximately the same time each day. Swallow whole, do not open, chew, or crush the capsule.

Storage

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F).

Drug Interactions

Agents with Antiplatelet Properties (e.g., P2Y12 inhibitors, NSAIDs, SSRIs, etc.): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of other Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Alcohol (Ethyl): May increase the absorption of Levomilnacipran. More specifically, Alcohol (Ethyl) may cause more rapid release of Levomilnacipran from extended-release tablets, which could accelerate absorption early post-dose. Management: Avoid administering levomilnacipran with alcohol. The use of alcohol in patients receiving levomilnacipran is not otherwise advised against, although it may theoretically modify the central effects of one or both drugs. Consider therapy modification

Alpha-/Beta-Agonists: Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the tachycardic effect of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists. Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the vasopressor effect of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists. Consider therapy modification

Alpha2-Agonists: Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Alpha2-Agonists. Exceptions: Apraclonidine. Monitor therapy

Analgesics (Opioid): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Anticoagulants: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. Monitor therapy

Antiemetics (5HT3 Antagonists): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Antipsychotic Agents: Serotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Apixaban: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Apixaban. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely. Monitor therapy

Aprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Aspirin: Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Monitor therapy

Cephalothin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cephalothin. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Collagenase (Systemic): Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Collagenase (Systemic). Specifically, the risk of injection site bruising and/or bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Conivaptan: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Avoid combination

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Levomilnacipran. Management: Do not exceed a maximum adult levomilnacipran dose of 80 mg/day in patients also receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Dabigatran Etexilate: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Dabigatran Etexilate. Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may increase the serum concentration of Dabigatran Etexilate. This mechanism applies specifically to clopidogrel. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely; Canadian labeling recommends avoiding prasugrel or ticagrelor. Monitor therapy

Dapoxetine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Serotonin Modulators. Avoid combination

Dasatinib: May enhance the anticoagulant effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Dasatinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Deoxycholic Acid: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Deoxycholic Acid. Specifically, the risk for bleeding or bruising in the treatment area may be increased. Monitor therapy

Edoxaban: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Edoxaban. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Fosaprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Fusidic Acid (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Avoid combination

Glucosamine: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Herbs (Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Properties) (eg, Alfalfa, Anise, Bilberry): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Bleeding may occur. Consider therapy modification

Ibritumomab: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ibritumomab. Both agents may contribute to impaired platelet function and an increased risk of bleeding. Monitor therapy

Ibrutinib: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Idelalisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Avoid combination

Iobenguane I 123: Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may diminish the therapeutic effect of Iobenguane I 123. Avoid combination

Ioflupane I 123: Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may diminish the diagnostic effect of Ioflupane I 123. Monitor therapy

Ivacaftor: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Limaprost: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Linezolid: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Luliconazole: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

MAO Inhibitors: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. This may cause serotonin syndrome. While methylene blue and linezolid are expected to interact via this mechanism, management recommendations differ from other monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Refer to monographs specific to those agents for details. Exceptions: Linezolid; Methylene Blue; Tedizolid. Avoid combination

Metaxalone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Methylene Blue: Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of Methylene Blue. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Methylene Blue: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Metoclopramide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. Management: Seek alternatives to this combination when possible. Monitor patients receiving metoclopramide with serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors for signs of extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and serotonin syndrome. Consider therapy modification

MiFEPRIStone: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Minimize doses of CYP3A4 substrates, and monitor for increased concentrations/toxicity, during and 2 weeks following treatment with mifepristone. Avoid cyclosporine, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, fentanyl, pimozide, quinidine, sirolimus, and tacrolimus. Consider therapy modification

Multivitamins/Fluoride (with ADE): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Netupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

NSAID (Nonselective): Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the antiplatelet effect of NSAID (Nonselective). Monitor therapy

Obinutuzumab: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Obinutuzumab. Specifically, the risk of serious bleeding-related events may be increased. Monitor therapy

Omega-3 Fatty Acids: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Palbociclib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased by concurrent use of these agents. Monitor therapy

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Rivaroxaban: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Rivaroxaban. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely; Canadian labeling recommends avoiding prasugrel or ticagrelor. Monitor therapy

Salicylates: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Increased risk of bleeding may result. Monitor therapy

Serotonin Modulators: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Serotonin Modulators. The development of serotonin syndrome may occur. Exceptions: Nicergoline; Tedizolid. Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Stiripentol: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Use of stiripentol with CYP3A4 substrates that are considered to have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided due to the increased risk for adverse effects and toxicity. Any CYP3A4 substrate used with stiripentol requires closer monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Tedizolid: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Thrombolytic Agents: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Thrombolytic Agents. Monitor therapy

Tipranavir: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab. Specifically, the risk of bleeding-related adverse events may be increased. Monitor therapy

TraMADol: Serotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of TraMADol. The risk of seizures may be increased. TraMADol may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Urokinase: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Urokinase. Avoid combination

Vitamin E (Systemic): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Levomilnacipran may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Adverse Reactions

>10%:

Cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension (6% to 12%; dose related)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea (17%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Increased heart rate (6%), tachycardia (6%), palpitations (5%), hypertension (3%), hypotension (3%), increased blood pressure (3%), angina pectoris (<2%), chest pain (<2%), supraventricular extrasystole (<2%), syncope (<2%), ventricular premature contractions (<2%)

Central nervous system: Aggressive behavior (<2%), agitation (<2%), extrapyramidal reaction (<2%), migraine (<2%), outbursts of anger (<2%), panic attack (<2%), paresthesia (<2%), tension (<2%), yawning (<2%)

Dermatologic: Hyperhidrosis (9%), skin rash (2%), pruritus (<2%), urticaria (<2%), xeroderma (<2%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Hot flash (3%), hypercholesterolemia (<2%), increased thirst (<2%)

Gastrointestinal: Constipation (9%), vomiting (5%), decreased appetite (3%), abdominal pain (<2%), bruxism (<2%), flatulence (<2%)

Genitourinary: Erectile dysfunction (6% to 10%; dose related), urinary hesitancy (4% to 6%; dose related), ejaculatory disorder (5%), testicular pain (4%), hematuria (<2%), pollakiuria (<2%), proteinuria (<2%)

Hepatic: Abnormal hepatic function tests (<2%)

Ophthalmic: Blurred vision (<2%), conjunctival hemorrhage (<2%), dry eye syndrome (<2%)

<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Angle-closure glaucoma, hemorrhagic diathesis, mydriasis, seizure

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Suicidality and antidepressant drugs:

Antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies. These studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior with antidepressant use in patients older than 24 years; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressant use in patients 65 years and older.

In patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy, monitor closely for worsening and for emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Advise families and caregivers of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber.

Levomilnacipran is not approved for use in pediatric patients.

Warnings/Precautions

Major psychiatric warnings:

• Suicidal thinking/behavior: [U.S. Boxed Warning]: Antidepressants increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults (18-24 years of age) with major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders; consider risk prior to prescribing. Short-term studies did not show an increased risk in patients >24 years of age and showed a decreased risk in patients ≥65 years. Closely monitor for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior, particularly during the initial few months of therapy or during periods of dosage adjustments (increases or decreases); the patient’s family or caregiver should be instructed to closely observe the patient and communicate condition with healthcare provider. A medication guide concerning the use of antidepressants in children and teenagers should be dispensed with each prescription. Levomilnacipran is not FDA-approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder or for use in children.

• Suicide risk: The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in major depression and may persist until remission occurs. Worsening depression and severe abrupt suicidality that are not part of the presenting symptoms may require discontinuation or modification of drug therapy. Use caution in high-risk patients during initiation of therapy.

•Prescriptions should be written for the smallest quantity consistent with good patient care. The patient's family or caregiver should be alerted to monitor patients for the emergence of suicidality and associated behaviors such as aggressiveness, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, impulsivity, akathisia, hypomania, and mania; patients should be instructed to notify their healthcare provider if any of these symptoms or worsening depression or psychosis occur.

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Bleeding risk: May impair platelet aggregation resulting in increased risk of bleeding events, particularly if used concomitantly with aspirin, NSAIDs, warfarin or other anticoagulants. Bleeding related to SNRI use has been reported to range from relatively minor bruising and epistaxis to life-threatening hemorrhage.

• Cardiovascular effects: May increase blood pressure and heart rate; blood pressure and heart rate should be evaluated prior to initiating therapy and periodically thereafter; consider dose reduction or gradual discontinuation of therapy in individuals with sustained hypertension or tachycardia during therapy; use with caution in patients with pre-existing hypertension, tachyarrhythmias (eg, atrial fibrillation), or other cardiovascular disease.

• Fractures: Bone fractures have been associated with antidepressant treatment. Consider the possibility of a fragility fracture if an antidepressant-treated patient presents with unexplained bone pain, point tenderness, swelling, or bruising (Rabenda, 2013; Rizzoli, 2012).

• Ocular effects: May cause mild pupillary dilation which in susceptible individuals can lead to an episode of narrow-angle glaucoma. Consider evaluating patients who have not had an iridectomy for narrow-angle glaucoma risk factors.

• Serotonin syndrome: Potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome (SS) has occurred with serotonergic agents (eg, SSRIs, SNRIs), particularly when used in combination with other serotonergic agents (eg, triptans, TCAs, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, buspirone, St John’s wort, tryptophan) or agents that impair metabolism of serotonin (eg, MAO inhibitors intended to treat psychiatric disorders, other MAO inhibitors [ie, linezolid and intravenous methylene blue]). Monitor patients closely for signs of SS such as mental status changes (eg, agitation, hallucinations, delirium, coma); autonomic instability (eg, tachycardia, labile blood pressure, diaphoresis); neuromuscular changes (eg, tremor, rigidity, myoclonus); GI symptoms (eg, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea); and/or seizures. Discontinue treatment (and any concomitant serotonergic agent) immediately if signs/symptoms arise.

• SIADH and hyponatremia: SSRIs and SNRIs have been associated with the development of SIADH; hyponatremia has been reported rarely (including severe cases with serum sodium <110 mmol/L). Age (the elderly), volume depletion and/or concurrent use of diuretics likely increases risk. Discontinue treatment in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia.

• Urinary hesitancy or retention: May cause increased urinary hesitation or resistance; advise patient to report symptoms of urinary hesitation/difficulty. Use caution in patients prone to obstructive urinary disorders.

Disease-related concerns:

• Mania/hypomania: May precipitate a shift to mania or hypomania in patients with bipolar disorder. Monotherapy in patients with bipolar disorder should be avoided. Patients presenting with depressive symptoms should be screened for bipolar disorder. Levomilnacipran is not FDA approved for the treatment of bipolar disorder.

• Renal impairment: Use caution; clearance is decreased and plasma concentrations are increased; dosage reduction recommended in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment; not recommended in patients with end stage renal disease.

• Seizure disorders: Use caution with a previous seizure disorder.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Special populations:

• Elderly: Use caution in elderly patients; may have a higher risk of SIADH or hyponatremia.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Discontinuation syndrome: Abrupt discontinuation or interruption of antidepressant therapy has been associated with a discontinuation syndrome. Symptoms arising may vary with antidepressant however commonly include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, lightheadedness, dizziness, diminished appetite, sweating, chills, tremors, paresthesias, fatigue, somnolence, and sleep disturbances (eg, vivid dreams, insomnia). Less common symptoms include electric shock-like sensations, cardiac arrhythmias (more common with tricyclic antidepressants), myalgias, parkinsonism, arthralgias, and balance difficulties. Psychological symptoms may also emerge such as agitation, anxiety, akathisia, panic attacks, irritability, aggressiveness, worsening of mood, dysphoria, mood lability, hyperactivity, mania/hypomania, depersonalization, decreased concentration, slowed thinking, confusion, and memory or concentration difficulties. Greater risks for developing a discontinuation syndrome have been associated with antidepressants with shorter half-lives, longer durations of treatment, and abrupt discontinuation. For antidepressants of short or intermediate half-lives, symptoms may emerge within 2-5 days after treatment discontinuation and last 7-14 days (APA, 2010; Fava, 2006; Haddad, 2001; Shelton, 2001; Warner, 2006).

Monitoring Parameters

Mental status for depression, suicidal ideation (especially at the beginning of therapy or when doses are increased or decreased); symptoms of serotonin syndrome; renal function for dosing purposes; blood pressure and heart rate; intraocular pressure for those patients with baseline elevations or at risk for glaucoma

Pregnancy Risk Factor

C

Pregnancy Considerations

Adverse events were observed in some animal reproduction studies. Nonteratogenic effects in the newborn following SSRI/SNRI exposure late in the third trimester include respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypo- or hypertonia, hyper-reflexia, jitteriness, irritability, constant crying, and tremor. Symptoms may be due to the toxicity of the SSRIs/SNRIs or a discontinuation syndrome and may be consistent with serotonin syndrome associated with SSRI treatment.

Women treated for major depression and who are euthymic prior to pregnancy are more likely to experience a relapse when medication is discontinued as compared to pregnant women who continue taking antidepressant medications (Cohen 2006). The ACOG recommends that therapy with SSRIs or SNRIs during pregnancy be individualized; treatment of depression during pregnancy should incorporate the clinical expertise of the mental health clinician, obstetrician, primary health care provider, and pediatrician. According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), the risks of medication treatment should be weighed against other treatment options and untreated depression. For women who discontinue antidepressant medications during pregnancy and who may be at high risk for postpartum depression, the medications can be restarted following delivery. Treatment algorithms have been developed by the ACOG and the APA for the management of depression in women prior to conception and during pregnancy (ACOG 2008; APA 2010; Yonkers 2009).

Pregnant women exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy are encouraged to enroll in the National Pregnancy Registry for Antidepressants (NPRAD). Women 18 to 45 years of age or their health care providers may contact the registry by calling 844-405-6185. Enrollment should be done as early in pregnancy as possible.

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience sweating a lot or constipation. Have patient report immediately to prescriber vision changes, eye pain, eye irritation, signs of depression (suicidal ideation, anxiety, emotional instability, illogical thinking), signs of bleeding (vomiting blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds; coughing up blood; blood in the urine; black, red, or tarry stools; bleeding from the gums; abnormal vaginal bleeding; bruises without a reason or that get bigger; or any bleeding that is very bad or that will not stop), signs of low sodium (headache, trouble focusing, memory problems, illogical thinking, weakness, seizures, or change in balance), angina, change in balance, severe headache, severe dizziness, seizures, severe nausea, vomiting, loss of strength and energy, urinary retention, sexual dysfunction, or signs of serotonin syndrome (dizziness, severe headache, agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, arrhythmia, flushing, tremors, sweating a lot, change in balance, severe nausea, severe diarrhea) (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for healthcare professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience and judgment in diagnosing, treating and advising patients.

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