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Indapamide

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Nov 5, 2020.

Pronunciation

(in DAP a mide)

Index Terms

  • Lozol

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral:

Generic: 1.25 mg, 2.5 mg

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antihypertensive
  • Diuretic, Thiazide-Related

Pharmacology

Diuretic effect is localized at the proximal segment of the distal tubule of the nephron; it does not appear to have significant effect on glomerular filtration rate nor renal blood flow; like other diuretics, it enhances sodium, chloride, and water excretion by interfering with the transport of sodium ions across the renal tubular epithelium

Absorption

Complete

Distribution

Vd: 25 L (Grebow, 1982)

Metabolism

Extensively hepatic

Excretion

Urine (~70%; 7% as unchanged drug within 48 hours); feces (23%)

Time to Peak

2 hours

Half-Life Elimination

Biphasic: 14 and 25 hours

Protein Binding

Plasma: 71% to 79%

Use: Labeled Indications

Heart failure: Treatment of edema in heart failure

Hypertension: Management of mild to moderate hypertension

Guideline recommendations: The 2017 Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults recommends if monotherapy is warranted, in the absence of comorbidities (eg, cerebrovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, etc), that thiazide-like diuretics or dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers may be preferred options due to improved cardiovascular endpoints (eg, prevention of heart failure and stroke). ACE inhibitors and ARBs are also acceptable for monotherapy. Combination therapy may be required to achieve blood pressure goals and is initially preferred in patients at high risk (stage 2 hypertension or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ASCVD] risk ≥10%) (ACC/AHA [Whelton 2017]).

Off Label Uses

Calcium nephrolithiasis

Data from a prospective, randomized, study supports the use of indapamide for the prevention of recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis [Borghi 1993]. Additional trials may be necessary to further define the role of indapamide in the treatment of this condition.

Based on the American Urologic Association (AUA) guidelines for the medical management of kidney stones, indapamide is effective and recommended for the prevention of recurrent calcium stones in patients with high or relatively high urine calcium concentrations.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to indapamide or any component of the formulation or sulfonamide-derived drugs; anuria.

Note: Although the FDA approved product labeling states this medication is contraindicated with other sulfonamide-containing drug classes, the scientific basis of this statement has been challenged. See “Warnings/Precautions” for more detail.

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Severe renal failure (CrCl <30 mL/minute); hepatic encephalopathy; severe hepatic impairment; hypokalemia; concomitant use with antiarrhythmic agents causing torsade de pointes; pregnancy; breastfeeding; hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption, or total lactase deficiency.

Dosing: Adult

Calcium nephrolithiasis (off-label use): Oral: 2.5 mg once daily (AUA [Pearle 2014])

Edema: Oral: Initial: 2.5 mg daily; if inadequate response after 1 week, may increase dose to 5 mg daily. Note: There is little therapeutic benefit to increasing the dose >5 mg daily; there is, however, an increased risk of electrolyte disturbances.

Hypertension: Oral: Initial: 1.25 mg once daily; titrate as needed every 4 weeks up to 5 mg once daily. Usual dosage range: 1.25 to 2.5 mg once daily (ACC/AHA [Whelton 2017])

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Administration

Oral: May be administered without regard to meals (Caruso 1983); however, administration with food or milk may decrease GI adverse effects. Administer early in day to avoid nocturia.

Dietary Considerations

May be taken without regard to meals (Caruso 1983); however, administration with food or milk may to decrease GI adverse effects.

Storage

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F).

Drug Interactions

Ajmaline: Sulfonamides may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ajmaline. Specifically, the risk for cholestasis may be increased. Monitor therapy

Alcohol (Ethyl): May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Alfuzosin: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Allopurinol: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the potential for allergic or hypersensitivity reactions to Allopurinol. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may increase the serum concentration of Allopurinol. Specifically, Thiazide Diuretics may increase the concentration of Oxypurinol, an active metabolite of Allopurinol. Monitor therapy

Amifostine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Amifostine. Management: When used at chemotherapy doses, hold blood pressure lowering medications for 24 hours before amifostine administration. If blood pressure lowering therapy cannot be held, do not administer amifostine. Use caution with radiotherapy doses of amifostine. Consider therapy modification

Aminolevulinic Acid (Systemic): Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Aminolevulinic Acid (Systemic). Avoid combination

Aminolevulinic Acid (Topical): Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Aminolevulinic Acid (Topical). Monitor therapy

Amphetamines: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypotensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Anticholinergic Agents: May increase the serum concentration of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Antidiabetic Agents: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Antidiabetic Agents: Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]): Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]). Monitor therapy

Arsenic Trioxide: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypotensive effect of Arsenic Trioxide. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Arsenic Trioxide. Management: When possible, avoid concurrent use of arsenic trioxide with drugs that can cause electrolyte abnormalities, such as the thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics. Consider therapy modification

Barbiturates: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Benperidol: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Beta2-Agonists: May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Bile Acid Sequestrants: May decrease the absorption of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. The diuretic response is likewise decreased. Management: Consider separating administraton of bile acid sequestrants and thiazide diuretics by at least 4 hours. Monitor for decreased therapeutic effects of thiazide diuretics if coadministered with a bile acid sequestrant. Consider therapy modification

Brigatinib: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Brigatinib may enhance the bradycardic effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Bromperidol: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Bromperidol. Bromperidol may diminish the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Avoid combination

Calcium Salts: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may decrease the excretion of Calcium Salts. Continued concomitant use can also result in metabolic alkalosis. Monitor therapy

CarBAMazepine: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CarBAMazepine. Specifically, there may be an increased risk for hyponatremia. Monitor therapy

Cardiac Glycosides: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cardiac Glycosides. Specifically, cardiac glycoside toxicity may be enhanced by the hypokalemic and hypomagnesemic effect of thiazide diuretics. Monitor therapy

Corticosteroids (Systemic): May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Cyclophosphamide: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cyclophosphamide. Specifically, granulocytopenia may be enhanced. Monitor therapy

Dexketoprofen: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sulfonamides. Monitor therapy

Dexmethylphenidate: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Diacerein: May enhance the therapeutic effect of Diuretics. Specifically, the risk for dehydration or hypokalemia may be increased. Monitor therapy

Diazoxide: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diazoxide. Monitor therapy

Diazoxide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Dichlorphenamide: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Dichlorphenamide. Monitor therapy

Dofetilide: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dofetilide. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may increase the serum concentration of Dofetilide. Management: Although hydrochlorothiazide is specifically cited as a contraindication, the risk likely extends to all thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics and may be even greater with chlorthalidone or bendroflumethiazide. Consider alternatives when possible. Consider therapy modification

DULoxetine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of DULoxetine. Monitor therapy

Fexinidazole [INT]: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Fexinidazole [INT]. Avoid combination

Herbs (Hypertensive Properties): May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Herbs (Hypotensive Properties): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Hypotension-Associated Agents: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotension-Associated Agents. Monitor therapy

Ipragliflozin: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Specifically, the risk for intravascular volume depletion may be increased. Monitor therapy

Ivabradine: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Ivabradine. Monitor therapy

Levodopa-Containing Products: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Levodopa-Containing Products. Monitor therapy

Levosulpiride: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Levosulpiride. Avoid combination

Licorice: May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Lithium: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may decrease the excretion of Lithium. Management: Condsider reducing the lithium dose by 50% upon initiation of a thiazide diuretic. Monitor for increased lithium therapeutic/toxic effects if a thiazide is initiated/dose increased, or decreased effects if a thiazide is discontinued/dose decreased. Consider therapy modification

Lormetazepam: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Mecamylamine: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Mecamylamine. Management: Consider avoiding the use of mecamylamine and thiazide diuretics. If combined, mecamylamine prescribing information suggests reducing the mecamylamine dose by 50% in order to avoid excessive hypotension. Consider therapy modification

Methenamine: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Methenamine. Monitor therapy

Methylphenidate: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Molsidomine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Fluoride (with ADE): May enhance the hypercalcemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron): Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypercalcemic effect of Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron). Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron): Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may increase the serum concentration of Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron). Specifically, thiazide diuretics may decrease the excretion of calcium, and continued concomitant use can also result in metabolic alkalosis. Monitor therapy

Naftopidil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents (Nondepolarizing): Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents (Nondepolarizing). Monitor therapy

Nicergoline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Nitroprusside: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Nitroprusside. Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Topical): May diminish the therapeutic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Obinutuzumab: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Management: Consider temporarily withholding blood pressure lowering medications beginning 12 hours prior to obinutuzumab infusion and continuing until 1 hour after the end of the infusion. Consider therapy modification

Opioid Agonists: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics. Opioid Agonists may diminish the therapeutic effect of Diuretics. Monitor therapy

OXcarbazepine: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of OXcarbazepine. Specifically, there may be an increased risk for hyponatremia. Monitor therapy

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Pholcodine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Pholcodine. Monitor therapy

Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Porfimer: Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Porfimer. Monitor therapy

Promazine: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Promazine. Avoid combination

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Quinagolide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Reboxetine: May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the hyponatremic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Sodium Phosphates: Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Sodium Phosphates. Specifically, the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy may be enhanced. Management: Consider avoiding this combination by temporarily suspending treatment with diuretics, or seeking alternatives to oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. If the combination cannot be avoided, hydrate adequately and monitor fluid and renal status. Consider therapy modification

Topiramate: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Topiramate. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may increase the serum concentration of Topiramate. Management: Monitor for increased topiramate levels/adverse effects (eg, hypokalemia) with initiation/dose increase of a thiazide diuretic. Closely monitor serum potassium concentrations with concomitant therapy. Topiramate dose reductions may be necessary. Consider therapy modification

Toremifene: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypercalcemic effect of Toremifene. Monitor therapy

Verteporfin: Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Verteporfin. Monitor therapy

Vitamin D Analogs: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypercalcemic effect of Vitamin D Analogs. Monitor therapy

Yohimbine: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Test Interactions

May interfere with parathyroid function tests and may decrease serum iodine (protein bound) without signs of thyroid disturbance; may lead to false-negative aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) (Funder 2016)

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse drug reactions and incidences are derived from product labeling unless otherwise specified.

≥5%:

Central nervous system: Agitation, anxiety, dizziness, fatigue, headache, irritability, lethargy, malaise, nervousness (dose-dependent), pain, paresthesia, tension

Endocrine & metabolic: Hypokalemia (<3.5 mEq/L: 20% to 72%, dose-dependent)

Infection: Infection

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Back pain, muscle cramps, muscle spasm, weakness

Respiratory: Rhinitis

≥1% to <5%:

Cardiovascular: Cardiac arrhythmia, chest pain, flushing, orthostatic hypotension, palpitations, peripheral edema, vasculitis, ventricular premature contractions

Central nervous system: Depression, drowsiness, hypertonia, insomnia, vertigo

Dermatologic: Pruritus, skin rash, urticaria

Endocrine & metabolic: Decreased libido, glycosuria, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia, weight loss

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal cramps, abdominal pain, anorexia, constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia, gastric irritation, nausea, vomiting, xerostomia

Genitourinary: Nocturia

Ophthalmic: Blurred vision, conjunctivitis

Renal: Increased blood urea nitrogen, increased serum creatinine, polyuria

Respiratory: Cough, flu-like symptoms, pharyngitis, rhinorrhea, sinusitis

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Abnormal hepatic function tests, agranulocytosis, anaphylaxis, aplastic anemia, bullous rash, cholestatic jaundice, erythema multiforme, fever, hepatitis, hypercalcemia, leukopenia, pancreatitis, pneumonitis, purpura, skin photosensitivity, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, thrombocytopenia, torsades de pointes

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Electrolyte disturbances: Severe hyponatremia with hypokalemia has been reported at recommended doses (particularly in elderly women); risk may be dose dependent, therefore, use lowest dose possible. Hypochloremic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, or hypercalcemia can also occur; monitor electrolytes periodically during therapy.

• Photosensitivity: Photosensitization may occur.

• Sulfonamide (“sulfa”) allergy: The FDA-approved product labeling for many medications containing a sulfonamide chemical group includes a broad contraindication in patients with a prior allergic reaction to sulfonamides. There is a potential for cross-reactivity between members of a specific class (eg, two antibiotic sulfonamides). However, concerns for cross-reactivity have previously extended to all compounds containing the sulfonamide structure (SO2NH2). An expanded understanding of allergic mechanisms indicates cross-reactivity between antibiotic sulfonamides and nonantibiotic sulfonamides may not occur or at the very least this potential is extremely low (Brackett 2004; Johnson 2005; Slatore 2004; Tornero 2004). In particular, mechanisms of cross-reaction due to antibody production (anaphylaxis) are unlikely to occur with nonantibiotic sulfonamides. T-cell-mediated (type IV) reactions (eg, maculopapular rash) are less well understood and it is not possible to completely exclude this potential based on current insights. In cases where prior reactions were severe (Stevens-Johnson syndrome/TEN), some clinicians choose to avoid exposure to these classes.

Disease-related concerns:

• Adrenal insufficiency: Avoid use of diuretics for treatment of elevated blood pressure in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease). Adjustment of glucocorticoid/mineralocorticoid therapy and/or use of other antihypertensive agents is preferred to treat hypertension (Bornstein 2016; Inder 2015).

• Bariatric surgery: Dehydration: Avoid diuretics in the immediate postoperative period after bariatric surgery; electrolyte disturbances and dehydration may occur. Diuretics may be resumed, if indicated, once oral fluid intake goals are met (Ziegler 2009).

• Diabetes: Use with caution in patients with prediabetes or diabetes mellitus; may see a change in glucose control.

• Gout: In certain patients with a history of gout, a familial predisposition to gout, or chronic renal failure, gout can be precipitated.

• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with severe hepatic dysfunction; in cirrhosis, avoid electrolyte and acid/base imbalances that might lead to hepatic encephalopathy.

• Hypercholesterolemia: Use with caution in patients with moderate or high cholesterol concentrations; thiazide diuretics have been shown to increase cholesterol concentrations; however, indapamide (a thiazide-like diuretic) has not been shown to adversely affected lipids.

• Hypokalemia: Use with caution in patients with hypokalemia; correct before initiating therapy.

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in severe renal disease.

• Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Can cause SLE exacerbation or activation.

Dosage forms specific issues:

• Lactose: Formulation may contain lactose.

Monitoring Parameters

BP (both standing and sitting/supine); serum electrolytes, hepatic function, renal function, uric acid; assess weight, intake and output (I and O) reports daily to determine fluid loss.

Hypertension: The 2017 Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults (ACC/AHA [Whelton 2017]):

Confirmed hypertension and known cardiovascular disease or 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk ≥10%: Target BP <130/80 mm Hg is recommended.

Confirmed hypertension without markers of increased ASCVD risk: Target BP <130/80 mm Hg may be reasonable.

Diabetes and hypertension: The American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines (ADA 2020):

Patients 18 to 65 years of age, without ASCVD, and 10-year ASCVD risk <15%: Target BP <140/90 mm Hg is recommended.

Patients 18 to 65 years of age and known ASCVD or 10-year ASCVD risk ≥15%: Target BP <130/80 mm Hg may be appropriate if it can be safely attained.

Patients >65 years of age (healthy or complex/intermediate health): Target BP <140/90 mm Hg is recommended.

Patients >65 years of age (very complex/poor health): Target BP <150/90 mm Hg is recommended.

Pregnancy Risk Factor

B

Pregnancy Considerations

Adverse events were not observed in animal reproduction studies. Diuretics cross the placenta and are found in cord blood. Maternal use may cause may cause fetal or neonatal jaundice, thrombocytopenia, or other adverse events observed in adults. Use of diuretics during normal pregnancies is not appropriate; use may be considered when edema is due to pathologic causes (as in the nonpregnant patient); monitor.

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to treat high blood pressure.

• It is used to get rid of extra fluid.

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Dizziness

• Headache

• Loss of strength and energy

• Back pain

• Anxiety

• Runny nose

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• High blood sugar like confusion, fatigue, increased thirst, increased hunger, passing a lot of urine, flushing, fast breathing, or breath that smells like fruit.

• Fluid and electrolyte problems like mood changes, confusion, muscle pain or weakness, abnormal heartbeat, severe dizziness, passing out, fast heartbeat, increased thirst, seizures, loss of strength and energy, lack of appetite, unable to pass urine or change in amount of urine passed, dry mouth, dry eyes, or nausea or vomiting.

• Kidney problems like unable to pass urine, blood in the urine, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain.

• Chills

• Severe sore throat

• Burning or numbness feeling

• Irritability

• Agitation

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.