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Ezetimibe and Simvastatin

Pronunciation

(ez ET i mibe & SIM va stat in)

Index Terms

  • Simvastatin and Ezetimibe
  • Simvastatin/Ezetimibe

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet:

Vytorin 10/10: Ezetimibe 10 mg and simvastatin 10 mg

Vytorin 10/20: Ezetimibe 10 mg and simvastatin 20 mg

Vytorin 10/40: Ezetimibe 10 mg and simvastatin 40 mg

Vytorin 10/80: Ezetimibe 10 mg and simvastatin 80 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Vytorin

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antilipemic Agent, 2-Azetidinone
  • Antilipemic Agent, HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor

Pharmacology

Ezetimibe: Inhibits absorption of cholesterol at the brush border of the small intestine, leading to a decreased delivery of cholesterol to the liver. Ezetimibe inhibits the enzyme Niemann-Pick C1-Like1 (NPC1L1), a sterol transporter.

Simvastatin: A methylated derivative of lovastatin that acts by competitively inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition to the ability of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors to decrease levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), they also possess pleiotropic properties including improved endothelial function, reduced inflammation at the site of the coronary plaque, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and anticoagulant effects (de Denus, 2002; Ray, 2005).

Use: Labeled Indications

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: As an adjunct to diet for the reduction of elevated total cholesterol (total-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, as an adjunct to other lipid-lowering treatments (eg, LDL apheresis), or if such treatments are unavailable

Primary hyperlipidemia: As an adjunct to diet for the reduction of elevated total-C, LDL-C, apolipoprotein B (apo B), triglycerides, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and to increase HDL-C in patients with primary (heterozygous familial and nonfamilial) hyperlipidemia or mixed hyperlipidemia

Simvastatin: Primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) according to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association: To reduce the risk of ASCVD in patients with clinical ASCVD (eg, coronary heart disease, stroke/TIA, or peripheral arterial disease presumed to be of atherosclerotic origin) who are greater than 75 years of age or not a candidate for high-intensity statin therapy; in patients without clinical ASCVD if LDL-C is 190 mg/dL or greater and not a candidate for high-intensity statin therapy; in patients without clinical ASCVD who have type 1 or type 2 diabetes and are between 40 and 75 years of age; in patients with an estimated 10-year ASCVD risk 7.5% or greater and who are between 40 and 75 years of age (Stone, 2013). Specific recommendations from the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) organization have also been released for patients with chronic kidney disease (KDIGO [Tonelli, 2013]).

Limitations of use: No incremental benefit of ezetimibe/simvastatin on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality over and above that demonstrated for simvastatin has been established. Ezetimibe/simvastatin has not been studied in Fredrickson type I, III, IV, and V dyslipidemias.

Contraindications

Coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (eg, itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, HIV protease inhibitors, boceprevir, telaprevir, erythromycin, clarithromycin, telithromycin, nefazodone, cobicistat-containing products), gemfibrozil, cyclosporine, or danazol; hypersensitivity to ezetimibe, simvastatin, or any component of this medication; active liver disease or unexplained persistent elevations in hepatic transaminases; pregnancy or use in women who may become pregnant; breast-feeding

Dosing: Adult

Note: Dosing limitation: Simvastatin 80 mg is limited to patients that have been taking this dose for >12 consecutive months without evidence of myopathy and are not currently taking or beginning a simvastatin dose-limiting or contraindicated interacting medication. If patient is unable to achieve low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) goal using the 40 mg dose of simvastatin, increasing to 80 mg dose is not recommended. Instead, switch patient to an alternative LDL-C-lowering treatment providing greater LDL-C reduction. After initiation or titration, monitor lipid response after ≥2 weeks and adjust dose as necessary.

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: Oral: Ezetimibe 10 mg and simvastatin 40 mg once daily in the evening.

Primary hyperlipidemia: Oral: Initial: Ezetimibe 10 mg and simvastatin 10 to 20 mg once daily in the evening. Start patients who require >55% reduction in LDL-C at ezetimibe 10 mg and simvastatin 40 mg once daily in the evening. Dosing range: Ezetimibe 10 mg and simvastatin 10 to 40 mg once daily.

Dosage adjustment with concomitant medications: Oral: Note: Patients currently tolerating and requiring a dose of simvastatin 80 mg who require initiation of an interacting drug with a dose cap for simvastatin should be switched to an alternative statin with less potential for drug-drug interaction.

Amiodarone, amlodipine, or ranolazine: Simvastatin dose should not exceed 20 mg once daily.

Diltiazem, dronedarone, or verapamil: Simvastatin dose should not exceed 10 mg once daily.

Lomitapide: Reduce simvastatin dose by 50% when initiating lomitapide. Simvastatin dose should not exceed 20 mg once daily (or 40 mg once daily for those who previously tolerated simvastatin 80 mg daily for ≥1 year without evidence of muscle toxicity).

Dosage adjustment in Chinese patients on niacin doses ≥1 g daily: Oral: Use caution with simvastatin doses exceeding 20 mg daily; because of an increased risk of myopathy, do not administer simvastatin 80 mg

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Pediatric

Primary hyperlipidemia: Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) (off-label use): Children and Adolescents 10 to 17 years (males and postmenarchal females): Oral: Initial: Ezetimibe 10 mg and simvastatin 10 to 20 mg once daily in the evening (van der Graaf, 2008). Dosing range: Ezetimibe 10 mg and simvastatin 10 to 40 mg once daily; maximum dose: Ezetimibe 10 mg and simvastatin 40 mg once daily.

Dosage adjustment with concomitant medications: Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Renal Impairment

GFR ≥60 mL/minute/1.73 m2: No dosage adjustment necessary.

GFR <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Ezetimibe 10 mg and simvastatin 20 mg once daily in the evening (higher doses should be used with caution).

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment

Use is contraindicated in patients with active liver disease or with unexplained transaminase elevations.

Administration

May be administered without regard to meals. Administer in the evening for maximal efficacy. Ezetimibe/simvastatin should be taken ≥2 hours before or ≥4 hours after administration of a bile acid sequestrant.

Dietary Considerations

Red yeast rice contains variable amounts of several compounds that are structurally similar to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, primarily monacolin K (or mevinolin) which is structurally identical to lovastatin; concurrent use of red yeast rice with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors may increase the incidence of adverse and toxic effects (Lapi, 2008; Smith, 2003).

Storage

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F).

Drug Interactions

Acipimox: May enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Amiodarone: May decrease the metabolism of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Management: Dose of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor may need to be reduced (limit simvastatin adult maximum dose to 20 mg/day, limit lovastatin adult maximum dose to 40 mg/day). Consider therapy modification

AmLODIPine: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Management: Avoid the concurrent use of amlodipine with simvastatin when possible. If used together, avoid doses of simvastatin greater than 20 mg/day (for adults). Consider therapy modification

Amodiaquine: CYP2C8 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Amodiaquine. Avoid combination

Antacids: May decrease the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Aprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Asunaprevir: May increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Azithromycin (Systemic): May enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of Simvastatin. Monitor therapy

Bezafibrate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ezetimibe. Specifically, the risk of myopathy and cholelithiasis may be increased. Avoid combination

Bile Acid Sequestrants: May decrease the absorption of Ezetimibe. Management: Administer ezetimibe at least 2 hours before or 4 hours after any bile acid sequestrant. Consider therapy modification

Boceprevir: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Avoid combination

Bosentan: May decrease the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Monitor therapy

Ciprofibrate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Management: Avoid the use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and ciprofibrate if possible. If concomitant therapy is considered, benefits should be carefully weighed against the risks, and patients should be monitored closely for signs/symptoms of muscle toxicity. Consider therapy modification

Clarithromycin: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Avoid combination

Colchicine: May enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Colchicine may increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Conivaptan: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Avoid combination

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Avoid combination

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May increase the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Avoid combination

Cyproterone: May increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Management: Avoid use of statins metabolized by CYP3A4 (eg, simvastatin) and consider avoiding fluvastatin as well in patients receiving high dose cyproterone (300 mg/day). Consider use of pravastatin, rosuvastatin, or pitavastatin if statin therapy is needed. Consider therapy modification

Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Seek alternatives to the CYP3A4 substrate when possible. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor clinical effects of the substrate closely (particularly therapeutic effects). Consider therapy modification

Daclatasvir: May increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Danazol: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Avoid combination

DAPTOmycin: HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of DAPTOmycin. Specifically, the risk of skeletal muscle toxicity may be increased. Management: Consider temporarily stopping HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy prior to daptomycin. If used together, regular (i.e., at least weekly) monitoring of CPK concentrations is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Dasatinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

DilTIAZem: Simvastatin may increase the serum concentration of DilTIAZem. DilTIAZem may increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Management: Avoid concurrent use of diltiazem with simvastatin when possible. If used together, limit adult doses to simvastatin 10 mg/day and diltiazem 240 mg/day; avoid Simcor (simvastatin/niacin) because fixed simvastatin doses exceed the maximum. Consider therapy modification

Dronedarone: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Management: Limit simvastatin to a max of 10 mg/day (in adults). Increase monitoring for signs of simvastatin toxicity (e.g., myositis, rhabdomyolysis). Consider therapy modification

Efavirenz: May decrease the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Monitor therapy

Elbasvir: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Monitor therapy

Eltrombopag: May increase the serum concentration of OATP1B1/SLCO1B1 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Enzalutamide: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Concurrent use of enzalutamide with CYP3A4 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Use of enzalutamide and any other CYP3A4 substrate should be performed with caution and close monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Erythromycin (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Avoid combination

Eslicarbazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Monitor therapy

Etravirine: May decrease the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. This applies to atorvastatin, lovastatin and simvastatin. Conversely, levels of fluvastatin may be increased. Management: Dose adjustment of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor may be warranted. No interaction is expected with rosuvastatin, pravastatin, or pitavastatin. Monitor therapy

Fenofibrate and Derivatives: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ezetimibe. Specifically, the risk of myopathy and cholelithiasis may be increased. Monitor therapy

Fluconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Monitor therapy

Fosaprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Fosphenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Fusidic Acid (Systemic): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk for muscle toxicities, including rhabdomyolysis may be significantly increased. Management: Avoid concurrent use whenever possible. Use is listed as contraindicated in product characteristic summaries in several countries, although UK labeling suggests that use could be considered under exceptional circumstances and with close supervision. Avoid combination

Fusidic Acid (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Avoid combination

Gemfibrozil: May enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of Simvastatin. Gemfibrozil may increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Concentrations of the active simvastatin acid metabolite may also be increased by gemfibrozil. Avoid combination

Gemfibrozil: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ezetimibe. Specifically, the risk of myopathy and cholelithiasis may be increased. Gemfibrozil may increase the serum concentration of Ezetimibe. Avoid combination

Grapefruit Juice: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Avoid combination

Grazoprevir: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Monitor therapy

Green Tea: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Specifically, Simvastatin lactone concentrations may be increased. Monitor therapy

Idelalisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Avoid combination

Imatinib: May decrease the metabolism of Simvastatin. Monitor therapy

Ivacaftor: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Lanthanum: HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Lanthanum. Management: Administer HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors at least two hours before or after lanthanum. Consider therapy modification

Lercanidipine: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Management: Administer lercanidipine in the morning and simvastatin in the evening in patients receiving these drugs in combination. Consider therapy modification

Lomitapide: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Management: Reduce the recommended simvastatin dose by 50%. Generally, limit the maximum adult simvastatin dose to 20 mg/day. A 40 mg/day dose can be considered in patients who previously received 80 mg/day for at least a year without evidence of muscle toxicity. Consider therapy modification

Luliconazole: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

MiFEPRIStone: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Management: Avoid simvastatin during and 2 weeks following mifepristone for treatment of hyperglycemia in Cushing's syndrome. The interaction magnitude could be lower with single doses used to terminate pregnancy, but neither effect has been studied clinically. Avoid combination

Mitotane: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Doses of CYP3A4 substrates may need to be adjusted substantially when used in patients being treated with mitotane. Consider therapy modification

Netupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Niacin: May enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of Simvastatin. Niacin may increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Management: Use of simvastatin 80 mg with niacin should be avoided and simvastatin doses over 20 mg/day should be used cautiously in Chinese patients; some non-US labeling state this combination is not recommended in any Asian patients. Consider therapy modification

Niacinamide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Palbociclib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

PAZOPanib: HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors may enhance the hepatotoxic effect of PAZOPanib. Specifically, the risk for increased serum transaminase concentrations may be increased. Management: Simvastatin is specifically implicated in the interaction. There is a lack of data regarding risk with other statins, but caution appears warranted with any statins. Atorvastatin should be avoided due to P-gp inhibition. Monitor therapy

Phenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Protease Inhibitors: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Avoid combination

QuiNINE: May increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Management: Consider using a lower starting dose and lower maintenance/maximum doses of atorvastatin, simvastatin, or lovastatin when used together with quinine. Consider therapy modification

Raltegravir: May enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Ranolazine: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Management: Avoid the concurrent use of ranolazine with simvastatin when possible. If used together, avoid doses of simvastatin greater than 20 mg/day. Consider therapy modification

Red Yeast Rice: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Avoid combination

Rifamycin Derivatives: May decrease the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Management: Consider use of noninteracting antilipemic agents (note: pitavastatin concentrations may increase with rifamycin treatment). Monitor for altered HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor effects. Rifabutin and fluvastatin, or possibly pravastatin, may pose lower risk. Consider therapy modification

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Monitor therapy

St John's Wort: May increase the metabolism of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors. Management: Consider avoiding the concomitant administration of St Johns Wort with interacting HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in order to avoid the potential for decreased antilipemic effects. Monitor for decreased effects during concomitant therapy. Consider therapy modification

St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

Stiripentol: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Use of stiripentol with CYP3A4 substrates that are considered to have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided due to the increased risk for adverse effects and toxicity. Any CYP3A4 substrate used with stiripentol requires closer monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Telaprevir: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Avoid combination

Telithromycin: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Avoid combination

Teriflunomide: May increase the serum concentration of OATP1B1/SLCO1B1 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Ticagrelor: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Management: Avoid using doses of simvastatin greater than 40 mg/day with ticagrelor. This specific recommendation is found in the U.S. prescribing information but not in the Canadian product monograph. Consider therapy modification

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Trabectedin: HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors may enhance the myopathic (rhabdomyolysis) effect of Trabectedin. Monitor therapy

Verapamil: May increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Management: Avoid concurrent use of verapamil with simvastatin when possible. If used together, limit adult maximum simvastatin dose to 10 mg/day, and avoid Simcor (simvastatin/niacin) because fixed simvastatin doses in the product exceed this maximum. Consider therapy modification

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. Monitor therapy

Adverse Reactions

Incidences refer to combination, Vytorin. Also see individual agents.

1% to 10%:

Central nervous system: Headache (6%)

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (3%)

Hepatic: Increased serum ALT (4%)

Infection: Influenza (2%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Myalgia (4%), limb pain (2%), myopathy

Respiratory: Upper respiratory infection (4%)

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Diabetes mellitus: Increases in HbA1c and fasting blood glucose have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors; however, the benefits of statin therapy far outweigh the risk of dysglycemia.

• Hepatotoxicity: Postmarketing reports of fatal and nonfatal hepatic failure are rare. If serious hepatotoxicity with clinical symptoms and/or hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice occurs during treatment, interrupt therapy. If an alternate etiology is not identified, do not restart simvastatin. Liver enzyme tests should be obtained at baseline and as clinically indicated; routine periodic monitoring of liver enzymes is not necessary. Ethanol may enhance the potential of adverse hepatic effects; instruct patients to avoid excessive ethanol consumption.

• Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM): IMNM, an autoimmune-mediated myopathy, has been reported (rarely) with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy. IMNM presents as proximal muscle weakness with elevated CPK levels, which persists despite discontinuation of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy; additionally, muscle biopsy may show necrotizing myopathy with limited inflammation. Immunosuppressive therapy (eg, corticosteroids, azathioprine) may be used for treatment.

• Myopathy/rhabdomyolysis: Patients receiving HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have developed rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure and/or myopathy; patients should be monitored closely. This risk is dose-related and is increased with high doses (simvastatin 80 mg), concurrent use of other lipid-lowering medications (fibric acid derivatives, or niacin at doses ≥1 g/day), other interacting drugs (eg, moderate-to-strong CYP3A4 inhibitors), age ≥65 years, female gender, uncontrolled hypothyroidism, and renal dysfunction. Use with caution in patients taking other drugs associated with myopathy (eg, colchicine); these patients are predisposed to myopathy. Myopathy and rhabdomyolysis also have been reported with ezetimibe monotherapy. Patients should be instructed to report unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, weakness, or brown urine.

Disease-related concerns:

• Ethanol: Use caution in patients who consume large amounts of alcohol and/or who have a past history of liver disease.

• Hepatic impairment: Use is contraindicated with active liver disease and with unexplained transaminase elevations.

• Renal impairment: Avoid use in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance not defined) unless patient has already tolerated simvastatin at a dose ≥5 mg; use doses of simvastatin >20 mg/day with caution and monitor closely for adverse events (eg, myopathy) in patients with moderate-to-severe renal impairment (ie, CrCl <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2). Initial dosage adjustment is not necessary in mild-to-moderate impairment. Renal impairment may also increase risk for myopathy.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• High potential for interactions: Use is contraindicated in patients taking strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, cyclosporine, danazol, and gemfibrozil (see Drug Interactions); if concurrent use of a contraindicated interacting medication is unavoidable, treatment with simvastatin should be suspended during use or consider the use of an alternative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor void of CYP3A4 metabolism. Use caution and/or limit dose with amiodarone, amlodipine, diltiazem, ranolazine, verapamil, other fibrates, and lipid-lowering doses of niacin (≥1g/day).

Special populations:

• Children: Coadministration of ezetimibe with simvastatin at dosages of more than 40 mg/day has not been studied in adolescents. Also, ezetimibe/simvastatin has not been studied in patients < 10 years of age or in premenarchal girls.

• Chinese patients: Do not use high doses of simvastatin (80 mg) if concurrently taking niacin ≥1 g/day; concomitant use may increase risk of myopathy in Chinese patients.

• Elderly: Use with caution in patients ≥65 years of age; these patients are predisposed to myopathy.

• Surgical patients: The manufacturer recommends temporary discontinuation for elective major surgery, acute medical or surgical conditions, or in any patient experiencing an acute or serious condition predisposing to renal failure (eg, sepsis, hypotension, trauma, uncontrolled seizures). Based on current research and clinical guidelines (Fleisher, 2009), HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors should be continued in the perioperative period. Postoperative discontinuation of statin therapy is associated with an increased risk of cardiac morbidity and mortality.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Hyperlipidemia: Secondary causes of hyperlipidemia should be ruled out prior to therapy.

Monitoring Parameters

2013 ACC/AHA Blood Cholesterol Guideline recommendations (Stone, 2013):

Lipid panel (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides): Baseline lipid panel; fasting lipid profile within 4 to 12 weeks after initiation or dose adjustment and every 3 to 12 months (as clinically indicated) thereafter. If 2 consecutive LDL levels are <40 mg/dL, consider decreasing the dose.

Hepatic transaminase levels: Baseline measurement of hepatic transaminase levels (ie, ALT); measure hepatic function if symptoms suggest hepatotoxicity (eg, unusual fatigue or weakness, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, dark-colored urine or yellowing of skin or sclera) during therapy.

CPK: CPK should not be routinely measured. Baseline CPK measurement is reasonable for some individuals (eg, family history of statin intolerance or muscle disease, clinical presentation, concomitant drug therapy that may increase risk of myopathy). May measure CPK in any patient with symptoms suggestive of myopathy (pain, tenderness, stiffness, cramping, weakness, or generalized fatigue).

Evaluate for new-onset diabetes mellitus during therapy; if diabetes develops, continue statin therapy and encourage adherence to a heart-healthy diet, physical activity, a healthy body weight, and tobacco cessation.

If patient develops a confusional state or memory impairment, may evaluate patient for nonstatin causes (eg, exposure to other drugs), systemic and neuropsychiatric causes, and the possibility of adverse effects associated with statin therapy.

Manufacturer's labeling: Baseline liver function tests and repeat when clinically indicated thereafter. Upon initiation or titration, lipid panel should be analyzed after ≥2 weeks.

Pregnancy Risk Factor

X

Pregnancy Considerations

Use is contraindicated in pregnant women or women who may become pregnant. See individual agents.

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience headache or diarrhea. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of liver problems (dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or jaundice), abnormal heartbeat, swelling of arms or legs, urinary retention, change in amount of urine passed, painful urination, polyuria, muscle pain, muscle tenderness, or muscle weakness (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.

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