Tylenol: 6 things you should know
Medically reviewed by C. Fookes, BPharm Last updated on Nov 14, 2018.
1. How it works
- Tylenol is a brand (trade) name for acetaminophen and is used to relieve pain. Experts aren't sure exactly how acetaminophen works, but suspect it blocks a specific type of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzyme, located mainly in the brain.
- Tylenol belongs to the class of medicines called analgesics (pain relievers); it is specifically a non-narcotic analgesic. It may also be called an antipyretic because it will bring down a fever.
- Effective for the temporary relief of minor aches, pains, and headache. May be used in the treatment of many conditions such as arthritis, backache, colds, menstruation pain, and toothache.
- Also, lowers a fever but does not control inflammation.
- First choice for mild-to-moderate pain due to its efficacy, minimal toxicity, and low cost.
- When used at low dosages, it lacks gastrointestinal side effects associated with NSAID pain relievers (does not cause ulcerations, bleeding or perforations).
- May be combined with strong opioids for the treatment of severe pain.
- Available in a range of formulations including liquid, oral tablets, oral disintegrating tablets, chewable tablets, controlled-release tablets, dispersible tablets, injectable, and rectal preparations.
- Tylenol is available as a generic under the name acetaminophen.
If you are between the ages of 18 and 60, take no other medication or have no other medical conditions, side effects you are more likely to experience include:
- Rarely, may cause itchiness, constipation, nausea, vomiting, headache, insomnia, and agitation. May cause gastrointestinal side effects at high dosages.
- The potential for liver damage exists, even at recommended dosages. The risk is increased with higher dosages, a shorter interval between doses, in people who drink three or more alcoholic drinks per day, when taken with other medications that also contain acetaminophen, and in patients with pre-existing liver disease.
- Considered less effective for pain relief than NSAIDs but associated with a lower risk of side effects.
- May not be suitable for some people including people who regularly consume three or more glasses of alcohol per day and those with liver disease.
- May interact with some other medications including warfarin.
Notes: In general, seniors or children, people with certain medical conditions (such as liver or kidney problems, heart disease, diabetes, seizures) or people who take other medications are more at risk of developing a wider range of side effects. For a complete list of all side effects, click here.
- May be administered without regards to food; although food may decrease any reported stomach upset.
- Do not exceed the recommended dosage, because this may put you at risk of liver toxicity. Adults and teenagers who weigh at least 110 pounds (50kg) should not take more than 1000mg of acetaminophen in one dose or more than 4000mg in 24 hours. Children younger than 12 years should only take the dosage recommended to them on the label (this varies depending on their weight and age).
- Always seek your doctor's advice before administering acetaminophen to children aged less than two. If you are giving pediatric liquid Tylenol, always use the dosing syringe provided, or another suitable properly calibrated measure. Do NOT use a kitchen teaspoon.
- Be careful not to administer other products containing acetaminophen at the same time. Acetaminophen is often an ingredient in combination cold and flu remedies.
- Contact your doctor if your symptoms worsen, if redness or swelling occurs in the painful area, if fever lasts longer than 3 days (all ages), or for persistent pain (excluding sore throat) of longer than 10 days in adults, 5 days in children and adolescents, or 3 days for infants.
- Contact your doctor immediately if you or your child have a sore throat that is severe, persists for longer than 2 days, or is followed by fever, rash, headache, nausea, or vomiting.
- Men should not drink more than two alcoholic drinks a day and women no more than one alcoholic drink per day while taking Tylenol.
- Seek urgent medical attention if you develop pain in your upper abdomen, dark urine, loss of appetite, yellowing of the skin or eyes or clay-colored stools.
- Do not take Tylenol without your doctor's advice if you are pregnant.
6. Response and Effectiveness
- Tylenol's pain-relieving effects occur within 30-60 minutes of oral administration. Its effects last for three to four hours.
Tylenol Revised 07/2017 Drugs.com https://www.drugs.com/tylenol.html
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use Tylenol only for the indication prescribed.
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