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AK-Pro Side Effects

Generic name: dipivefrin ophthalmic

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Sep 6, 2022.

Note: This document contains side effect information about dipivefrin ophthalmic. Some dosage forms listed on this page may not apply to the brand name AK-Pro.

Applies to dipivefrin ophthalmic: ophthalmic solution.


Ocular side effects have included injection (6.5%), stinging (6%), and burning (6%). Follicular conjunctivitis and mydriasis have been reported rarely. Corneal vascularization or vesicles, eyelid ectropion, papillary conjunctivitis, blepharoconjunctivitis, macular edema, corneal toxicity (dendritic keratitis, punctate keratitis, or epitheliopathy), and blurred vision have also been reported.

Ocular side effects associated with ocular administration of epinephrine have included conjunctival and corneal adrenochrome deposits.[Ref]

Some long-term studies have reported observations of follicular conjunctivitis in almost all patients with up to 40% classified as severe reactions.[Ref]


Cardiovascular side effects have included slight increases in heart rate and diastolic blood pressure.

Cardiovascular side effects associated with ocular epinephrine have included tachycardia, arrhythmias, and hypertension.[Ref]

Most placebo-controlled studies have reported mild average increases in heart rate (3 to 4 beats/min--with or without palpitations) or diastolic blood pressure (1 to 5 mm Hg) associated with dipivefrin.[Ref]

Nervous system

Nervous system side effects have included headache and dizziness.[Ref]


Hypersensitivity reactions have included bronchospasm associated with a formulation containing bisulfite preservative.[Ref]

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1. Morrison JC, Robin AL "Adjunctive glaucoma therapy: a comparison of apraclonidine to dipivefrin when added to timolol maleate." Ophthalmology 96 (1989): 3-7

2. Satterfield D, Mannis MJ, Glover AT "Unilateral corneal vesicles secondary to dipivefrin therapy." Am J Ophthalmol 113 (1992): 339-40

3. Bartley GB "Reversible lower eyelid ectropion associated with dipivefrin." Am J Ophthalmol 111 (1991): 650-1

4. Mehelas TJ, Kollarits CR, Martin WG "Cystoid macular edema presumably induced by dipivefrin hydrochloride (Propine)." Am J Ophthalmol 94 (1982): 682

5. Keates EU, Stone RA "Safety and effectiveness of concomitant administration of dipivefrin and timolol maleate." Am J Ophthalmol 91 (1981): 243-8

6. Albracht DC, LeBlanc RP, Cruz AM, Lamping KA, Siegel LI, Stern KL, Kelley EP, Stoecker JF "A double-masked comparison of betaxolol and dipivefrin for the treatment of increased intraocular pressure." Am J Ophthalmol 116 (1993): 307-13

7. Yablonski ME, Shin DH, Kolker AE, Kass M, Becker B "Dipivefrin use in patients with intolerance to topically applied epinephrine." Arch Ophthalmol 95 (1977): 2157-8

8. Boerner CF "Total punctate keratopathy due to dipivefrin. Case report." Arch Ophthalmol 106 (1988): 171

9. Coleiro JA, Sigurdsson H, Lockyer JA "Follicular conjunctivitis on Dipivefrin therapy for glaucoma." Eye 2(Pt 4) (1988): 440-2

10. Liesegang TJ "Bulbar conjunctival follicles associated with dipivefrin therapy." Ophthalmology 92 (1985): 228-33

11. Salminen L, Krootila K, Helin H, Hakala T "Corneal vascularization and opacification during long-term use of dipivefrin." J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 11 (1995): 37-40

12. Blondeau P, Cote M "Cardiovascular effects of epinephrine and dipivefrin in patients using timolol: a single-dose study." Can J Ophthalmol 19 (1984): 29-32

13. Schwartz HJ, Sher TH "Bisulfite intolerance manifest as bronchospasm following topical dipivefrin hydrochloride therapy for glaucoma." Arch Ophthalmol 103 (1985): 14-5

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Some side effects may not be reported. You may report them to the FDA.