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Chlordiazepoxide,Amitriptyline

Generic Name: chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride
Dosage Form: tablet

WARNING: RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH OPIOIDS

Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug-Drug Interactions).

Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.
Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.

Suicidality and Antidepressant Drugs

 

Antidepressants increased the risk compared to placebo of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Anyone considering the use of chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets or any other antidepressant in a child, adolescent, or young adult must balance this risk with the clinical need. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction in the risk with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. Depression and certain other psychiatric disorders are themselves associated with increases in the risk of suicide. Patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior. Families and caregivers should be advised of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. Chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets are not approved for use in pediatric patients. (See WARNINGS: Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk, PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients and PRECAUTIONS: Pediatric Use.)

Chlordiazepoxide,Amitriptyline Description

Chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets, USP combine for oral administration, chlordiazepoxide, an agent for the relief of anxiety and tension, and amitriptyline, an antidepressant. It is available as white, film-coated, round, unscored tablets, each containing 10 mg chlordiazepoxide and 27.98 mg of amitriptyline hydrochloride equivalent to 25 mg amitriptyline; and in green, film-coated, round, unscored tablets, each containing 5 mg chlordiazepoxide and 14 mg of amitriptyline hydrochloride equivalent to 12.5 mg amitriptyline. Each tablet contains colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, pregelatinized starch (corn), sodium lauryl sulfate and titanium dioxide. In addition, the 5 mg/12.5 mg tablets also contain D&C Yellow No. 10 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake and FD&C Yellow No. 6 Aluminum Lake and the 10 mg/25 mg tablets also contain calcium sulfate and talc.

Chlordiazepoxide, USP is a benzodiazepine with the formula 7-chloro-2-(methylamino)-5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepine-4-oxide. It is a yellow crystalline powder and is insoluble in water. The molecular weight is 299.76.

Amitriptyline hydrochloride, USP is a dibenzocycloheptadiene derivative. The formula is 10,11-dihydro-N,N-dimethyl-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene-Δ5,γ-propylamine hydrochloride. It is a white or practically white crystalline powder that is freely soluble in water. The molecular weight is 313.87.

Chlordiazepoxide,Amitriptyline - Clinical Pharmacology

Both components of chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets exert their action in the central nervous system. Extensive studies with chlordiazepoxide in many animal species suggest action in the limbic system. Recent evidence indicates that the limbic system is involved in emotional response. Taming action was observed in some species. The mechanism of action of amitriptyline in man is not known, but the drug appears to interfere with the reuptake of norepinephrine into adrenergic nerve endings. This action may prolong the sympathetic activity of biogenic amines.

Indications and Usage for Chlordiazepoxide,Amitriptyline

Chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe depression associated with moderate to severe anxiety.

The therapeutic response to chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets occur earlier and with fewer treatment failures than when either amitriptyline or chlordiazepoxide is used alone.

Symptoms likely to respond in the first week of treatment include: insomnia, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, agitation, psychic and somatic anxiety, suicidal ideation and anorexia.

Contraindications

Chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets are contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to either benzodiazepines or tricyclic antidepressants. It should not be given concomitantly with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Hyperpyretic crises, severe convulsions and deaths have occurred in patients receiving a tricyclic antidepressant and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor simultaneously. When it is desired to replace a monoamine oxidase inhibitor with chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets, a minimum of 14 days should be allowed to elapse after the former is discontinued. Chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets should then be initiated cautiously with gradual increase in dosage until optimum response is achieved.

This drug is contraindicated during the acute recovery phase following myocardial infarction.

Warnings

Risks from Concomitant Use with Opioids

Concomitant use of benzodiazepines, including chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets, and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.

Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioids

alone. If a decision is made to prescribe chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets concomitantly with opioids, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use, and follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. In patients already receiving an opioid analgesic, prescribe a lower initial dose of chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets than indicated in the absence of an opioid and titrate based on clinical response. If an opioid is initiated in a patient already taking chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets, prescribe a lower initial dose of the opioid and titrate based upon clinical response.

Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets are used with opioids. Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of concomitant use with the opioid have been determined (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug-Drug Interactions).

Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk

Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a long-standing concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. Pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18 to 24) with major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older.

The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents with MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term trials of 9 antidepressant drugs in over 4400 patients. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short-term trials (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but the tendency toward an increase in the younger patients for almost all drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. The risk differences (drug vs placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications. These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1000 patients treated) are provided in Table 1.

Table 1

Age Range

Drug-Placebo Difference in

Number of Cases of Suicidality

per 1000 Patients Treated

Drug-Related Increases

< 18

14 additional cases

18 to 24

5 additional cases

Drug-Related Decreases

25 to 64

1 fewer cases

≥ 65

6 fewer cases

No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about the drug effect on suicide.

It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression.

All pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases.

The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric. Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality.

Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient's presenting symptoms.

Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to health care providers. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Prescriptions for chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose.

Screening Patients for Bipolar Disorder

A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of bipolar disorder. It is generally believed (though not established in controlled trials) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a mixed/manic episode in patients at risk for bipolar disorder. Whether any of the symptoms described above represent such a conversion is unknown. However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression. It should be noted that chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets are not approved for use in treating bipolar depression.

Angle-Closure Glaucoma

The pupillary dilation that occurs following use of many antidepressant drugs including chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets may trigger an angle-closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who does not have a patent iridectomy.

General

Because of the atropine-like action of the amitriptyline component, great care should be used in treating patients with a history of urinary retention or angle-closure glaucoma. In patients with glaucoma, even average doses may precipitate an attack. Severe constipation may occur in patients taking tricyclic antidepressants in combination with anticholinergic-type drugs.

Patients with cardiovascular disorders should be watched closely. Tricyclic antidepressant drugs, particularly when given in high doses, have been reported to produce arrhythmias, sinus tachycardia and prolongation of conduction time. Myocardial infarction and stroke have been reported in patients receiving drugs of this class.

Because of the sedative effects of chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets, patients should be cautioned about combined effects with alcohol or other CNS depressants. The additive effects may produce a harmful level of sedation and CNS depression.

Patients receiving chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets should be cautioned against engaging in hazardous occupations requiring complete mental alertness, such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle.

Usage in Pregnancy

Safe use of chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets during pregnancy and lactation has not been established. Because of the chlordiazepoxide component, please note the following:

An increased risk of congenital malformations associated with the use of minor tranquilizers (chlordiazepoxide, diazepam and meprobamate) during the first trimester of pregnancy has been suggested in several studies. Because use of these drugs is rarely a matter of urgency, their use during this period should almost always be avoided. The possibility that a woman of childbearing potential may be pregnant at the time of institution of therapy should be considered. Patients should be advised that if they become pregnant during therapy or intend to become pregnant they should communicate with their physicians about the desirability of discontinuing the drug.

Withdrawal symptoms of the barbiturate type have occurred after the discontinuation of benzodiazepines. (See DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE section.)

Precautions

General

Use with caution in patients with a history of seizures.

Close supervision is required when chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets are given to hyperthyroid patients or those on thyroid medication.

The usual precautions should be observed when treating patients with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Patients with suicidal ideation should not have easy access to large quantities of the drug. The possibility of suicide in depressed patients remains until significant remission occurs.

Essential Laboratory Tests

Patients on prolonged treatment should have periodic liver function tests and blood counts.

Drug-Drug Interactions

The concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids increases the risk of respiratory depression because of actions at different receptor sites in the CNS that control respiration. Benzodiazepines interact at GAGAA sites and opioids interact primarily at mu receptors. When benzodiazepines and opioids are combined, the potential for benzodiazepines to significantly worsen opioid-related respiratory depression exists. Limit dosage and duration of concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids, and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation.

Topiramate

Some patients may experience a large increase in amitriptyline concentration in the presence of topiramate and any adjustments in amitriptyline dose should be made according to the patient's clinical response and not on the basis of plasma levels.

Drug and Treatment Interactions

Because of its amitriptyline component, chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets may block the antihypertensive action of guanethidine or compounds with a similar mechanism of action.

Drugs Metabolized by P450 2D6

The biochemical activity of the drug metabolizing isozyme cytochrome P450 2D6 (debrisoquin hydroxylase) is reduced in a subset of the caucasian population (about 7% to 10% of caucasians are so called “poor metabolizers”); reliable estimates of the prevalence of reduced P450 2D6 isozyme activity among Asian, African and other populations are not yet available. Poor metabolizers have higher than expected plasma concentrations of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) when given usual doses. Depending on the fraction of drug metabolized by P450 2D6, the increase in plasma concentration may be small or quite large (8-fold increase in plasma AUC of the TCA).

In addition, certain drugs inhibit the activity of this isozyme and make normal metabolizers resemble poor metabolizers. An individual who is stable on a given dose of TCA may become abruptly toxic when given one of these inhibiting drugs as concomitant therapy. The drugs that inhibit cytochrome P450 2D6 include some that are not metabolized by the enzyme (quinidine; cimetidine) and many that are substrates for P450 2D6 (many other antidepressants, phenothiazines, and the type 1c antiarrhythmics propafenone and flecainide). While all the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), e.g., fluoxetine, sertraline and paroxetine, inhibit P450 2D6, they may vary in the extent of inhibition. The extent to which SSRI TCA interactions may pose clinical problems will depend on the degree of inhibition and the pharmacokinetics of the SSRI involved. Nevertheless, caution is indicated in the coadministration of TCAs with any of the SSRIs and also in switching from one class to the other. Of particular importance, sufficient time must elapse before initiating TCA treatment in a patient being withdrawn from fluoxetine, given the long half-life of the parent and active metabolite (at least 5 weeks may be necessary).

Concomitant use of tricyclic antidepressants with drugs that can inhibit cytochrome P450 2D6 may require lower doses than usually prescribed for either the tricyclic antidepressant or the other drug. Furthermore, whenever one of these other drugs is withdrawn from cotherapy, an increased dose of tricyclic antidepressant may be required. It is desirable to monitor TCA plasma levels whenever a TCA is going to be coadministered with another drug known to be an inhibitor of P450 2D6.

The effects of concomitant administration of chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets and other psychotropic drugs have not been evaluated. Sedative effects may be additive.

Cimetidine is reported to reduce hepatic metabolism of certain tricyclic antidepressants and benzodiazepines, thereby delaying elimination and increasing steady-state concentrations of these drugs. Clinically significant effects have been reported with the tricyclic antidepressants when used concomitantly with cimetidine (Tagamet®).

The drug should be discontinued several days before elective surgery.

Concurrent administration of ECT and chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets should be limited to those patients for whom it is essential.

Pregnancy

See WARNINGS section.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. As a general rule, nursing should not be undertaken while a patient is on a drug, since many drugs are excreted in human milk.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in the pediatric population have not been established (see BOX WARNING and WARNINGS: Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk).

Anyone considering the use of chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets in a child or adolescent must balance the potential risks with the clinical need.

Geriatric Use

In elderly and debilitated patients it is recommended that dosage be limited to the smallest effective amount to preclude the development of ataxia, oversedation, confusion or anticholinergic effects.

Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets, 74 individuals were 65 years and older. An additional 34 subjects were between 60 and 69 years of age. No overall differences in safety and effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

The active ingredients in chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Sedating drugs may cause confusion and oversedation in the elderly; elderly patients generally should be started on low doses of chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets and observed closely.

Clinical studies of chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 years and older to determine whether they respond differently than younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Information for Patients

Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets and should counsel them in its appropriate use. A patient Medication Guide about “Antidepressant Medicines, Depression and other Serious Mental Illness, and Suicidal Thoughts or Actions” is available for chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets. The prescriber or health professional should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents. Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have. The complete text of the Medication Guide is reprinted at the end of this document.

Patients should be advised of the following issues and asked to alert their prescriber if these occur while taking chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets.

Patients should be advised that taking chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets can cause mild pupillary dilation, which in susceptible individuals, can lead to an episode of angle-closure glaucoma. Pre-existing glaucoma is almost always open-angle glaucoma because angle-closure glaucoma, when diagnosed, can be treated definitively with iridectomy. Open-angle glaucoma is not a risk factor for angle-closure glaucoma. Patients may wish to be examined to determine whether they are susceptible to angle-closure, and have a prophylactic procedure (e.g., iridectomy), if they are susceptible.

Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk

Patients, their families, and their caregivers should be encouraged to be alert to the emergence of anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, mania, other unusual changes in behavior, worsening of depression, and suicidal ideation, especially early during antidepressant treatment and when the dose is adjusted up or down. Families and caregivers of patients should be advised to look for the emergence of such symptoms on a day-to-day basis, since changes may be abrupt. Such symptoms should be reported to the patient's prescriber or health professional, especially if they are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient's presenting symptoms. Symptoms such as these may be associated with an increased risk for suicidal thinking and behavior and indicate a need for very close monitoring and possibly changes in the medication.

To assure the safe and effective use of benzodiazepines, patients should be informed that, since benzodiazepines may produce psychological and physical dependence, it is advisable that they consult with their physician before either increasing the dose or abruptly discontinuing this drug.

Adverse Reactions

Adverse reactions to chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets are those associated with the use of either component alone. Most frequently reported were drowsiness, dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, dizziness and bloating. Other side effects occurring less commonly included vivid dreams, impotence, tremor, confusion and nasal congestion. Many symptoms common to the depressive state, such as anorexia, fatigue, weakness, restlessness and lethargy, have been reported as side effects of treatment with both chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets and amitriptyline.

Granulocytopenia, jaundice and hepatic dysfunction of uncertain etiology have also been observed rarely with chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets. When treatment with chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets is prolonged, periodic blood counts and liver function tests are advisable.

Note: Included in the listing which follows are adverse reactions which have not been reported with chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets. However, they are included because they have been reported during therapy with one or both of the components or closely related drugs.

Cardiovascular: Hypotension, hypertension, tachycardia, palpitations, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, heart block, stroke.

Psychiatric: Euphoria, apprehension, poor concentration, delusions, hallucinations, hypomania and increased or decreased libido.

Neurologic: Incoordination, ataxia, numbness, tingling and paresthesias of the extremities, extrapyramidal symptoms, syncope, changes in EEG patterns.

Anticholinergic: Disturbance of accommodation, paralytic ileus, urinary retention, dilatation of urinary tract.

Allergic: Skin rash, urticaria, photosensitization, edema of face and tongue, pruritus.

Hematologic: Bone marrow depression including agranulocytosis, eosinophilia, purpura, thrombocytopenia.

Gastrointestinal: Nausea, epigastric distress, vomiting, anorexia, stomatitis, peculiar taste, diarrhea, black tongue.

Endocrine: Testicular swelling and gynecomastia in the male, breast enlargement, galactorrhea and minor menstrual irregularities in the female, elevation and lowering of blood sugar levels, and syndrome of inappropriate ADH (antidiuretic hormone) secretion.

Other: Headache, weight gain or loss, increased perspiration, urinary frequency, mydriasis, jaundice, alopecia, parotid swelling.

Drug Abuse and Dependence

Withdrawal symptoms, similar in character to those noted with barbiturates and alcohol (convulsions, tremor, abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting and sweating), have occurred following abrupt discontinuance of chlordiazepoxide. The more severe withdrawal symptoms have usually been limited to those patients who had received excessive doses over an extended period of time. Generally milder withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and insomnia) have been reported following abrupt discontinuance of benzodiazepines taken continuously at therapeutic levels for several months. Withdrawal symptoms (e.g., nausea, headache and malaise) have also been reported in association with abrupt amitriptyline discontinuation. Consequently, after extended therapy, abrupt discontinuation should generally be avoided and a gradual dosage tapering schedule followed. Addiction-prone individuals (such as drug addicts or alcoholics) should be under careful surveillance when receiving chlordiazepoxide or other psychotropic agents because of the predisposition of such patients to habituation and dependence.

OVERDOSAGE*

Deaths may occur from overdosage with this class of drugs. Multiple drug ingestion (including alcohol) is common in deliberate tricyclic antidepressant overdose. As the management is complex and changing, it is recommended that the physician contact a poison control center for current information on treatment. Signs and symptoms of toxicity develop rapidly after tricyclic antidepressant overdose; therefore, hospital monitoring is required as soon as possible.

Manifestations

Critical manifestations of overdose include: cardiac dysrhythmias, severe hypotension, convulsions and CNS depression, including coma. Changes in the electrocardiogram, particularly in QRS axis or width, are clinically significant indicators of tricyclic antidepressant toxicity.

Other signs of overdose may include: confusion, disturbed concentration, transient visual hallucinations, dilated pupils, agitation, hyperactive reflexes, stupor, drowsiness, muscle rigidity, vomiting, hypothermia, hyperpyrexia or any of the symptoms listed under ADVERSE REACTIONS.

Management

General

Obtain an ECG and immediately initiate cardiac monitoring. Protect the patient’s airway, establish an intravenous line and initiate gastric decontamination. A minimum of 6 hours of observation with cardiac monitoring and observation for signs of CNS or respiratory depression, hypotension, cardiac dysrhythmias and/or conduction blocks, and seizures is necessary. If signs of toxicity occur at any time during this period, extended monitoring is required. There are case reports of patients succumbing to fatal dysrhythmias late after overdose; these patients had clinical evidence of significant poisoning prior to death and most received inadequate gastrointestinal decontamination. Monitoring of plasma drug levels should not guide management of the patient.

Gastrointestinal Decontamination

All patients suspected of tricyclic antidepressant overdose should receive gastrointestinal decontamination. This should include large volume gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal. If consciousness is impaired, the airway should be secured prior to lavage. Emesis is contraindicated.

Cardiovascular

A maximal limb-lead QRS duration of ≥ 0.10 seconds may be the best indication of the severity of the overdose. Serum alkalinization, to a pH of 7.45 to 7.56, using intravenous sodium bicarbonate and hyperventilation (as needed) should be instituted for patients with dysrhythmias and/or QRS widening. A pH > 7.60 or a pCO2 < 20 mm Hg is undesirable. Dysrhythmias unresponsive to sodium bicarbonate therapy/hyperventilation may respond to lidocaine, bretylium or phenytoin. Type 1A and 1C antiarrhythmics are generally contraindicated (e.g., quinidine, disopyramide and procainamide).

In rare instances, hemoperfusion may be beneficial in acute refractory cardiovascular instability in patients with acute toxicity. However, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, exchange transfusions and forced diuresis generally have been reported as ineffective in tricyclic antidepressant poisoning.

CNS

In patients with CNS depression, early intubation is advised because of the potential for abrupt deterioration. Seizures should be controlled with benzodiazepines, or if these are ineffective, other anticonvulsants (e.g., phenobarbital, phenytoin). Physostigmine is not recommended except to treat life-threatening symptoms that have been unresponsive to other therapies, and then only in consultation with a poison control center.

Psychiatric Follow-up

Since overdosage is often deliberate, patients may attempt suicide by other means during the recovery phase. Psychiatric referral may be appropriate.

Pediatric Management

The principles of management of child and adult overdosages are similar. It is strongly recommended that the physician contact the local poison control center for specific pediatric treatment.

*Poisindex® Toxicologic Management. Topic: Antidepressants, Tricyclic. Micromedex Inc. Vol. 85.

Chlordiazepoxide Overdosage

Manifestations of benzodiazepine overdosage include somnolence, confusion, coma and diminished reflexes. Dialysis is of limited value. There have been occasional reports of excitation in patients following benzodiazepine overdosage; if this occurs, barbiturates should not be used. Withdrawal symptoms of the barbiturate type have occurred after the discontinuation of benzodiazepines (see DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE section). Since chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets contain amitriptyline, it is important to note that use of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil is contraindicated in patients who are showing signs of serious cyclic antidepressant overdose.

Chlordiazepoxide,Amitriptyline Dosage and Administration

Optimum dosage varies with the severity of the symptoms and the response of the individual patient. When a satisfactory response is obtained, dosage should be reduced to the smallest amount needed to maintain the remission. The larger portion of the total daily dose may be taken at bedtime. In some patients, a single dose at bedtime may be sufficient. In general, lower dosages are recommended for elderly patients.

Chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets 10 mg/25 mg are recommended in an initial dosage of 3 or 4 tablets daily in divided doses; this may be increased to 6 tablets daily as required. Some patients respond to smaller doses and can be maintained on 2 tablets daily.

Chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets 5 mg/12.5 mg in an initial dosage of 3 or 4 tablets daily in divided doses may be satisfactory in patients who do not tolerate higher doses.

How is Chlordiazepoxide,Amitriptyline Supplied

Chlordiazepoxide and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride Tablets, USP are available containing 5 mg of chlordiazepoxide, USP and 14 mg of amitriptyline hydrochloride, USP equivalent to 12.5 mg of amitriptyline or 10 mg of chlordiazepoxide, USP and 27.98 mg of amitriptyline hydrochloride, USP equivalent to 25 mg of amitriptyline.

The 5 mg/12.5 mg tablets are green, film-coated, round, unscored tablets debossed with MYLAN on one side of the tablet and 211 on the other side. They are available as follows:

NDC 0378-0211-01
bottles of 100 tablets

NDC 0378-0211-05
bottles of 500 tablets

The 10 mg/25 mg tablets are white, film-coated, round, unscored tablets debossed with MYLAN on one side of the tablet and 277 on the other side. They are available as follows:

NDC 0378-0277-01
bottles of 100 tablets

NDC 0378-0277-05
bottles of 500 tablets

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]

Store in a dry place.

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.

PHARMACIST: Dispense a Medication Guide with each prescription.

Medication Guide

Chlordiazepoxide and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride Tablets, USP
(klorʺ dye azʺ e poxʹ ide amʺ i tripʹ ti leen hyeʺ droe klorʹ ide)

What is the most important information I should know about chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets?

This medicine contains chlordiazepoxide. Chlordiazepoxide is a benzodiazepine medicine. Taking benzodiazepines with opioid medicines, alcohol, or other central nervous system depressants (including street drugs) can cause severe drowsiness, breathing problems (respiratory depression), coma and death.
Suicidal thoughts or actions. Chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets and other antidepressant medicines may increase suicidal thoughts or actions in some children, teenagers, or young adults (18 to 24 years of age) within the first few months of treatment or when the dose is changed.
Depression or other serious mental illnesses are the most important cause of suicidal thoughts or actions.
How can I watch for and try to prevent suicidal thoughts and actions?
o
Pay particular attention to such changes when chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets are started or when the dose is changed.
o
Keep all follow-up visits with your healthcare provider and call between visits if you are worried about symptoms.
o
Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms, especially if they are new, worse, or worry you:
 
 
attempts to commit suicide
acting on dangerous impulses
acting aggressive or violent
thoughts about suicide or dying
new or worse depression
new or worse anxiety or panic attacks
feeling agitated, restless, angry or irritable
trouble sleeping (insomnia)
an increase in activity or talking more than what is normal for you (mania)
other unusual changes in behavior or mood
Chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets can make you sleepy or dizzy, and can slow your thinking and motor skills.
o
Do not drive, operate heavy machinery, or do other dangerous activities until you know how chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets affect you.
o
Do not drink alcohol or take other drugs that may make you sleepy or dizzy while taking chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets without first talking to your healthcare provider. When taken with alcohol or drugs that cause sleepiness or dizziness, chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets may make your sleepiness or dizziness much worse.
Do not take more chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets than prescribed.

What are chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets?

Chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets are a prescription medicine used to treat moderate to severe depression that can happen with moderate to severe anxiety.
Chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets are a federal controlled substance (C-IV) because it can be abused or lead to dependence. Keep chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets in a safe place to prevent misuse and abuse. Selling or giving away chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets may harm others, and is against the law. Tell your healthcare provider if you have ever abused or been dependent on alcohol, prescription medicines or street drugs.
It is not known if chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets are safe and effective in children.

Do not take chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets if you:

are allergic to benzodiazepines or tricyclic antidepressant medicines
take a medicine called a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI). Ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist if you are not sure if you take an MAOI.
are recovering from a heart attack (myocardial infarction)

Before you take chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:

have bipolar disorder (manic depression) or mania
have a history of drug or alcohol abuse or addiction
have eye problems
have problems urinating or emptying your bladder
have kidney or liver problems
have or had heart problems, including heart attack or a stroke
have or have had seizures
have a thyroid problem
plan to have surgery
receive electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets may harm your unborn baby. Avoid taking chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets during the first trimester of pregnancy. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you become pregnant during treatment with chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets.
are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride pass into your breast milk. You should not breastfeed while taking chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets. Talk to your healthcare provider about the best way to feed your baby if you take chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets.

Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements.

Taking chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets with certain other medicines can cause side effects or affect how well chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets or the other medicines work. Do not start or stop other medicines without talking to your healthcare provider.

How should I take chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets?

Take chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets exactly as your healthcare provider tells you to take it.
If you take too many chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets, call your healthcare provider or go to the nearest emergency room right away.

What are the possible side effects of chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets?

Chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets may cause serious side effects, including:

See “What is the most important information I should know about chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets?”
Withdrawal symptoms. You may have withdrawal symptoms if you stop taking chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets suddenly. Withdrawal symptoms can be serious and include seizures. Mild withdrawal symptoms include a depressed mood and trouble sleeping. Talk to your healthcare provider about slowly stopping chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets to avoid withdrawal symptoms.
Abuse and dependence. Taking chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets can cause physical and psychological dependence. Physical and psychological dependence is not the same as drug addiction. Your healthcare provider can tell you more about the differences between physical and psychological dependence and drug addiction.

The most common side effects of chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets include:

drowsiness
constipation
dizziness
dry mouth
blurred vision
bloating

These are not all the possible side effects of chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

How should I store chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets?

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). Store in a dry place.
Keep chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets in a tightly closed, child-resistant container and out of the light.
Keep chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets and all medicines out of the reach of children.

General information about the safe and effective use of chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets.

Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets that is written for health professionals.

What are the ingredients in chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets?

Active ingredients: chlordiazepoxide, amitriptyline hydrochloride

Inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, pregelatinized starch (corn), sodium lauryl sulfate, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the 5 mg/12.5 mg tablets also contain D&C Yellow No. 10 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake and FD&C Yellow No. 6 Aluminum Lake and the 10 mg/25 mg tablets also contain calcium sulfate and talc.

Manufactured by: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc., Morgantown, WV 26505 U.S.A.

For more information, call Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc. at 1-877-446-3679 (1-877-4-INFO-RX).

The brands listed are trademarks of their respective owners.

This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Morgantown, WV 26505 U.S.A.

Revised: 4/2017
CDAM:R18mmh

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 5 mg/12.5 mg 

NDC 0378-0211-01

Chlordiazepoxide
and
Amitriptyline HCl
Tablets, USP

CIV
5 mg/
12.5 mg*

Rx only     100 Tablets

*Each film-coated tablet contains
5 mg of chlordiazepoxide, USP and
14 mg of amitriptyline hydrochloride,
USP equivalent to 12.5 mg of
amitriptyline.

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant
container as defined in the USP
using a child-resistant closure.

Keep container tightly closed.

Keep this and all medication
out of the reach of children.

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
[See USP Controlled Room
Temperature.]

Store in a dry place.

Usual Adult Dosage: See
accompanying prescribing
information.

PHARMACIST: Dispense the
accompanying Medication
Guide to each patient.

Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Morgantown, WV 26505 U.S.A.

RM0211A13

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 10 mg/25 mg

NDC 0378-0277-01

Chlordiazepoxide 
and
Amitriptyline HCl
Tablets, USP
CIV
10 mg/
25 mg*

Rx only     100 Tablets

*Each film-coated tablet contains
10 mg of chlordiazepoxide, USP and
27.98 mg of amitriptyline hydrochloride,
USP equivalent to 25 mg of
amitriptyline.

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant
container as defined in the USP
using a child-resistant closure.

Keep container tightly closed.

Keep this and all medication
out of the reach of children.

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
[See USP Controlled Room
Temperature.]

Store in a dry place.

Usual Adult Dosage: See
accompanying prescribing
information.

PHARMACIST: Dispense the
accompanying Medication
Guide to each patient.

Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Morgantown, WV 26505 U.S.A.

RM0277A13

CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE AND AMITRIPTYLINE HYDROCHLORIDE 
chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablet, film coated
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:0378-0211
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule CIV    
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE (CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE) CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE 5 mg
AMITRIPTYLINE HYDROCHLORIDE (AMITRIPTYLINE) AMITRIPTYLINE HYDROCHLORIDE 14 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
SILICON DIOXIDE  
CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM  
HYDROXYPROPYL CELLULOSE, UNSPECIFIED  
HYPROMELLOSE, UNSPECIFIED  
MAGNESIUM STEARATE  
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE  
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL, UNSPECIFIED  
STARCH, CORN  
SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE  
TITANIUM DIOXIDE  
D&C YELLOW NO. 10  
FD&C BLUE NO. 1  
FD&C YELLOW NO. 6  
Product Characteristics
Color GREEN Score no score
Shape ROUND Size 10mm
Flavor Imprint Code MYLAN;211
Contains     
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:0378-0211-01 100 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC
2 NDC:0378-0211-05 500 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
ANDA ANDA071297 12/10/1986
CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE AND AMITRIPTYLINE HYDROCHLORIDE 
chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride tablet, film coated
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:0378-0277
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule CIV    
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE (CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE) CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE 10 mg
AMITRIPTYLINE HYDROCHLORIDE (AMITRIPTYLINE) AMITRIPTYLINE HYDROCHLORIDE 27.98 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
SILICON DIOXIDE  
CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM  
HYDROXYPROPYL CELLULOSE, UNSPECIFIED  
HYPROMELLOSE, UNSPECIFIED  
MAGNESIUM STEARATE  
MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE  
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL, UNSPECIFIED  
STARCH, CORN  
SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE  
TITANIUM DIOXIDE  
CALCIUM SULFATE, UNSPECIFIED FORM  
TALC  
Product Characteristics
Color WHITE Score no score
Shape ROUND Size 10mm
Flavor Imprint Code MYLAN;277
Contains     
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:0378-0277-01 100 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC
2 NDC:0378-0277-05 500 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
ANDA ANDA071297 12/10/1986
Labeler - Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc. (059295980)
Revised: 04/2017
 
Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
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