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Vortioxetine

Pronunciation

(vor tye OX e teen)

Index Terms

  • Lu AA21004
  • Vortioxetine Hydrobromide

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Tablet, Oral:

Brintellix: 5 mg [DSC], 10 mg [DSC], 20 mg [DSC]

Trintellix: 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Brintellix [DSC]
  • Trintellix

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antidepressant, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor
  • Serotonin 5-HT<subscript>1A</subscript> Receptor Agonist
  • Serotonin 5-HT<subscript>3</subscript> Receptor Antagonist

Pharmacology

Inhibits reuptake of serotonin (5-HT); also has agonist activity at the 5-HT1A receptor and antagonist activity at the 5-HT3 receptor.

Absorption

Not affected by food

Distribution

Vd: 2600 L

Metabolism

Hepatic primarily through oxidation via CYP450 isoenzymes, primarily CYP2D6, and subsequent glucuronic acid conjugation to an inactive carboxylic acid metabolite.

Excretion

Urine (59%); feces (26%)

Onset of Action

Therapeutic: 2-4 weeks

Time to Peak

7-11 hours

Half-Life Elimination

~66 hours

Protein Binding

98%

Use: Labeled Indications

Major depressive disorder: Treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD)

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to vortioxetine or any component of the formulation; use of MAO inhibitors intended to treat psychiatric disorders (concurrently or within 21 days of discontinuing vortioxetine or within 14 days of discontinuing the MAO inhibitor); initiation of vortioxetine in a patient receiving linezolid or intravenous methylene blue

Dosing: Adult

Major depressive disorder: Oral: Initial: 10 mg once daily; increase to 20 mg once daily as tolerated; consider 5 mg once daily for patients who do not tolerate higher doses. Maintenance: 5-20 mg once daily.

Dosage adjustment for CYP2D6 poor metabolizers: Maximum dose: 10 mg once daily.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy with strong CYP2D6 inhibitors: Reduce total daily dose by one half when a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor (eg, bupropion, fluoxetine, paroxetine, or quinidine) is coadministered. Increase dose to original level when the CYP2D6 inhibitor is discontinued.

Consider increasing the dose when a strong CYP inducer (eg, rifampin, carbamazepine, phenytoin) is coadministered for >14 days. Maximum dose should not exceed three times the original dose. Reduce the dose to the original level within 14 days of discontinuing the CYP inducer.

Discontinuation of therapy: Upon discontinuation of antidepressant therapy, gradually taper the dose to minimize the incidence of withdrawal symptoms and allow for the detection of re-emerging symptoms. Evidence supporting ideal taper rates is limited. APA and NICE guidelines suggest tapering therapy over at least several weeks with consideration to the half-life of the antidepressant; antidepressants with a shorter half-life may need to be tapered more conservatively. In addition for long-term treated patients, WFSBP guidelines recommend tapering over 4-6 months. If intolerable withdrawal symptoms occur following a dose reduction, consider resuming the previously prescribed dose and/or decrease dose at a more gradual rate (APA, 2010; Bauer, 2002; Haddad, 2001; NCCMH, 2010; Schatzberg, 2006; Shelton, 2001; Warner, 2006).

Vortioxetine doses of 15 mg once daily or more are recommended by the manufacturer to be decreased to 10 mg once daily for one week before full discontinuation to prevent withdrawal symptoms.

MAO inhibitor recommendations:

Switching to or from an MAO inhibitor intended to treat psychiatric disorders:

Allow 14 days to elapse between discontinuing an MAO inhibitor intended to treat psychiatric disorders and initiation of vortioxetine.

Allow 21 days to elapse between discontinuing vortioxetine and initiation of an MAO inhibitor intended to treat psychiatric disorders.

Use with other MAO inhibitors (linezolid or IV methylene blue):

Do not initiate vortioxetine in patients receiving linezolid or IV methylene blue; consider other interventions for psychiatric condition.

If urgent treatment with linezolid or IV methylene blue is required in a patient already receiving vortioxetine and potential benefits outweigh potential risks, discontinue vortioxetine promptly and administer linezolid or IV methylene blue. Monitor for serotonin syndrome for 21 days or until 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid or IV methylene blue, whichever comes first. May resume vortioxetine 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid or IV methylene blue.

Dosing: Geriatric

Major depressive disorder:

U.S. labeling: Refer to adult dosing.

Canadian labeling: Oral: Initial: 5 mg once daily; may increase to 10 mg once daily as tolerated. Use caution with doses >10 mg daily (maximum: 20 mg daily).

Dosing: Renal Impairment

No dosage adjustment necessary.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment

Mild-to-moderate impairment: No dosage adjustment necessary.

Severe impairment: Use not recommended (has not been studied).

Administration

Administer without regard to meals.

Storage

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions are permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F).

Drug Interactions

Abiraterone Acetate: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates. Management: Avoid concurrent use of abiraterone with CYP2D6 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index whenever possible. When concurrent use is not avoidable, monitor patients closely for signs/symptoms of toxicity. Consider therapy modification

Agents with Antiplatelet Properties (e.g., P2Y12 inhibitors, NSAIDs, SSRIs, etc.): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of other Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Ajmaline: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Alcohol (Ethyl): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of psychomotor impairment may be enhanced. Management: Patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors should be advised to avoid alcohol. Monitor for increased psychomotor impairment in patients who consume alcohol during treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Analgesics (Opioid): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Anticoagulants: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. Monitor therapy

Antidepressants (Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor/Antagonist): Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of Antidepressants (Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor/Antagonist). This may cause serotonin syndrome. Management: Consider alternatives, and use conservative initial dosing. Monitor patients receiving these combinations for signs/symptoms of serotonin toxicity. Consider therapy modification

Antiemetics (5HT3 Antagonists): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Antipsychotic Agents: Serotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Apixaban: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Apixaban. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely. Monitor therapy

Aspirin: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Monitor therapy

Asunaprevir: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates. Consider therapy modification

Beta-Blockers: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers. Exceptions: Acebutolol; Atenolol; Betaxolol (Ophthalmic); Betaxolol (Systemic); Bisoprolol; Carteolol (Ophthalmic); Esmolol; Labetalol; Levobunolol; Metipranolol; Nadolol; Penbutolol; Sotalol. Monitor therapy

Blood Glucose Lowering Agents: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Bosentan: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

BuPROPion: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vortioxetine. BuPROPion may increase the serum concentration of Vortioxetine. Management: The vortioxetine dose should be reduced by 50% when used together with bupropion. Following cessation of bupropion, the vortioxetine dose should be returned to the normal level. Consider therapy modification

BusPIRone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. This may cause serotonin syndrome. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may decrease the metabolism of BusPIRone. Management: The combination of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and buspirone should be undertaken with great caution. When combined treatment is clinically indicated, monitor closely for signs of serotonin toxicity/serotonin syndrome. Consider therapy modification

CarBAMazepine: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may decrease the metabolism of CarBAMazepine. Specifically those SSRIs that inhibit CYP3A4 isoenzymes. CarBAMazepine may increase the metabolism of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Specifically those agents metabolized via CYP1A2, 2C, and/or 3A4 isoenzymes. Consider therapy modification

Cephalothin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cephalothin. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Cimetidine: May decrease the metabolism of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

CNS Depressants: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of psychomotor impairment may be enhanced. Monitor therapy

Cobicistat: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Collagenase (Systemic): Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Collagenase (Systemic). Specifically, the risk of injection site bruising and/or bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Moderate): May decrease the metabolism of CYP2D6 Substrates. Monitor therapy

CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Vortioxetine. Management: The vortioxetine dose should be reduced by 50% when used together with a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor. Following cessation of the strong CYP2D6 inhibitor, the vortioxetine dose should be returned to the normal level. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May decrease the serum concentration of Vortioxetine. Management: Consider increasing the vortioxetine dose to no more than 3 times the original dose when used with a strong drug metabolism inducer for more than 14 days. The vortioxetine dose should be returned to normal within 14 days of stopping the strong inducer. Consider therapy modification

Cyproheptadine: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Dabigatran Etexilate: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Dabigatran Etexilate. Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may increase the serum concentration of Dabigatran Etexilate. This mechanism applies specifically to clopidogrel. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely; Canadian labeling recommends avoiding prasugrel or ticagrelor. Monitor therapy

Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Seek alternatives to the CYP3A4 substrate when possible. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor clinical effects of the substrate closely (particularly therapeutic effects). Consider therapy modification

Dapoxetine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Serotonin Modulators. Avoid combination

Darunavir: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Dasatinib: May enhance the anticoagulant effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Deoxycholic Acid: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Deoxycholic Acid. Specifically, the risk for bleeding or bruising in the treatment area may be increased. Monitor therapy

Desmopressin: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Desmopressin. Monitor therapy

Dextromethorphan: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of Dextromethorphan. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Dextromethorphan. Management: Avoid the concurrent use of dextromethorphan and SSRIs, particularly fluoxetine and paroxetine, when possible. The risk for this interaction may persist for several weeks following discontinuation of fluoxetine or paroxetine. Consider therapy modification

Dosulepin: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Dosulepin. Avoid combination

Edoxaban: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Edoxaban. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Enzalutamide: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Concurrent use of enzalutamide with CYP3A4 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Use of enzalutamide and any other CYP3A4 substrate should be performed with caution and close monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Galantamine: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may decrease the metabolism of Galantamine. Monitor therapy

Glucosamine: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Herbs (Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Properties) (eg, Alfalfa, Anise, Bilberry): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Bleeding may occur. Consider therapy modification

Ibritumomab: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ibritumomab. Both agents may contribute to impaired platelet function and an increased risk of bleeding. Monitor therapy

Ibrutinib: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Imatinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Iobenguane I 123: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may diminish the therapeutic effect of Iobenguane I 123. Avoid combination

Ioflupane I 123: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may diminish the diagnostic effect of Ioflupane I 123. Monitor therapy

Limaprost: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Linezolid: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Lithium: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. This could increase the risk of serotonin toxicity/serotonin syndrome. Management: This combination should be undertaken with great caution. When combined treatment is clinically indicated, monitor closely for signs of serotonin toxicity/serotonin syndrome. Consider therapy modification

Lumefantrine: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates. Monitor therapy

MAO Inhibitors: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. This may cause serotonin syndrome. While methylene blue and linezolid are expected to interact via this mechanism, management recommendations differ from other monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Refer to monographs specific to those agents for details. Exceptions: Linezolid; Methylene Blue; Tedizolid. Avoid combination

Metaxalone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Methylene Blue: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of Methylene Blue. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Methylene Blue: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Metoclopramide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Management: Seek alternatives to this combination when possible. Monitor patients receiving metoclopramide with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for signs of extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and serotonin syndrome. Consider therapy modification

MetyroSINE: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Mexiletine: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may decrease the metabolism of Mexiletine. Consider therapy modification

Mitotane: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Doses of CYP3A4 substrates may need to be adjusted substantially when used in patients being treated with mitotane. Consider therapy modification

Multivitamins/Fluoride (with ADE): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

NSAID (COX-2 Inhibitor): Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the antiplatelet effect of NSAID (COX-2 Inhibitor). NSAID (COX-2 Inhibitor) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

NSAID (Nonselective): Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the antiplatelet effect of NSAID (Nonselective). NSAID (Nonselective) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Management: Consider using alternative analgesics, when appropriate, and/or addition of a gastroprotective agent. Monitor patients closely for signs/symptoms of bleeding, and for evidence of diminished SSRI effectiveness with concurrent use. Consider therapy modification

Obinutuzumab: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Obinutuzumab. Specifically, the risk of serious bleeding-related events may be increased. Monitor therapy

Omega-3 Fatty Acids: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Panobinostat: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates. Management: Avoid concurrent use of sensitive CYP2D6 substrates when possible, particularly those substrates with a narrow therapeutic index. Consider therapy modification

Peginterferon Alfa-2b: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates. Peginterferon Alfa-2b may increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased by concurrent use of these agents. Monitor therapy

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Perhexiline: CYP2D6 Substrates may increase the serum concentration of Perhexiline. Perhexiline may increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Pimozide: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Pimozide. Avoid combination

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

QuiNINE: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates. Monitor therapy

RisperiDONE: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may decrease the metabolism of RisperiDONE. Monitor therapy

Rivaroxaban: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Rivaroxaban. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely; Canadian labeling recommends avoiding prasugrel or ticagrelor. Monitor therapy

Salicylates: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Increased risk of bleeding may result. Monitor therapy

Serotonin Modulators: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Serotonin Modulators. The development of serotonin syndrome may occur. Exceptions: Nicergoline; Tedizolid. Monitor therapy

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

Tedizolid: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the hyponatremic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Thrombolytic Agents: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Thrombolytic Agents. Monitor therapy

Thyroid Products: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may diminish the therapeutic effect of Thyroid Products. Thyroid product dose requirements may be increased. Monitor therapy

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab. Specifically, the risk of bleeding-related adverse events may be increased. Monitor therapy

TraMADol: Serotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of TraMADol. The risk of seizures may be increased. TraMADol may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Tryptophan: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. This may cause serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Urokinase: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Urokinase. Avoid combination

Vitamin E (Systemic): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. Monitor therapy

Adverse Reactions

>10%:

Central nervous system: Female sexual disorder (self-reporting: 1% to 2%; Arizona Sexual Experience Scale: 22% to 34%), male sexual disorder (self-reporting: 3% to 5%; Arizona Sexual Experience Scale: 16% to 29%)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea (dose-related, females > males, 21% to 32%; commonly occurs within the first week of treatment, then decreases in frequency but can persist in some patients)

1% to 10%:

Central nervous system: Dizziness (8% to 9%), abnormal dreams (2% to 3%)

Dermatologic: Pruritus (2% to 3%)

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (7% to 10%), xerostomia (7% to 8%), constipation (5% to 6%), vomiting (3% to 6%), flatulence (2% to 3%)

<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Acute pancreatitis, angle-closure glaucoma, hypomania, hyponatremia, mania, serotonin syndrome, weight gain, withdrawal syndrome

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Suicidal thoughts and behaviors:

Antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies. These studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior with antidepressant use in patients older than 24 years; there was a trend toward reduced risk with antidepressant use in patients 65 years and older.

In patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy, monitor closely for worsening, and for emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Advise families and caregivers of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber.

Vortioxetine has not been evaluated for use in pediatric patients.

Warnings/Precautions

Major psychiatric warnings:

• Suicidal thinking/behavior: [U.S. Boxed Warning]: Antidepressants increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults (18 to 24 years of age) with major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders; consider risk prior to prescribing. Short-term studies did not show an increased risk in patients >24 years of age and showed a decreased risk in patients ≥65 years. Closely monitor patients for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior, particularly during the initial 1 to 2 months of therapy or during periods of dosage adjustments (increases or decreases); the patient’s family or caregiver should be instructed to closely observe the patient and communicate condition with healthcare provider. A medication guide concerning the use of antidepressants should be dispensed with each prescription. Vortioxetine is not approved for use in children.

• The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in major depression and may persist until remission occurs. Worsening depression and severe abrupt suicidality that are not part of the presenting symptoms may require discontinuation or modification of drug therapy. Use caution in high-risk patients during initiation of therapy.

• Prescriptions should be written for the smallest quantity consistent with good patient care. The patient's family or caregiver should be alerted to monitor patients for the emergence of suicidality and associated behaviors such as anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia, hypomania, and mania; patients should be instructed to notify their healthcare provider if any of these symptoms or worsening depression or psychosis occur.

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Bleeding risk: May impair platelet aggregation resulting in increased risk of bleeding events, particularly if used concomitantly with aspirin, NSAIDs, warfarin or other anticoagulants. Bleeding related to antidepressant use has been reported to range from relatively minor bruising and epistaxis to life-threatening hemorrhage.

• CNS depression: May cause CNS depression, which may impair physical or mental abilities; patients must be cautioned about performing tasks that require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery or driving).

• Fractures: Bone fractures have been associated with antidepressant treatment. Consider the possibility of a fragility fracture if an antidepressant-treated patient presents with unexplained bone pain, point tenderness, swelling, or bruising (Rabenda, 2013; Rizzoli, 2012).

• Hypersensitivity: Angioedema has been reported.

• Ocular effects: May cause mild pupillary dilation which in susceptible individuals can lead to an episode of narrow-angle glaucoma. Consider evaluating patients who have not had an iridectomy for narrow-angle glaucoma risk factors.

• Serotonin syndrome: Potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome (SS) has occurred with serotonergic antidepressants (eg, SSRIs, SNRIs), particularly when used in combination with other serotonergic agents (eg, triptans, TCAs, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, buspirone, St John's wort, tryptophan) or agents that impair metabolism of serotonin (eg, MAO inhibitors intended to treat psychiatric disorders, other MAO inhibitors [ie, linezolid and intravenous methylene blue]). Monitor patients closely for signs of SS such as mental status changes (eg, agitation, hallucinations, delirium, coma); autonomic instability (eg, tachycardia, labile blood pressure, diaphoresis); neuromuscular changes (eg, tremor, rigidity, myoclonus); GI symptoms (eg, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea); and/or seizures. Discontinue treatment (and any concomitant serotonergic agent) immediately if signs/symptoms arise.

• SIADH and hyponatremia: Serotonergic drugs have been associated with the development of SIADH; hyponatremia has been reported (including severe cases with serum sodium <110 mmol/L). Age (the elderly), volume depletion and/or concurrent use of diuretics likely increases risk. Discontinue treatment in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia.

Disease-related concerns:

• Mania/hypomania: May precipitate a mixed/manic episode in patients at risk for bipolar disorder. Use with caution in patients with a family history of bipolar disorder, mania, or hypomania. Patients presenting with depressive symptoms should be screened for bipolar disorder. Vortioxetine is not FDA approved for the treatment of bipolar depression.

• Hepatic impairment: Use is not recommended in severe hepatic impairment.

• Seizure disorders: Use with caution in patients with seizure disorders, a prior history of seizure disorder, or conditions predisposing to seizures; seizures (rare) have been reported in patients without a prior history of seizures.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Discontinuation syndrome: Abrupt discontinuation or interruption of antidepressant therapy has been associated with a discontinuation syndrome. Symptoms arising may vary with antidepressant however commonly include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, lightheadedness, dizziness, diminished appetite, sweating, chills, tremors, paresthesias, fatigue, somnolence, and sleep disturbances (eg, vivid dreams, insomnia). Less common symptoms include electric shock-like sensations, cardiac arrhythmias (more common with tricyclic antidepressants), myalgias, parkinsonism, arthralgias, and balance difficulties. Psychological symptoms may also emerge such as agitation, anxiety, akathisia, panic attacks, irritability, aggressiveness, worsening of mood, dysphoria, mood lability, hyperactivity, mania/hypomania, depersonalization, decreased concentration, slowed thinking, confusion, and memory or concentration difficulties. Greater risks for developing a discontinuation syndrome have been associated with antidepressants with shorter half-lives, longer durations of treatment, and abrupt discontinuation. For antidepressants of short or intermediate half-lives, symptoms may emerge within 2 to 5 days after treatment discontinuation and last 7 to 14 days (APA, 2010; Fava, 2006; Haddad, 2001; Shelton, 2001; Warner, 2006).

Monitoring Parameters

Mental status for depression, suicidal ideation (especially at the beginning of therapy or when doses are increased or decreased), anxiety, social functioning, mania, panic attacks; akathisia; signs/symptoms of serotonin syndrome and/or hyponatremia; hepatic function (baseline).

Pregnancy Risk Factor

C

Pregnancy Considerations

Adverse events were observed in animal reproduction studies. Nonteratogenic effects in the newborn following SSRI/SNRI exposure late in the third trimester include respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypo- or hypertonia, hyper-reflexia, jitteriness, irritability, constant crying, and tremor. Symptoms may be due to the toxicity of the SSRIs/SNRIs or a discontinuation syndrome and may be consistent with serotonin syndrome associated with SSRI treatment. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) has also been reported with SSRI exposure.

The ACOG recommends that therapy with SSRIs or SNRIs during pregnancy be individualized; treatment of depression during pregnancy should incorporate the clinical expertise of the mental health clinician, obstetrician, primary health care provider, and pediatrician (ACOG 2008). According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), the risks of medication treatment should be weighed against other treatment options and untreated depression. For women who discontinue antidepressant medications during pregnancy and who may be at high risk for postpartum depression, the medications can be restarted following delivery (APA 2010). Treatment algorithms have been developed by the ACOG and the APA for the management of depression in women prior to conception and during pregnancy (Yonkers 2009).

Pregnant women exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy are encouraged to enroll in the National Pregnancy Registry for Antidepressants (NPRAD). Women 18 to 45 years of age or their health care providers may contact the registry by calling 844-405-6185. Enrollment should be done as early in pregnancy as possible.

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, dizziness, diarrhea, or constipation. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of depression (ie, suicidal ideation, anxiety, emotional instability, illogical thinking), signs of low sodium (headache, trouble focusing, memory problems, illogical thinking, weakness, seizures, or change in balance), signs of bleeding (vomiting blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds; coughing up blood; blood in the urine; black, red, or tarry stools; bleeding from the gums; abnormal vaginal bleeding; bruises without a reason or that get bigger; or any bleeding that is very bad or that will not stop), behavioral changes, insomnia, severe dizziness, passing out, sexual dysfunction, vision changes, eye pain, eye irritation, or signs of serotonin syndrome (dizziness, severe headache, agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, arrhythmia, flushing, tremors, sweating a lot, change in balance, severe nausea, severe diarrhea) (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for healthcare professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience and judgment in diagnosing, treating and advising patients.

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