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Potassium Bicarbonate and Potassium Citrate

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on May 2, 2020.

Pronunciation

(poe TASS ee um bye KAR bun ate & poe TASS ee um SIT rate)

Index Terms

  • Potassium Bicarbonate and Potassium Citrate (Effervescent)

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Tablet Effervescent, Oral:

Effer-K: 10 mEq

Effer-K: 10 mEq [contains fd&c red #40; cherry-vanilla flavor]

Effer-K: 20 mEq [scored]

Effer-K: 20 mEq [scored; contains fd&c red #40, fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow); orange cream flavor]

Effer-K: 25 mEq [lime flavor]

Effer-K: 25 mEq [contains fd&c red #40, fd&c red #40 aluminum lake, saccharin; cherry berry flavor]

Effer-K: 25 mEq [contains fd&c yellow #10 (quinoline yellow), fd&c yellow #10 aluminum lake, saccharin; lemon citrus flavor]

Effer-K: 25 mEq [contains fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow), fd&c yellow #6 aluminum lake, saccharin; orange flavor]

Effer-K: 25 mEq [contains saccharin; unflavored flavor]

K-Effervescent: 25 mEq [DSC] [orange flavor]

K-Prime: 25 mEq [contains fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow), fd&c yellow #6 aluminum lake, saccharin; orange flavor]

K-Vescent: 25 mEq [DSC] [orange flavor]

Klor-Con/EF: 25 mEq [contains fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow), fd&c yellow #6 aluminum lake, saccharin]

Klor-Con/EF: 25 mEq [sugar free; contains fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow), fd&c yellow #6 aluminum lake, saccharin]

Klor-Con/EF: 25 mEq [sugar free; contains fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow), fd&c yellow #6 aluminum lake, saccharin; orange flavor]

Generic: 25 mEq

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Effer-K
  • K-Effervescent [DSC]
  • K-Prime
  • K-Vescent [DSC]
  • Klor-Con/EF

Pharmacologic Category

  • Electrolyte Supplement, Oral

Pharmacology

Potassium is needed for the conduction of nerve impulses in heart, brain, and skeletal muscle; contraction of cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscles; maintenance of normal renal function

Absorption

Well absorbed from upper GI tract

Distribution

Enters cells via active transport from extracellular fluid

Excretion

Primarily urine; skin and feces (small amounts); most intestinal potassium reabsorbed

Use: Labeled Indications

Hypokalemia: Treatment or prevention of hypokalemia, particularly when it is necessary to avoid chloride or the acid/base status requires bicarbonate

Contraindications

Hyperkalemia; concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics or potassium supplements

Dosing: Adult

Note: Doses expressed as mEq of potassium.

Hypokalemia:

Prevention: Oral: 20 to 40 mEq/day in 1 to 2 divided doses

Treatment: Oral: 40 to 100 mEq/day in 2 to 4 divided doses; limit single doses to 20 to 25 mEq/dose to avoid GI discomfort

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Administration

Oral: Dissolve flavored tablets completely in 3 to 4 ounces of cold or ice water; unflavored tablets may be dissolved in 3 to 4 ounces of cold juice. May further dilute if GI adverse effects occur.

Dietary Considerations

Dietary adequate intake (AI) (IOM 2004): Healthy adults: 120 mEq/day (4.7 g/day)

Storage

Store at controlled room temperature 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F)

Drug Interactions

Acalabrutinib: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Acalabrutinib. Management: Separate administration of acalabrutinib from the administration of any antacids by at least 2 hours in order to minimize the potential for a significant interaction. Consider therapy modification

Aliskiren: Potassium Salts may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Aliskiren. Monitor therapy

Alpha-/Beta-Agonists (Indirect-Acting): Alkalinizing Agents may increase the serum concentration of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists (Indirect-Acting). Monitor therapy

Aluminum Hydroxide: Citric Acid Derivatives may increase the absorption of Aluminum Hydroxide. Monitor therapy

Amantadine: Alkalinizing Agents may increase the serum concentration of Amantadine. Monitor therapy

Amphetamines: Alkalinizing Agents may decrease the excretion of Amphetamines. Management: Consider alternatives to using amphetamines and alkalinizing agents in combination. If these agents must be used together, patients should be monitored closely for excessive amphetamine effects. Consider therapy modification

Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers: Potassium Salts may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Monitor therapy

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: Potassium Salts may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Anticholinergic Agents: May enhance the ulcerogenic effect of Potassium Citrate. Avoid combination

Atazanavir: Antacids may decrease the absorption of Atazanavir. Management: Administer antacids 1 to 2 hours before or 2 hours after atazanavir to minimize the risk of a clinically significant interaction. Consider therapy modification

Bisacodyl: Antacids may diminish the therapeutic effect of Bisacodyl. Antacids may cause the delayed-release bisacodyl tablets to release drug prior to reaching the large intestine. Gastric irritation and/or cramps may occur. Management: Antacids should not be used within 1 hour before bisacodyl administration. Consider therapy modification

Bismuth Subcitrate: Antacids may diminish the therapeutic effect of Bismuth Subcitrate. Management: Avoid administration of antacids within 30 minutes of bismuth subcitrate (tripotassium bismuth dicitrate) administration. Consider therapy modification

Bosutinib: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Bosutinib. Management: Administer antacids more than 2 hours before or after bosutinib. Consider therapy modification

Calcium Polystyrene Sulfonate: Antacids may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Polystyrene Sulfonate. The combined use of these two agents may result in metabolic alkalosis and/or loss of efficacy of the cation exchange resin. Management: To minimize this interaction, consider: a)separating doses by 2 or more hours; b)rectal administration of the exchange resin; or c)alternatives to antacids. Monitor for metabolic alkalosis and attenuation of CPS effects. Avoid magnesium hydroxide. Consider therapy modification

Captopril: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Captopril. Monitor therapy

Cefditoren: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Cefditoren. Management: Concomitant use of cefditoren with antacids is not recommended. Consider alternative methods to control acid reflux (eg, diet modification) or alternative antimicrobial therapy. If antacid therapy can not be avoided, separate dosing by several hours. Consider therapy modification

Cefpodoxime: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Cefpodoxime. Monitor therapy

Cefuroxime: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Cefuroxime. Management: Administer cefuroxime axetil at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after the administration of short-acting antacids. Consider therapy modification

Chloroquine: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Chloroquine. Management: Separate the administration of antacids and chloroquine by at least 4 hours to minimize any potential negative impact of antacids on chloroquine bioavailability. Consider therapy modification

Corticosteroids (Oral): Antacids may decrease the bioavailability of Corticosteroids (Oral). Management: Consider separating doses by 2 or more hours. Budesonide enteric coated tablets could dissolve prematurely if given with drugs that lower gastric acid, with unknown impact on budesonide therapeutic effects. Consider therapy modification

Cysteamine (Systemic): Antacids may diminish the therapeutic effect of Cysteamine (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Dabigatran Etexilate: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Dabigatran Etexilate. Management: Dabigatran etexilate Canadian product labeling recommends avoiding concomitant use with antacids for 24 hours after surgery. In other situations, administer dabigatran etexilate 2 hours prior to antacids. Monitor clinical response to dabigatran therapy. Consider therapy modification

Dasatinib: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Dasatinib. Management: Simultaneous administration of dasatinib and antacids should be avoided. Administer antacids 2 hours before or 2 hours after dasatinib. Consider therapy modification

Delavirdine: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Delavirdine. Management: Separate doses of delavirdine and antacids by at least 1 hour. Monitor for decreased delavirdine therapeutic effects with this combination. Consider therapy modification

Dexmethylphenidate: Antacids may increase the absorption of Dexmethylphenidate. Specifically, antacids may interfere with the normal release of drug from the extended-release capsules (Focalin XR brand), which could result in both increased absorption (early) and decreased delayed absorption. Monitor therapy

Diacerein: Antacids may decrease the absorption of Diacerein. Monitor therapy

Drospirenone: Potassium Salts may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Drospirenone. Monitor therapy

Eplerenone: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium Salts. Management: This combination is contraindicated in patients receiving eplerenone for treatment of hypertension. Consider therapy modification

Erlotinib: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Erlotinib. Management: Separate the administration of erlotinib and any antacid by several hours in order to minimize the risk of a significant interaction. Consider therapy modification

Fosinopril: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Fosinopril. Management: The US and Canadian fosinopril manufacturer labels recommend separating the doses of antacids and fosinopril by 2 hours. Consider therapy modification

Gefitinib: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Gefitinib. Management: Administer gefitinib at least 6 hours before or 6 hours after administration of an antacid, and closely monitor clinical response to gefitinib. Consider therapy modification

Heparin: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium Salts. Monitor therapy

Heparins (Low Molecular Weight): May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium Salts. Monitor therapy

Iron Preparations: Antacids may decrease the absorption of Iron Preparations. Management: Separate dosing of oral iron preparations and antacids as much as possible to avoid decreased efficacy of iron preparation. If coadministered with antacids, monitor for decreased therapeutic effects of iron preparations. Exceptions: Ferric Carboxymaltose; Ferric Citrate; Ferric Derisomaltose; Ferric Gluconate; Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex; Ferric Pyrophosphate Citrate; Ferumoxytol; Iron Dextran Complex; Iron Sucrose. Consider therapy modification

Itraconazole: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole. Antacids may increase the serum concentration of Itraconazole. Management: Administer Sporanox brand itraconazole at least 2 hours before or 2 hours after administration of any antacids. Exposure to Tolsura brand itraconazole may be increased by antacids; consider itraconazole dose reduction. Consider therapy modification

Ketoconazole (Systemic): Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Ketoconazole (Systemic). Management: Administer oral ketoconazole at least 2 hours prior to use of any antacid product. Monitor patients closely for signs of inadequate clinical response to ketoconazole. Consider therapy modification

Lanthanum: Antacids may diminish the therapeutic effect of Lanthanum. Management: Administer antacid products at least 2 hours before or after lanthanum. Consider therapy modification

Ledipasvir: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Ledipasvir. Management: Separate the administration of ledipasvir and antacids by 4 hours. Consider therapy modification

Mecamylamine: Alkalinizing Agents may increase the serum concentration of Mecamylamine. Monitor therapy

Memantine: Alkalinizing Agents may increase the serum concentration of Memantine. Monitor therapy

Mesalamine: Antacids may diminish the therapeutic effect of Mesalamine. Antacid-mediated increases in gastrointestinal pH may cause the premature release of mesalamine from specific sustained-release mesalamine products. Management: Avoid concurrent administration of antacids with sustained-release mesalamine products. Separating antacid and mesalamine administration, and/or using lower antacid doses may be adequate means of avoiding this interaction. Consider therapy modification

Methenamine: Antacids may diminish the therapeutic effect of Methenamine. Management: Consider avoiding this combination if possible. Antacids may decrease the therapeutic effects of methenamine; sodium bicarbonate is of most concern. If coadministering methenamine and antacids, monitor for decreased methenamine efficacy. Consider therapy modification

Methylphenidate: Antacids may increase the absorption of Methylphenidate. Specifically, antacids may interfere with the normal release of drug from the extended-release capsules (Ritalin LA brand), which could result in both increased absorption (early) and decreased delayed absorption. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron): Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron). Specifically, antacids may decrease the absorption of orally administered iron. Management: Separate dosing of oral iron-containing multivitamin preparations and antacids by as much time as possible in order to minimize impact on therapeutic efficacy of the iron preparation. Consider therapy modification

Mycophenolate: Antacids may decrease the absorption of Mycophenolate. Management: Separate doses of mycophenolate and antacids by at least 2 hours. Monitor for reduced effects of mycophenolate if taken concomitant with antacids. Consider therapy modification

Neratinib: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Neratinib. Specifically, antacids may reduce neratinib absorption. Management: Separate the administration of neratinib and antacids by giving neratinib at least 3 hours after the antacid. Consider therapy modification

Nicorandil: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium Salts. Monitor therapy

Nilotinib: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Nilotinib. Management: Separate the administration of nilotinib and any antacid by at least 2 hours whenever possible in order to minimize the risk of a significant interaction. Consider therapy modification

Octreotide: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Octreotide. Monitor therapy

PAZOPanib: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Management: Avoid the use of antacids in combination with pazopanib whenever possible. Separate doses by several hours if antacid treatment is considered necessary. The impact of dose separation has not been investigated. Consider therapy modification

Pexidartinib: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Pexidartinib. Management: Administer pexidartinib 2 hours before or after antacids. Consider therapy modification

Phosphate Supplements: Antacids may decrease the absorption of Phosphate Supplements. Management: This applies only to oral phosphate administration. Separating administer of oral phosphate supplements from antacid administration by as long as possible may minimize the interaction. Exceptions: Sodium Glycerophosphate Pentahydrate. Consider therapy modification

Potassium Phosphate: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Potassium Phosphate. Management: Consider separating administration of antacids and oral potassium phosphate by at least 2 hours to decrease risk of a significant interaction. Consider therapy modification

Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: Potassium Salts may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics. Management: Avoid coadministration of a potassium-sparing diuretic and a potassium salt. This combination should only be used in cases of significant hypokalemia, and only if serum potassium can be closely monitored. Consider therapy modification

QuiNINE: Alkalinizing Agents may increase the serum concentration of QuiNINE. Monitor therapy

Quinolones: Antacids may decrease the absorption of Quinolones. Of concern only with oral administration of quinolones. Management: Avoid concurrent administration of quinolones and antacids to minimize the impact of this interaction. Recommendations for optimal dose separation vary by specific quinolone. Exceptions: LevoFLOXacin (Oral Inhalation). Consider therapy modification

Rilpivirine: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Rilpivirine. Management: Administer antacids at least 2 hours before or 4 hours after rilpivirine when used with most rilpivirine products. However, administer antacids at least 6 hours before or 4 hours after the rilpivirine/dolutegravir combination product. Consider therapy modification

Riociguat: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Riociguat. Management: Separate the administration of antacids and riociguat by at least 1 hour in order to minimize any potential interaction. Consider therapy modification

Rosuvastatin: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Rosuvastatin. Monitor therapy

Selpercatinib: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Selpercatinib. Management: Coadministration of selpercatinib and antacids should be avoided. If coadministration cannot be avoided, selpercatinib should be administered 2 hours before or 2 hours after antacids. Consider therapy modification

Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate: Antacids may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate. The combined use of these two agents may result in metabolic alkalosis and/or loss of efficacy of the exchange resin. Management: To minimize this interaction, consider: a)separating doses by 2 or more hours; b)rectal administration of the exchange resin; or c)alternatives to antacids. Monitor for metabolic alkalosis and attenuation of SPS effects. Avoid magnesium hydroxide. Consider therapy modification

Sotalol: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Sotalol. Management: Avoid simultaneous administration of sotalol and antacids. Administer antacids 2 hours after sotalol. Consider therapy modification

Sulpiride: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Sulpiride. Management: Separate administration of antacids and sulpiride by at least 2 hours in order to minimize the impact of antacids on sulpiride absorption. Consider therapy modification

Tetracyclines: Antacids may decrease the absorption of Tetracyclines. Management: Separate administration of antacids and oral tetracycline derivatives by several hours when possible to minimize the extent of this potential interaction. Exceptions: Eravacycline; Tigecycline. Consider therapy modification

Velpatasvir: Antacids may decrease the serum concentration of Velpatasvir. Management: Separate administration of velpatasvir and antacids by at least 4 hours. Consider therapy modification

Test Interactions

Decreased ammonia

Adverse Reactions

Frequency not defined.

Endocrine & metabolic: Hyperkalemia

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• GI effects: May cause GI upset (eg, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, discomfort) and lead to GI ulceration, bleeding, perforation and/or obstruction.

• Hyperkalemia: Close monitoring of serum potassium concentrations is needed to avoid hyperkalemia; severe hyperkalemia may lead to muscle weakness/paralysis and cardiac conduction abnormalities (eg, heart block, ventricular arrhythmias, asystole).

Disease-related concerns:

• Acid/base disorders: Use with caution in patients with acid/base alterations; changes in serum potassium concentrations can occur during acid/base correction, monitor closely.

• Cardiovascular disease: Use with caution in patients with cardiovascular disease (eg, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias); patients may be more susceptible to life-threatening cardiac effects associated with hyper/hypokalemia.

• Metabolic acidosis: Patients with hypokalemia accompanied by metabolic acidosis should be treated with an alkalinizing potassium salt.

• Potassium-altering conditions/disorders: Use with caution in patients with disorders or conditions likely to contribute to altered serum potassium and hyperkalemia (eg, untreated Addison's disease, heat cramps, severe tissue breakdown from trauma or burns).

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment; monitor serum potassium concentrations closely. Avoid with severe impairment.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Digitalis: Use with caution in digitalized patients; may be more susceptible to potentially life-threatening cardiac effects with rapid changes in serum potassium concentrations.

• Potassium-altering therapies: Use with caution in patients receiving concomitant medications or therapies that increase potassium (eg, ACE inhibitors, potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium-containing salt substitutes).

Monitoring Parameters

Electrolytes (including serum potassium, magnesium, and bicarbonate); renal function; cardiac function

Pregnancy Considerations

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with this combination. See individual agents.

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to treat or prevent low potassium levels.

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Nausea

• Vomiting

• Abdominal pain

• Diarrhea

• Passing gas

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• High potassium like abnormal heartbeat, confusion, dizziness, passing out, weakness, shortness of breath, or numbness or tingling feeling

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

More about potassium bicarbonate / potassium citrate

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