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Potassium iodide Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings

Potassium iodide is also known as: Iosat, Pima, SSKI, ThyroShield, Yodefan

Potassium iodide Pregnancy Warnings

Potassium iodide (KI) has been assigned to pregnancy category D by the FDA. KI can cause fetal harm, abnormal thyroid function and goiter when administered to a pregnant woman. Potassium iodide is considered contraindicated during pregnancy.

The use of KI, or any iodide, is contraindicated during pregnancy because of the potential for fetal goiter secondary to fetal thyroid trapping of iodide. There are data to suggest the safe use of short-term (10 days) of KI in preparation for maternal thyroidectomy. In 2001 the FDA issued a guidance document for the use of potassium iodide in radiation emergencies. The FDA stated pregnant women should be given should be potassium iodide for their own protection and for that of the fetus. However, because of the risk of blocking fetal thyroid function with excess stable iodine, repeat dosing of pregnant women should be avoided.

See references

Potassium iodide Breastfeeding Warnings

In 2001 the FDA issued a guidance document for the use of potassium iodide (KI) in radiation emergencies. The FDA stated lactating women should be given should be potassium iodide for their own protection, as for other young adults, and potentially to reduce the radioiodine content of the breast milk, but not as a means to deliver KI to infants, who should get their KI directly. As for direct administration of KI, stable iodine as a component of breast milk may also pose a risk of hypothyroidism in nursing neonates. Therefore, repeat dosing with KI should be avoided in the lactating mother, except during continuing severe contamination. If repeat dosing of the mother is necessary, the nursing neonate should be monitored for the potential development of hypothyroidism.

Potassium iodide (KI) is excreted into and concentrated in human milk. While the American Academy of Pediatrics considers potassium iodide to be compatible with breast-feeding, many experts caution against the use of KI--or any iodide--during breast-feeding because of the risk of neonatal goiter and hypothyroidism. The effect of high concentration iodide ingestion on the nursing infant is not known.

See references

References for pregnancy information

  1. Okayasu I, Mori W, Miyagawa N "An autopsy case of congenital goiter." Acta Pathol Jpn 23 (1973): 531-7
  2. Penfold JL, Pearson CC, Savage JP, Morris LL "Iodide induced goitre and hypothyroidism in infancy and childhood." Aust Paediatr J 14 (1978): 69-73
  3. Herbst AL, Selenkow HA "Hyperthyroidism during pregnancy." N Engl J Med 273 (1965): 627-33
  4. Senior B, Chernoff HL "Iodide goiter in the newborn." Pediatrics 47 (1971): 510-5
  5. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Drugs. "Adverse reactions to iodide therapy of asthma and other pulmonary diseases." Pediatrics 57 (1976): 272-4
  6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) "Potassium iodide as a thyroid blocking agent in radiation emergencies. Available from: URL: http://www.fda.gov/cder/guidance/4825fnl.htm." ([2001 Dec]):
  7. Parmelle A, et al "Three cases of newborn infants with congential goiter due to ingestion of iodide." Am J Obstet Gynecol 40 (1940): 145-7
  8. Packard G, Eilliams E, Wheelock S "Congenial obstructing goiter." Surgery 48 (1960): 422-31
  9. Ayromlooi J "Congenital goiter due to maternal ingestion of iodides." Obstet Gynecol 39 (1972): 818-22
  10. Davies J "Sporadic congenital etc." J Pediatr 22 (1943): 570,580
  11. Iancu T, Boyanower Y, Laurian N "Congenital goiter due to maternal ingestion of iodide." Am J Dis Child 128 (1974): 528-30
  12. "Product Information. SSKI (potassium iodide)." Upsher-Smith Laboratories Inc, Minneapolis, MN.
  13. Selenkow HA, Herbst AL "Hyperthyroidism during pregnancy." N Engl J Med 274 (1966): 165-6

References for breastfeeding information

  1. Gushurst CA, Mueller JA, Green JA, Sedor F "Breast milk iodide: reassessment in the 1980's." Pediatrics 73 (1984): 354-7
  2. Committee on Drugs, 1992 to 1993 "The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk." Pediatrics 93 (1994): 137-50
  3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) "Potassium iodide as a thyroid blocking agent in radiation emergencies. Available from: URL: http://www.fda.gov/cder/guidance/4825fnl.htm." ([2001 Dec]):
  4. Bohles H, Aschenbrenner M, Roth M, von Loewenich V, Ball F, Usadel KH "Development of thyroid gland volume during the first 3 months of life in breast-fed versus iodine-supplemented and iodine-free formula-fed infants." Clin Investig 71 (1993): 13-20
  5. Carswell F, Kerr MM, Hutchison JH "Congenital goitre and hypothyroidism produced by maternal ingestion of iodides." Lancet 1 (1970): 1241-3
  6. Berkowitz R, Coustan D, Mochizuki T. "Handbook for Prescribing Medications During Pregnancy. 2nd ed." Boston, MA: Little, Brown, and Company (1986): 242
  7. "Product Information. SSKI (potassium iodide)." Upsher-Smith Laboratories Inc, Minneapolis, MN.
  8. Mehta PS, Mehta SJ, Vorherr H "Congenital iodide goiter and hypothyroidism: a review." Obstet Gynecol Surv 38 (1983): 237-47
  9. Postellon DC, Aronow R "Iodine in mother's milk." JAMA 247 (1982): 463
  10. Vorherr H "Drug excretion in breast milk." Postgrad Med 56 (1974): 97-104

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