Safe Medication Use During Breastfeeding
It is widely accepted that human milk is best for an infant. The benefits are substantial for the baby, providing the ideal nutrition, antibodies to protect against illness, and a healthy weight. There are benefits for mom, too: it increases bonding and relaxation, can be a cost-saver, and provides health benefits like a lowered risk of breast and ovarian cancers.
Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for at least 6 months by most experts, and extended to 12 months while introducing other foods.
However, many mothers will need to take medications of some type during breastfeeding, whether it be short-term for a sore back or a runny nose, or longer-term for a chronic condition like high blood pressure. This may raise questions about the safety of common treatments while nursing. Even though you're a new mom with new responsibilities, your health still matters, too.
Although many drugs are safe to use when you're breastfeeding, most will get into your milk to some degree and may even affect your milk supply. To be safe, check with your pediatrician before taking any kind of prescription or over-the-counter medication, herbal or dietary supplement, or vitamin. Even herbal teas may contain ephedra or other harmful ingredients. Just because a label says "natural" does not always mean it's safe.
Breastfeeding and Medication Tips
- The American Academy of Pediatrics states that many effects of medications on breastfeeding babies simply are not known. Due to this, only take a medication when absolutely needed, at the lowest dose and for the shortest time possible.
- When possible, take medications that are given only once a day right after a feeding when your baby will have the longest period without nursing; for many women this is the last feeding of the night before the infant's bedtime.
- Watch your baby for side effects such as sleepiness, irritability, other potential or known reactions of the medication.
- Avoid long-acting (LA), extended-release (ER), and combination forms of medications, when possible. Shorter-acting medications are elimninated from your body more quickly, and single medications give you greater flexibility in dosing.
- Only water-miscible (soluble) cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking.
- Special precautions may be needed in preterm (premature) infants, due to their size and organ systems that are even less developed than a regular term infant.
- Ask your doctor about the risks and benefits of any medication prescribed while you are breastfeeding, or any medication you choose from OTC options that do not require a prescription.
- When more than one medication or a combination medication is used, follow the breastfeeding recommendations for the most problematic medication.
If you have more questions about how a drug you're taking might affect your breast milk or your baby, you can also check our pregnancy warnings and breastfeeding warnings pages.
Drugs Reported as Safe During Breastfeeding in Normal Doses
|Drug or Class||Brand or Generic Name||Notes|
|acetaminophen||Tylenol||OTC; used for pain/fever/headache; amounts in milk are much less than doses usually given to infants. Adverse effects in breastfed infants appear to be rare.1|
|acyclovir and valacyclovir||Zovirax, Valtrex||Rx; antiviral for herpes infections; the dosage of acyclovir in milk is only about 1% of a typical infant dosage and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Valacyclovir is a prodrug of acyclovir.1|
|antacids (aluminum, magnesium)||Maalox, Mylanta||
OTC; used for stomach upset (dyspepsia)
The World Health Organization (WHO) considers compatible with breastfeeding; however, continue to monitor baby for side effects.2
|aspirin (low-dose, (75 to 325 mg daily ONLY if recommended by doctor)||
Prescription/over-the-counter; Bayer Aspirin, Bufferin, Ecotrin, others.
In general, aspirin use is best avoided during breastfeeding. Acetaminophen or ibuprofen may be safer for pain relief.
Some expert opinion indicates that low-dose (75 to 325 mg daily) aspirin may be used as a blood thinning agent for use in breastfeeding women who require it. Monitor the infant for bruising and bleeding.1
Avoid high-dose, long-term use of aspirin, if possible.
|bupivacaine||Marcaine||Rx; a local anesthetic used in labor/delivery. Because of the low levels of bupivacaine in breastmilk, and it is not orally absorbed, amounts received by the infant are small and it has not caused any adverse effects in breastfed infants.1|
Found in coffee (80-150 mg per 6 ounce cup), tea, soft drinks, energy drinks, chocolate, guarana, some OTC medications.
One Starbucks Grande (16 oz) contains ~ 300 mg caffeine.
A stimulant that DOES pass into breast milk.
Excess caffeine in the mother can lead to stimulation in infants. Watch for irritability in newborn.
Avoid concentrated energy drinks, pure caffeine tablets.
Caffeine consumption of 300 mg to 500 mg per day max suggested.
Caffeine levels from breast milk may be higher in preterm infants.1
|cephalosporins (i.e. Keflex or cephalexin)||
Most cephalosporins are considered compatible with breastfeeding.2, 3
Rx; broad-spectrum antibiotics for infections.
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), in general, an antimicrobial agent is safe to administer to a lactating woman if it is safe to administer to an infant.
May interfere with gut flora in infant leading to diarrhea or thrush.
Clotrimazole (troches or topical)
Rx/OTC; used to treat yeast and fungal infections.
Poor oral bioavailability, unlikely to adversely affect the breastfed infant, including topical application to the nipples.1
|contraceptives (progestin-only or "mini-pills"): norethindrone, etonogestrel levonorgestrel, drospirenone)4,6||
Brand name examples: Ortho Micronor, Errin, Heather, Slynd, others.
Used for birth control. Generic options may be available.
Progestin-only contraceptives are considered the hormonal contraceptives of choice during lactation, especially during the first 4 weeks postpartum.1,6
Research has found that combination birth control pills (that also contain estrogen) don't affect milk production if started 4 weeks after delivery, as previously thought, but some doctors may still prefer progestin only pills.7 Combination birth control pills started within 3 weeks after delivery may also elevate risk for blood clots.16
There are no reports of adverse effects in breastfed infants with maternal use of progestin-only contraceptives.5
For some women, nonhormonal methods of birth control may be preferred during breastfeeding (this includes the copper IUD, condoms, diaphragm and cervical cap).
Examples: prednisone, prednisolone.
Rx; used to treat inflammation of joints and other conditions.
As reported by ToxNet LactMed (NIH) database, no adverse effects have been reported in breastfed infants with maternal use of any corticosteroid during breastfeeding.1
|decongestant nasal sprays||Examples: Afrin (oxymetazoline), Sinex (phenylephrine)||
OTC; Used to treat stuffy noses.
Limited systemic absorption.
Recommended over oral decongestants (such as pseudoephedrine or phenylephrine), which may inhibit milk production.1
Rx; used for heart failure, other heart problems.
If given intravenously, avoid breastfeeding for 2 hours after dose.
Because of the low levels of digoxin in breastmilk, amounts ingested by the infant are small and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.1
Rx; macrolide used for skin and respiratory infections.
Monitor infant for diarrhea, candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash).1
OTC; non-drowsy antihistamine for allergies and hay fever.
Lack of sedation and low milk levels; maternal use of fexofenadine would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.1
Combined use with decongestants may lower milk production.
Rx; Used to treat yeast infections
Acceptable in nursing mothers because amounts in breastmilk are less than infant dose.1
|heparin and low molecular weight heparins (examples: dalteparin, enoxaparin)||Note: preservative-free heparin sodium injection is recommended when heparin therapy is needed during lactation.||
Rx; used to keep blood from clotting.
Not expected to be appreciably excreted into breastmilk or absorbed by the infant due to high molecular weights. No special precautions are required.1
|ibuprofen||Motrin, Advil, generics and store brands||
Rx/OTC: used for pain relief
Due to low levels in breastmilk, short action, and safe use in infants in doses higher than those found in breastmilk, ibuprofen is a preferred choice as an analgesic or anti-inflammatory agent in nursing mothers.1
|inhaled bronchodilators||albuterol, levalbuterol, terbutaline||
Rx; used for asthma.
No published data.
Experts agree use of inhaled bronchodilators acceptable due to low bioavailability and maternal serum levels after use.1
Mothers with diabetes using insulin may nurse their infants.
Careful observation of increased maternal caloric needs and maternal blood glucose levels are needed.
Insulin is normally present in breastmilk. Use is acceptable.
Rx; for diabetes / elevated blood sugar; dosage required may drop up to 25% during lactation.
Insulin, including newer biosynthetic insulins (aspart, detemir, glargine, glulisine, lispro) is a protein that is inactivated and destroyed in the digestive tract of the infant if taken by mouth.8
|laxatives||psyllium (Metamucil), docusate (Colace), polyethylene glycol (Miralax).||
OTC; used to treat constipation.
Psyllium is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, so it cannot enter the breastmilk. It is acceptable to use during breastfeeding.1
Docusate is minimally absorbed and is unlikely to be found in breastmilk. Laxatives that are completely unabsorbed may be preferred over docusate.1
Polyethylene glycol is very poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, so it cannot enter the breastmilk in important amounts. No special precautions are required.1
Rx; a local anesthetic.
Lidocaine is poorly absorbed by newborns. Lidocaine is not expected to cause side effects in breastfed infants.1
|loratadine||Claritin, Claritin RediTabs||
OTC; non-drowsy antihistamine for allergies and hay fever.
Lack of sedation and low milk levels. Not expected to cause adverse effects in nursing infants. Some experts recommend to use at the lowest dose.
Loratadine might have a negative effect on lactation, especially in combination with a decongestant like pseudoephedrine or phenylephrine.1
|low molecular weight heparins (enoxaparin, dalteparin)||Lovenox, Fragmin||Rx; used as an anticoagulant; not expected to be excreted into breastmilk due to high molecular weight.1|
Rx; used for prevention and control of seizures in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.
Postpartum IV use longer than 6 hours may delay onset of lactation.1
Rx; used to treat high blood pressure; no special precautions needed.
Because of the low levels of methyldopa in breastmilk, amounts ingested by the infant are small and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.1
Rx; a beta-blocker used to treat high blood pressure.
Small amounts ingested by infant; no special precautions are required.
Studies on the use of metoprolol during breastfeeding have found no adverse reactions in breastfed infants.1
|miconazole (topical use)||Monistat||
OTC; used to treat yeast infections.
Poor oral bioavailability. Unlikely to affect the breastfed infant, including topical application to the nipples, but rarely prescribed.1
Rx; calcium channel blocker used to treat high blood pressure and angina (chest pain).
Studies on the use of metoprolol during breastfeeding have found no adverse reactions in breastfed infants.
No special precautions are required.1
|penicillins||amoxicillin, penicillin G||
Rx; used to treat bacterial infections.
Occasionally, rash and disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush, have been reported with penicillins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated.
Amoxicillin, penicillin G are acceptable in nursing mothers.1
|propranolol||Inderal LA, Inderal XL, InnoPran XL||
Rx; a beta blocker used to treat heart problems, high blood pressure, and infantile hemangiomas.
Low levels in breastmilk and not expected to cause side effects in breastfed infants. No special precautions are needed.1
Elixophyllin, Theo-24, others
Rx; used to treat asthma and bronchitis.
Monitor infant for irritability, stimulation, and trouble sleeping in newborn and especially preterm infants.
Keep maternal serum concentrations in the lower part of the therapeutic range and monitor the infant for signs of theophylline side effects. Consider infant serum monitoring if needed.
Delay nursing for 2 hours (after IV dose) or 4 hours (after oral immediate-release dose) if possible. Delaying nursing may have no effect if taking long-acting forms.1
|tretinoin topical||Avita, Atralin, Renova, Retin A||
Rx; cream used for acne; use only water-miscible cream or gel products.Ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated.
|thyroid replacement||Synthroid, levothyroxine||
Rx; replaces the thyroid hormone normally produced by your body to help regulate your energy and metabolism.
Levothyroxine is excreted into milk, but is a normal component of breast milk. Use is considered acceptable.1
Breastfed infants should be vaccinated according to routine established schedules from the ACIP.
According to the ACIP’s General Best Practice Guidelines for Immunization in Special Situations, except for smallpox and yellow fever vaccines, neither inactivated nor live-virus vaccines administered to a lactating woman affect the safety of breastfeeding for women or their infants.
When nursing mothers cannot avoid or postpone travel to areas endemic for yellow fever in which risk for acquisition is high, these women should be vaccinated.9
If you are breastfeeding, you can receive a COVID vaccine as reported by the CDC. No long-term studies are available, but recent information has shown that people who are breastfeeding and have received COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have antibodies in their breastmilk, which could help protect their babies, but more data is needed to determine how protective this is for the baby.19
|vancomycin (oral)||Vancocin, Firvanq||
Rx; oral antibiotic. No special precautions are required.
Limited information indicates that oral vancomycin produces low levels in milk.
Because vancomycin is poorly absorbed when taken orally, it is unlikely to enter the bloodstream of the infant or cause side effects.1
|verapamil||Calan, Calan SR, Verelan, Verelan PM||
Rx; calcium channel blocker used for high blood pressure, angina (chest pain).
Data are limited but suggest that maternal doses of verapamil up to 360 mg daily produce detectable, but low levels in milk.
Verapamil would not be expected to cause side effects in breastfed infants, especially in infants over 2 months.1
Rx; used to treat or prevent blood clots.
Very low milk levels occur with warfarin doses up to at least 12 mg daily.
No side effects in breastfed infants have been reported from maternal warfarin use during breastfeeding, even with a dose of 25 mg daily for 7 days.
There is a consensus that maternal warfarin therapy during breastfeeding poses little risk to the breastfed infant. No special precautions are needed.1
Rx - prescription only; OTC - over-the-counter
Other Common Medications Used in Breastfeeding
In general, data is limited for the effects of these drugs on a breastfeeding infant. Follow the links to learn more about use of these drugs in breastfeeding and always check with your doctor. Added monitoring or laboratory testing may be required for the infant. Prescribing is made on a case-by-case basis by your healthcare provider.
|Drug or Class||Brand or Generic Name||Notes|
captopril, enalapril (Vasotec), benazepril (Lotensin)1
Rx; used to treat high blood pressure, kidney conditions, heart disease.
Captopril, enalapril and benazepril can appear in breast milk. However, amounts ingested are small and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.
No information is available for lisinopril; an alternative may be preferred.1
|Anticonvulsants - speak with your healthcare provider first; data may be limited for some drugs.||
Reported as possibly safe or cautious use advised. Monitor infant closely for side effects1:
Do not use, or use with extreme caution, and monitor infant as recommended by a healthcare provider1:
Rx; used for seizures and mood disorders. Pregnant and breastfeeding women with epilepsy should always consult their health care provider about appropriate seizures medications.
Check individual drugs as certain medications can be hazardous to nursing infants, while others may be more safe.
Some medications may lead to side effects in the infant such as drowsiness, feeding difficulties and poor weight gain.
Treatments for epilepsy are often used in combination. Use of two or more seizure drugs may lead to worsened or unexpected side effects.
Measurement of an infant serum level might help rule out toxicity if there is a concern. Monitor for developmental milestones.1
Nonsedating antihistamines are usually preferred; most are not expected to cause side effects in infants.1
Sedating antihistamines are alternatives for short-term, low dose use.1
OTC/Rx; Some antihistamines may reduce milk supply (especially when used with a decongestant) and cause infant drowsiness or fussiness.
If sedating, use lowest dose possible and take at bedtime after last feeding.
Rx; used to treat tuberculosis
The CDC and other expert groups state that breastfeeding should not be discouraged in women taking isoniazid.
Nursing mothers who are taking isoniazid should take 25 mg of oral pyridoxine daily.
Give the once-daily dose to the mother before the infant's longest sleep period to decrease dose that infant receives.
Monitor infants for rare instances of jaundice.1
Rx; used to suppress the immune system following organ transplants; can be used for inflammatory bowel disease or lupus.
Most experts consider breastfeeding during azathioprine to be acceptable. May want to monitor complete blood count with differential, and liver function tests in exclusively breastfed infants.1
Long-term follow-up for effects such as cancer in children have not been performed.
Avoid breastfeeding for 4 to 6 hours after a dose.
Rx; for depression, seasonal affective disorder, smoking cessation.
Clinical data is lacking; case report of possible seizure in partially breastfed 6-month-old; another drug may be preferred.1
Monitor infant closely if combined with an SSRI. Watch for vomiting, diarrhea, jitteriness, or sedation; consider monitoring infant levels.1
Rx; Used to treat abdominal and vaginal infections; topical for acne.
Oral or IV product may alter infants gastrointestinal flora leading to diarrhea, thrush, or rarely blood in stool; consider alternative.1
Topical agents unlikely to cause infant side effects.
phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine (Sudafed)
OTC; Used to treat congestion associated with colds or allergies.
May cause irritability in the infant; often interferes with or reduces milk supply - do not use if lactation not well established.
A single dose of pseudoephedrine decreases milk production acutely and repeated use seems to interfere with lactation. Mothers with newborns whose lactation is not yet well established or in mothers who are having difficulties producing sufficient milk should not receive pseudoephedrine.1
Limited information on oral phenylephrine so alternatives may be preferred.
Phenylephrine nasal spray or ophthalmic drops are less likely to lower milk production.
Fluconazole is acceptable in nursing mothers because amounts excreted into breastmilk are less than the neonatal fluconazole dosage.1
|Histamine H2 blockers||
OTC; used to treat stomach acid reflux/heartburn.
Famotidine may be preferred.
Cimetidine may inhibit hepatic enzymes leading to drug interactions.1 WHO states to avoid cimetidine as no long-term data on side effects.2
Ranitidine (Zantac) was found to break down to a cancer-causing chemical and has been removed from the U.S. market.
Rx; used for high blood pressure.
Caution with preterm babies; other agents may be preferred.
Levels of labetalol are low in breastmilk. No special precautions are required in most fullterm infants.
Labetalol may predispose nursing mothers to Raynaud’s phenomenon of the nipple.1
Rx; diuretic for high blood pressure.
Doses of 50 mg daily or less are acceptable during lactation; higher doses may decrease milk production.1
Rx; used to treat anxiety, seizure disorders.
Lorazepam has low levels in breastmilk, and a short half-life compared to some benzodiazepines.
It is safely given directly to infants, and would not be expected to cause infant problems. Most reports do not list sedation in infants at normal maternal doses.1
OTC/Rx; used for pain relief.Limited data suggests that naproxen levels in breastmilk are low and side effects in breastfed infants are uncommon.
However, because of naproxen's long half-life and reported serious adverse reaction in a breastfed newborn, other NSAIDs (i.e., ibuprofen) or acetaminophen may be preferred while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.1
Rx; used to treat anxiety.
Low levels in breast milk. Oxazepam is not expected to cause side effects in breastfed infants with usual maternal doses.
No special precautions are required; however, short-term use is always preferred.1
Rx; used to treat heartbeat irregularities.
Limited data suggests that maternal doses of quinidine up to 1.8 grams daily produce low levels in milk.
Not expected to cause side effects in breastfed infants, especially if the infant is older than 2 months.
Consider measurement of serum levels to rule out infant toxicity if there is a concern; monitor exclusively breastfed infants closely.1
|Select fluoroquinolone antibacterials||
Due to serious side effects in patients, the FDA has stated that this class is not suitable for common conditions such as sinusitis, bronchitis, and uncomplicated urinary tract infections. However, if clinically appropriate, short-term use of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin appears to be acceptable in nursing mothers. No information is available on the use of moxifloxacin during breastfeeding.
Recommendations now state this class should be reserved for more serious infections when possible.
Monitor infant for possible effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea or candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash).
Fluoroquinolones have traditionally not been used in infants because of concern about adverse effects on the infants' developing joints. However, studies indicate little risk.
If prescribed in a nursing woman, avoiding breastfeeding for 3 to 4 hours after a dose to help decrease the exposure of the infant.
Ophthalmic preparations pose little risk to a nursing baby.1
Mothers taking an SSRI postpartum may have more difficulty breastfeeding, although this might be a reflection of their disease state. Lactation support may needed.1
Rx; used to treat depression, postpartum depression.
Most authoritative reviewers consider paroxetine or sertraline preferred antidepressants during breastfeeding.1
Paroxetine: has not been detected in serum of most infants that were tested. Occasional mild side effects such as insomnia, restlessness and increased crying have been reported in breastfed infants.1
Sertraline: weakly active metabolite norsertraline (desmethylsertraline) has been detected in low levels infants; preterm infants with impaired metabolism may accumulate the drug and demonstrate symptoms similar to neonatal abstinence.1
Most newer antidepressants produce very low or undetectable plasma concentrations in nursing infants. Shorter half-life agents may be preferred.
Rx; used to treat high blood pressure
Spironolactone appears to be acceptable during breastfeeding.1
Intense diuresis (treatment for fluid retention) can suppress lactation but it is unlikely that spironolactone alone is potent enough to cause this effect.1
Rx; used to treat migraines
Sumatriptan has low oral bioavailability with low milk levels. Sumatriptan would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in most breastfed infants
Experts suggest to withhold breastfeeding for 8 hours (12 hours from manufacturer). This may be helpful in preterm infants.1
Sumatriptan would not be expected to cause any side effects in most breastfed infants.
Rx; antibiotic may be used to treat acne or UTI, Lyme disease.
Available literature indicates unlikely to be harm (i.e., teeth-staining) with short-term use of tetracycline or doxycycline during lactation because milk levels are low and absorption by the infant is inhibited by the calcium in breastmilk.1
Doxycycline use in children under 8 years is now considered acceptable in courses up to 21 days.1
As a precaution limit to short-term use and avoid repeat treatments.
Monitor for altered intestinal tract flora (diarrhea, thrush, diaper rash).
Rx; used for depression and sleep.
Limited data shows that trazodone milk levels are low.
Not expected to cause side effects in breastfed infants, especially if older than 2 months or when doses of 100 mg or less are used at bedtime for sleep.1
|Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)||
Rx; used to treat depression.
Some experts consider imipramine or nortriptyline the TCAs of choice for nursing mothers, if a TCA must be used. Low milk levels and few side effects reported in infants.1
Avoid oral doxepin due to active metabolite, presence in infant serum, and several reports side effects.1
Rx - prescription only; OTC - over-the-counter
As reported by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) refer to the LactMed Database to obtain the most current data on an individual medications.
- National Institutes of Health. US National Library of Medicine. LactMed database. Accessed July 15, 2021 at toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/lactmed.htm
- Department of Adolescent and Child Health and Development. UNICEF. World Health Organization Breastfeeding and maternal medication: recommendations for drugs in the eleventh WHO model list of essential drugs. Accessed July 15, 2021 at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2002/55732.pdf
- Hale's Medication and Mother's Milk. Online. 2021. Springer Publishing Company. Accessed July 15, 2021 at https://www.halesmeds.com/categories
- Can I use hormonal birth control while breastfeeding? Planned Parenthood. Accessed July 16, 2021 at https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/birth-control/breastfeeding/whats-best-birth-control-option-while-breastfeeding
- Skyla. Prescribing information. Drugs.com. Accessed July 16, 2021 at https://www.drugs.com/pro/skyla-iud.html#s-43684-0
- Drospirenone. Prescribing information. Drospirenone use while Breastfeeding. Drugs.com. Accessed July 16, 2021 at https://www.drugs.com/breastfeeding/drospirenone.html
- Minipill (progestin-only birth control pill). Mayo Clinic. Drugs.com. Accessed July 16, 2021 at https://www.drugs.com/mcp/minipill-progestin-only-birth-control-pill
- Insulin regular. Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings. Drugs.com. Accessed July 16, 2021 at https://www.drugs.com/pregnancy/insulin-regular.html
- Vaccination Safety for Breastfeeding Mothers. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Jan 24, 2018. Accessed July 17, 2021 at https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/vaccinations-medications-drugs/vaccinations.html
- FDA updates warnings for fluoroquinolone antibiotics on risks of mental health and low blood sugar adverse reactions. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Press Announcements. Accessed July 21, 2021 at https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-updates-warnings-fluoroquinolone-antibiotics-risks-mental-health-and-low-blood-sugar-adverse
- Clinical Report: The transfer of drugs and therapeutics into human breast milk: an update on selected topics. Pediatrics. 2013;132(3):e796-e809. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23979084/ Reaffirmed May 2018. Accessed July 21, 2021.
- Thomas J. Medications and Breastfeeding: Tips for Giving Accurate Information to Mothers. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Accessed online June 17, 2021 at https://www.aap.org/en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/Breastfeeding/Pages/Medications-and-Breastfeeding.aspx
- Healthy Children.org. Medications and Breastfeeding. Updated 12/12/2015. Accessed July 21, 2021 at http://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/breastfeeding/Pages/Medications-and-Breastfeeding.aspx
- Drugs.com. Medicine use while Breastfeeding. July 21, 2021. Accessed at https://www.drugs.com/breastfeeding/
- COVID-19 Vaccines While Pregnant or Breastfeeding. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). June 29, 2021. Accessed July 20, 2021 at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/recommendations/pregnancy.html
- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2006-. Contraceptives, Oral, Combined. [Updated 2021 Jun 21]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK501295/
Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.