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Indomethacin

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Aug 23, 2019.

Pronunciation

(in doe METH a sin)

Index Terms

  • Indomethacin
  • Indomethacin Sodium Trihydrate

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Capsule, Oral:

Tivorbex: 20 mg, 40 mg [contains brilliant blue fcf (fd&c blue #1), fd&c blue #2 (indigotine), fd&c red #40]

Generic: 25 mg, 50 mg

Capsule Extended Release, Oral:

Generic: 75 mg

Solution Reconstituted, Intravenous:

Generic: 1 mg (1 ea)

Solution Reconstituted, Intravenous [preservative free]:

Generic: 1 mg (1 ea)

Suppository, Rectal:

Indocin: 50 mg (30 ea)

Suspension, Oral:

Indocin: 25 mg/5 mL (237 mL) [contains alcohol, usp; pineapple-coconut-mint flavor]

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Indocin
  • Tivorbex

Pharmacologic Category

  • Analgesic, Nonopioid
  • Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID), Oral
  • Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID), Parenteral

Pharmacology

Reversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 (COX-1 and 2) enzymes, which results in decreased formation of prostaglandin precursors; has antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties

Other proposed mechanisms not fully elucidated (and possibly contributing to the anti-inflammatory effect to varying degrees), include inhibiting chemotaxis, altering lymphocyte activity, inhibiting neutrophil aggregation/activation, and decreasing proinflammatory cytokine levels.

Absorption

Oral: Immediate release: Neonates: Formulation specific; Adults: Prompt and extensive; Extended release: Adults: 90% over 12 hours (Note: 75 mg product is designed to initially release 25 mg and then 50 mg over an extended period of time)

Distribution

Crosses blood-brain barrier; Neonates: PDA: 0.36 L/kg; Post-PDA closure: 0.26 L/kg; Adults: 0.34-1.57 L/kg

Metabolism

Hepatic; significant enterohepatic recirculation; metabolites include desmethyl, desbenzoyl and desmethyl-desbenzoyl (all in unconjugated form)

Excretion

Urine (60%, primarily as glucuronide conjugates); feces (33%, primarily as metabolites; 1.5% as unchanged drug)

Clearance: Preterm neonates: ~19 mL/hour/kg (range: 4.7-45.5 mL/hour/kg) (Al Za'abi 2007)

Onset of Action

~30 minutes

Time to Peak

Oral: Immediate release: 2 hours; Tivorbex capsules: 1.67 hours

Duration of Action

4 to 6 hours

Half-Life Elimination

Neonates: Postnatal age (PNA) <2 weeks: ~20 hours; PNA >2 weeks: ~11 hours

Adults: 2.6-11.2 hours; 7.6 hours (Tivorbex)

Protein Binding

99%

Use: Labeled Indications

Acute pain, mild to moderate (Tivorbex only): Treatment of mild to moderate acute pain in adults

Ankylosing spondylitis (excluding Tivorbex): Treatment of moderate to severe ankylosing spondylitis

Bursitis/tendonitis of the shoulder (excluding Tivorbex): Treatment of acute painful bursitis and/or tendonitis of the shoulder

Gout, acute flares (excluding Tivorbex and ER capsules): Treatment of acute gout flares

Osteoarthritis (excluding Tivorbex): Treatment of moderate to severe osteoarthritis

Patent ductus arteriosus (IV only): To close a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants weighing between 500 and 1,750 g when 48 hours usual medical management (eg, fluid restriction, diuretics, digitalis, respiratory support) is ineffective

Rheumatoid arthritis (excluding Tivorbex): Treatment of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis, including acute flares of chronic disease

Off Label Uses

Prevention of pancreatitis post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

Data from a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in patients at elevated risk for post-ERCP pancreatitis supports the use of rectal indomethacin administered immediately after the procedure to prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis [Elmunzer 2012].

Additional Off-Label Uses

Management of preterm labor

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity (eg, anaphylactic reactions, serious skin reactions) to indomethacin or any component of the formulation; use in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery; history of asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAID agents; patients with a history of proctitis or recent rectal bleeding (suppositories).

Neonates (IV only): Necrotizing enterocolitis (proven or suspected); significant renal impairment; active bleeding (including intracranial hemorrhage and gastrointestinal bleeding), thrombocytopenia, coagulation defects; untreated infection (proven or suspected); congenital heart disease where patency of the ductus arteriosus is necessary for adequate pulmonary or systemic blood flow (eg, pulmonary atresia, severe tetralogy of Fallot, severe coarctation of the aorta)

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Severe uncontrolled heart failure; known hyperkalemia; active gastric/duodenal/peptic ulcer; active GI bleed; history of recurrent GI ulceration; active GI inflammatory disease; cerebrovascular bleeding or other bleeding disorders; severe hepatic impairment or active liver disease; severe renal impairment (CrCl <30 mL/minute) or deteriorating renal function; concurrent use with other NSAIDs; complete or partial syndrome of nasal polyps; children and adolescents <14 years of age; breast-feeding; pregnancy (third trimester)

Dosing: Adult

Acute pain (mild to moderate): Oral (Tivorbex only): 20 mg 3 times daily or 40 mg 2 or 3 times daily

Ankylosing spondylosis, osteoarthritis, or rheumatoid arthritis: Note: Use lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible.

Oral (immediate release [excluding Tivorbex)]), rectal: 25 mg 2 to 3 times daily; if well tolerated, increase daily dosage by 25 or 50 mg at weekly intervals until satisfactory response or a total daily dose of 150 to 200 mg/day (maximum dose: 200 mg/day) is reached. In patients with arthritis and persistent night pain and/or morning stiffness may give the larger portion (up to maximum of 100 mg) of the total daily dose at bedtime.

Oral (extended-release capsules): Initial: 75 mg once daily, may increase to 75 mg twice daily (maximum dose: 150 mg/day).

Bursitis/tendonitis of the shoulder: Oral (excluding Tivorbex), rectal: Initial dose: 75 to 150 mg/day in 3 to 4 divided doses or 1 to 2 divided doses for extended release; usual treatment is 7 to 14 days; discontinue after signs/symptoms of inflammation have been controlled for several days.

Gout, acute flares (alternative agent): Oral (excluding Tivorbex and ER capsules), rectal: 50 mg 3 times daily; initiate within 24 to 48 hours of flare onset preferably; discontinue 2 to 3 days after resolution of clinical signs; usual duration: 5 to 7 days (ACR [Khanna 2012]; Becker 2018).

Prevention of pancreatitis post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) (off-label use): Rectal: 100 mg immediately after ERCP (Elmunzer 2012)

Dosing: Geriatric

Avoid use (Beers Criteria [AGS 2019]).

Dosing: Pediatric

Inflammatory/rheumatoid disorders: Note: Use lowest effective dose: Children ≥2 years and Adolescents (Limited data available in ages <15 years): Oral: Initial: 1 to 2 mg/kg/day in 2 to 4 divided doses; usual initial adult dose range: 25 to 50 mg; maximum daily dose: 4 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/day, whichever is less (Kliegman 2007)

Administration

Oral: Administer with food, immediately after meals, or with milk or antacids to decrease GI adverse effects. Extended-release capsules must be swallowed whole; do not crush.

Rectal: For rectal use only; not for oral or intravaginal use.

Dietary Considerations

May cause GI upset; take with food or milk to minimize

Storage

Capsules: Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F).

Tivorbex: Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Store in the original container; protect from moisture and light.

IV: Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Protect from light. Store vials in original carton until contents used.

Oral suspension: Store below 30°C (86°F). Avoid temperatures above 50°C (122°F). Protect from freezing.

Suppositories: Store below 30°C (86°F). Avoid transient temperatures above 40°C (104°F).

Drug Interactions

5-Aminosalicylic Acid Derivatives: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Acemetacin: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Agents with Antiplatelet Properties (e.g., P2Y12 inhibitors, NSAIDs, SSRIs, etc.): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of other Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Alcohol (Ethyl): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the risk of GI bleeding may be increased with this combination. Monitor therapy

Aliskiren: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Aliskiren. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aliskiren. Management: Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving aliskiren and any nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent. Patients at elevated risk of renal dysfunction include those who are elderly, are volume depleted, or have pre-existing renal dysfunction. Monitor therapy

Aminoglycosides: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants. Monitor therapy

Aminolevulinic Acid (Systemic): Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Aminolevulinic Acid (Systemic). Avoid combination

Aminolevulinic Acid (Topical): Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Aminolevulinic Acid (Topical). Monitor therapy

Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the combination may result in a significant decrease in renal function. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. The combination of these two agents may also significantly decrease glomerular filtration and renal function. Monitor therapy

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the combination may result in a significant decrease in renal function. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Anticoagulants: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. Exceptions: Bemiparin; Enoxaparin; Heparin. Monitor therapy

Apixaban: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Apixaban. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Management: A comprehensive risk to benefit assessment should be done for all patients before any concurrent use of apixaban and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). If combined, monitor patients extra closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Bemiparin: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Bemiparin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of bemiparin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) due to the increased risk of bleeding. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Bemiparin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Bemiparin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of bemiparin with antiplatelet agents. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Beta-Blockers: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Beta-Blockers. Exceptions: Levobunolol; Metipranolol. Monitor therapy

Bile Acid Sequestrants: May decrease the absorption of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Consider therapy modification

Bisphosphonate Derivatives: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Bisphosphonate Derivatives. Both an increased risk of gastrointestinal ulceration and an increased risk of nephrotoxicity are of concern. Monitor therapy

Bremelanotide: May decrease the serum concentration of Indomethacin. Monitor therapy

Cephalothin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cephalothin. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Collagenase (Systemic): Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Collagenase (Systemic). Specifically, the risk of injection site bruising and/or bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Corticosteroids (Systemic): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective). Monitor therapy

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may increase the serum concentration of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). CycloSPORINE (Systemic) may increase the serum concentration of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Management: Consider alternatives to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). Monitor for evidence of nephrotoxicity, as well as increased serum cyclosporine concentrations and systemic effects (eg, hypertension) during concomitant therapy with NSAIDs. Consider therapy modification

Dabigatran Etexilate: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Dabigatran Etexilate. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Management: A comprehensive risk to benefit assessment should be done for all patients before any concurrent use of dabigatran and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). If combined, monitor patients extra closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Dasatinib: May enhance the anticoagulant effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Monitor therapy

Deferasirox: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Deferasirox. Specifically, the risk for GI ulceration/irritation or GI bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Deoxycholic Acid: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Deoxycholic Acid. Specifically, the risk for bleeding or bruising in the treatment area may be increased. Monitor therapy

Desmopressin: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Desmopressin. Monitor therapy

Dexibuprofen: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Dexibuprofen. Avoid combination

Dexketoprofen: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Diclofenac (Systemic): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Management: Seek alternatives to the combined use of diclofenac with other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). Avoid the use of diclofenac/misoprostol with other NSAIDs. Consider therapy modification

Digoxin: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may increase the serum concentration of Digoxin. Monitor therapy

Drospirenone: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Drospirenone. Monitor therapy

Edoxaban: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Edoxaban. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Management: A comprehensive risk to benefit assessment should be done for all patients before any concurrent use of edoxaban and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). If combined, monitor patients extra closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Enoxaparin: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Enoxaparin. Management: Discontinue nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) prior to initiating enoxaparin whenever possible. If concomitant administration is unavoidable, monitor closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Enoxaparin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Enoxaparin. Management: Discontinue antiplatelet agents prior to initiating enoxaparin whenever possible. If concomitant administration is unavoidable, monitor closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Eplerenone: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Eplerenone. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Eplerenone. Monitor therapy

Fat Emulsion (Fish Oil Based): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Felbinac: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Monitor therapy

Floctafenine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Glucagon: Indomethacin may diminish the therapeutic effect of Glucagon. Monitor therapy

Glucosamine: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Haloperidol: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Haloperidol. Specifically including drowsiness and confusion. Monitor therapy

Heparin: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Heparin. Management: Decrease the dose of heparin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) if coadministration is required. Consider therapy modification

Heparin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Heparin. Management: Decrease the dose of heparin or agents with antiplatelet properties if coadministration is required. Consider therapy modification

Herbs (Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Properties) (eg, Alfalfa, Anise, Bilberry): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Bleeding may occur. Management: Avoid combination when possible. If used, monitor more closely for evidence of bleeding. Discontinue herbal products with anticoagulant or antiplatelet actions 2 weeks prior to surgical, dental, or invasive procedures. Consider therapy modification

Herbs (Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Properties) (eg, Alfalfa, Anise, Bilberry): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Bleeding may occur. Management: Concomitant treatment with these agents should generally be avoided. If used concomitantly, increased diligence in monitoring for adverse effects (eg, bleeding, bruising, altered mental status due to CNS bleeds) must be employed. Consider therapy modification

HydrALAZINE: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of HydrALAZINE. Monitor therapy

Ibritumomab Tiuxetan: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ibritumomab Tiuxetan. Both agents may contribute to impaired platelet function and an increased risk of bleeding. Monitor therapy

Ibrutinib: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Inotersen: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Ketorolac (Nasal): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Ketorolac (Systemic): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Limaprost: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Lithium: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may increase the serum concentration of Lithium. Consider therapy modification

Loop Diuretics: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the diuretic effect of Loop Diuretics. Loop Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Management: Monitor for evidence of kidney injury or decreased therapeutic effects of loop diuretics with concurrent use of an NSAID. Consider avoiding concurrent use in CHF or cirrhosis. Concomitant use of bumetanide with indomethacin is not recommended. Consider therapy modification

Macimorelin: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the diagnostic effect of Macimorelin. Avoid combination

Methotrexate: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may increase the serum concentration of Methotrexate. Management: Alternative anti-inflammatory therapy should be considered whenever possible, especially if the patient is receiving higher, antineoplastic doses of methotrexate. Consider therapy modification

Mifamurtide: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Mifamurtide. Avoid combination

Morniflumate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Multivitamins/Fluoride (with ADE): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Naftazone: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (COX-2 Selective): Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (COX-2 Selective). Avoid combination

Obinutuzumab: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Obinutuzumab. Specifically, the risk of serious bleeding-related events may be increased. Monitor therapy

Omacetaxine: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Omacetaxine. Specifically, the risk for bleeding-related events may be increased. Management: Avoid concurrent use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with omacetaxine in patients with a platelet count of less than 50,000/uL. Avoid combination

Omega-3 Fatty Acids: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Pelubiprofen: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased by concurrent use of these agents. Monitor therapy

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Phenylbutazone: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Porfimer: Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Porfimer. Monitor therapy

Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics. Monitor therapy

PRALAtrexate: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may increase the serum concentration of PRALAtrexate. More specifically, NSAIDS may decrease the renal excretion of pralatrexate. Management: Closely monitor for increased pralatrexate serum levels and/or toxicity if used concomitantly with an NSAID. Monitor for decreased pralatrexate serum levels with NSAID discontinuation. Monitor therapy

Probenecid: May increase the serum concentration of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Monitor therapy

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Prostaglandins (Ophthalmic): Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Prostaglandins (Ophthalmic). Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may also enhance the therapeutic effects of Prostaglandins (Ophthalmic). Monitor therapy

Quinolones: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the neuroexcitatory and/or seizure-potentiating effect of Quinolones. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may increase the serum concentration of Quinolones. Monitor therapy

Rivaroxaban: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Rivaroxaban. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Management: A comprehensive risk to benefit assessment should be done for all patients before any concurrent use of rivaroxaban and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). If combined, monitor patients extra closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Salicylates: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. An increased risk of bleeding may be associated with use of this combination. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may diminish the cardioprotective effect of Salicylates. Salicylates may decrease the serum concentration of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective). Exceptions: Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate. Consider therapy modification

Salicylates: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Increased risk of bleeding may result. Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective). Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Management: Consider alternatives to NSAIDs. Monitor for evidence of bleeding and diminished antidepressant effects. It is unclear whether COX-2-selective NSAIDs reduce risk. Consider therapy modification

Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective). Monitor therapy

Sincalide: Drugs that Affect Gallbladder Function may diminish the therapeutic effect of Sincalide. Management: Consider discontinuing drugs that may affect gallbladder motility prior to the use of sincalide to stimulate gallbladder contraction. Consider therapy modification

Sodium Phosphates: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy may be enhanced. Management: Consider avoiding this combination by temporarily suspending treatment with NSAIDs, or seeking alternatives to oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. If the combination cannot be avoided, maintain adequate hydration and monitor renal function closely. Consider therapy modification

Tacrolimus (Systemic): Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Talniflumate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Tenofovir Products: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Tenofovir Products. Management: Seek alternatives to these combinations whenever possible. Avoid use of tenofovir with multiple NSAIDs or any NSAID given at a high dose. Consider therapy modification

Tenoxicam: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Thrombolytic Agents: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Thrombolytic Agents. Monitor therapy

Tiludronate: Indomethacin may increase the serum concentration of Tiludronate. Consider therapy modification

Tipranavir: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Tolperisone: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tolperisone. Specifically, the risk of hypersensitivity reactions may be increased. Tolperisone may enhance the therapeutic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Monitor therapy

Triamterene: Indomethacin may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Triamterene. Management: Consider alternatives to concomitant treatment with triamterene and indomethacin. If the combination cannot be avoided, monitor for development of renal failure. Consider therapy modification

Tricyclic Antidepressants (Tertiary Amine): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective). Monitor therapy

Urokinase: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Urokinase. Avoid combination

Vancomycin: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may increase the serum concentration of Vancomycin. Monitor therapy

Verteporfin: Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Verteporfin. Monitor therapy

Vitamin E (Systemic): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If the combination must be used, monitor coagulation status closely and advise patients to promptly report any evidence of bleeding or bruising. Consider therapy modification

Zaltoprofen: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Test Interactions

False-negative dexamethasone suppression test; may lead to false-positive aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) (Funder 2016)

Adverse Reactions

>10%:

Central nervous system: Headache (12% to 16%)

Gastrointestinal: Vomiting (≤12%)

Hematologic & oncologic: Postoperative hemorrhage (≤11%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Presyncope (≤3%), syncope (≤2%)

Central nervous system: Dizziness (3% to 9%), depression (1% to 3%), drowsiness (1% to 3%), fatigue (1% to 3%), malaise (1% to 3%), vertigo (1% to 3%)

Dermatologic: Pruritus (1% to 4%), hyperhidrosis (2%), skin rash (1% to 2%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Hot flash (2%)

Gastrointestinal: Epigastric pain (3% to 9%), heartburn (3% to 9%), nausea (3% to 9%), dyspepsia (2% to 9%), constipation (≤6%), abdominal distress (1% to 3%), abdominal pain (<3%), diarrhea (<3%), decreased appetite (≥2%)

Otic: Tinnitus (>1%)

Miscellaneous: Swelling (3%; postprocedural)

Frequency not defined: Hepatic: Increased serum alanine aminotransferase, increased serum aspartate aminotransferase

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Acute myocardial infarction, acute respiratory distress, agranulocytosis, alopecia, anaphylaxis, anemia, angioedema, anorexia, anxiety, aphthous stomatitis, aplastic anemia, asthma, auditory disturbance, bloating, blurred vision, bone marrow depression, breast hypertrophy, breast tenderness, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac failure, cerebrovascular accident, chest pain, coma, confusion, corneal deposits, deafness, depersonalization, diaphoresis, diplopia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, dysarthria, dyspnea, ecchymoses, edema, epistaxis, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, exacerbation of epilepsy, exacerbation of Parkinson disease, exfoliative dermatitis, fever, flatulence, fluid retention, flushing, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gastrointestinal inflammation, gastrointestinal perforation, gastrointestinal ulcer, glycosuria, gynecomastia, hematuria, hemolytic anemia, hepatic failure, hepatic necrosis, hepatotoxicity (idiosyncratic) (Chalasani 2014), hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, hypertension, hypotension, ileitis, immune thrombocytopenia, increased blood urea nitrogen, insomnia, interstitial nephritis, intestinal obstruction, intestinal stenosis, involuntary muscle movements, jaundice, leukemia, leukopenia, maculopathy, myasthenia, necrotizing fasciitis, nephrotic syndrome, nervousness, nonthrombocytopenic purpura, palpitations, pancreatitis, paresthesia, peptic ulcer, peripheral neuropathy, petechiae, proctitis, proteinuria, psychic disturbance, psychosis, pulmonary edema, rectal hemorrhage, renal failure syndrome, renal insufficiency, retinal disturbance, seizure, shock, significant cardiovascular event, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, tachycardia, thrombophlebitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, toxic hepatitis, ulcerative colitis, urinary frequency, urticaria, vaginal hemorrhage, vasculitis, weight gain

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Serious cardiovascular thrombotic events:

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in treatment and may increase with duration of use.

Indomethacin is contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.

Serious gastrointestinal bleeding, ulceration, and perforation:

NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients and patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding are at greater risk for serious GI events.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Anaphylactoid reactions: Even in patients without prior exposure anaphylactoid reactions may occur; patients with "aspirin triad" (bronchial asthma, aspirin intolerance, rhinitis) may be at increased risk. Contraindicated in patients who experience bronchospasm, asthma, rhinitis, or urticaria with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or aspirin therapy.

• Cardiovascular events: [US Boxed Warning]: NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious (and potentially fatal) adverse cardiovascular thrombotic events, including MI and stroke. Risk may occur early during treatment and may increase with duration of use. Relative risk appears to be similar in those with and without known cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however, absolute incidence of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events (which may occur early during treatment) was higher in patients with known cardiovascular disease or risk factors and in those receiving higher doses. New-onset hypertension or exacerbation of hypertension may occur (NSAIDs may also impair response to ACE inhibitors, thiazide diuretics, or loop diuretics); may contribute to cardiovascular events; monitor blood pressure; use with caution in patients with hypertension. May cause sodium and fluid retention, use with caution in patients with edema. Avoid use in heart failure (ACCF/AHA [Yancy 2013]). Avoid use in patients with recent MI unless benefits outweigh risk of cardiovascular thrombotic events. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration of time, consistent with individual patient goals, to reduce risk of cardiovascular events; alternate therapies should be considered for patients at high risk.

• CNS effects: May cause drowsiness, dizziness, blurred vision, and other neurologic effects, which may impair physical or mental abilities; patients must be cautioned about performing tasks that require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery, driving). Headache may occur; cessation of therapy required if headache persists after dosage reduction.

• GI events: [US Boxed Warning]: NSAIDs cause increased risk of serious GI inflammation, ulceration, bleeding, and perforation (may be fatal); elderly patients and patients with history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding are at greater risk for serious GI events. These events may occur at any time during therapy and without warning. Avoid use in patients with active GI bleeding. In patients with a history of acute lower GI bleeding, avoid use of non-aspirin NSAIDs, especially if due to angioectasia or diverticulosis (Strate 2016). Use caution with a history of GI ulcers, concurrent therapy known to increase the risk of GI bleeding (eg, aspirin, anticoagulants and/or corticosteroids, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), advanced hepatic disease, coagulopathy, smoking, use of alcohol, or in the elderly or debilitated patients. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration of time, consistent with individual patient goals, to reduce risk of GI adverse events; alternate therapies should be considered for patients at high risk. When used concomitantly with aspirin, a substantial increase in the risk of GI complications (eg, ulcer) occurs; concomitant gastroprotective therapy (eg, proton pump inhibitors) is recommended (Bhatt 2008).

• Hematologic effects: Platelet adhesion and aggregation may be decreased; may prolong bleeding time; patients with coagulation disorders or who are receiving anticoagulants should be monitored closely. Anemia may occur; patients on long-term NSAID therapy should be monitored for anemia. Rarely, NSAID use has been associated with potentially severe blood dyscrasias (eg, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia).

• Hepatic effects: Transaminase elevations have been reported with use; closely monitor patients with any abnormal liver function test (LFT). Rare, sometimes fatal severe hepatic reactions (eg, fulminant hepatitis, hepatic necrosis, hepatic failure) have occurred with NSAID use; discontinue immediately if clinical signs or symptoms of liver disease develop or if systemic manifestations occur.

• Hyperkalemia: NSAID use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia, particularly in elderly patients, diabetic patients, patients with renal disease, and with concomitant use of other agents capable of inducing hyperkalemia (eg, ACE inhibitors). Monitor potassium closely.

• Ophthalmic effects: Prolonged therapy may cause corneal deposits and retinal disturbances, including those of the macula. Discontinue use with blurred or diminished vision and perform ophthalmologic exam. Periodically evaluate vision in all patients receiving long-term therapy.

• Renal effects: NSAID use may compromise existing renal function; dose-dependent decreases in prostaglandin synthesis may result from NSAID use, reducing renal blood flow which may cause renal decompensation (usually reversible). Patients with impaired renal function, dehydration, hypovolemia, heart failure, hepatic impairment, those taking diuretics, and ACE inhibitors, and elderly patients are at greater risk of renal toxicity. Rehydrate patient before starting therapy; monitor renal function closely. Long-term NSAID use may result in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury.

• Skin reactions: NSAIDs may cause potentially fatal serious skin adverse events including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN); may occur without warning; discontinue use at first sign of skin rash (or any other hypersensitivity).

Disease-related concerns:

• Aseptic meningitis: May increase the risk of aseptic meningitis, especially in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disorders.

• Asthma: Contraindicated in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma; severe and potentially fatal bronchospasm may occur. Use caution in patients with other forms of asthma.

• Bariatric surgery: Gastric ulceration: Avoid chronic use of oral nonselective NSAIDs after bariatric surgery; development of anastomotic ulcerations/perforations may occur (Bhangu 2014; Mechanick 2013). Short-term use of celecoxib or IV ketorolac are recommended as part of a multimodal pain management strategy for postoperative pain (Chou 2016; Horsley 2019; Thorell 2016).

• Coronary artery bypass graft surgery: [US Boxed Warning]: Use is contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Risk of MI and stroke may be increased with use following CABG surgery.

• Depression: Use caution with depression; use may aggravate depression or other psychiatric disorders.

• Epilepsy: Use caution with epilepsy; use may aggravate this condition.

• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment; patients with advanced hepatic disease are at an increased risk of GI bleeding with NSAIDs.

• Parkinsonism: Use caution with Parkinson disease; use may aggravate this condition.

• Renal impairment: Avoid use in patients with advanced renal disease; discontinue use with persistent or worsening abnormal renal function tests. The injection formulation is contraindicated in neonates with significant renal impairment.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Special populations:

• Elderly: Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious GI, cardiovascular, and/or renal adverse events; use with caution. Indomethacin may cause confusion or, rarely, psychosis; remain alert to the possibility of such adverse reactions in elderly patients.

• Pediatric: Oral: There have been cases of hepatotoxicity reported in pediatric patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, including fatalities. Closely monitor if needed in pediatric patients ≥2 years and periodically assess liver function.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Appropriate use: Tivorbex is not indicated for long-term use.

• Surgical/dental procedures: Withhold for at least 4 to 6 half-lives prior to surgical or dental procedures.

Monitoring Parameters

Monitor response (pain, range of motion, grip strength, mobility, ADL function), inflammation; observe for weight gain, edema; monitor renal function (urine output, serum creatinine, BUN); observe for bleeding, bruising; evaluate gastrointestinal effects (abdominal pain, bleeding, dyspepsia); mental confusion, disorientation, CBC, blood pressure, liver function tests (particularly with pediatric use); periodic ophthalmologic exams with prolonged therapy

Pregnancy Considerations

Indomethacin crosses the placenta. Birth defects have been observed following in utero NSAID exposure in some studies; however, data is conflicting (Bloor 2013). Nonteratogenic effects, including prenatal constriction of the ductus arteriosus, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, oligohydramnios, necrotizing enterocolitis, renal dysfunction or failure, and intracranial hemorrhage have been observed in the fetus/neonate following in utero NSAID exposure. In addition, nonclosure of the ductus arteriosus postnatally may occur and be resistant to medical management (Bermas 2014; Bloor 2013). Because NSAIDs may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus, product labeling for indomethacin specifically states use should be avoided starting at 30 weeks' gestation.

The clearance of indomethacin may be increased during pregnancy (Rytting 2014). NSAIDs have been used in the management of preterm labor. When choosing a specific agent, the benefits of the available tocolytic agents should be weighed against the potential risks for the individual woman (ACOG 171 2016). Use of NSAIDs can be considered for the treatment of mild rheumatoid arthritis flares in pregnant women; however, use should be minimized or avoided early and late in pregnancy (Bermas 2014; Saavedra Salinas 2015).

The chronic use of NSAIDs in women of reproductive age may be associated with infertility that is reversible upon discontinuation of the medication. Consider discontinuing use in women having difficulty conceiving or those undergoing investigation of fertility. The use of NSAIDs close to conception may be associated with an increased risk of miscarriage (Bloor 2013; Bermas 2014).

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to treat arthritis.

• It is used to prevent gouty arthritis.

• It is used to treat ankylosing spondylitis.

• It is used to ease pain.

• It may be given to you for other reasons. Talk with the doctor.

Frequently reported side effects of this drug

• Heartburn

• Nausea

• Vomiting

• Diarrhea

• Constipation

• Flatulence

• Fatigue

• Rectal irritation

Other side effects of this drug: Talk with your doctor right away if you have any of these signs of:

• Abdominal ulcers like severe abdominal or back pain; black, tarry, or bloody stools; vomiting blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds; or weight gain or abnormal swelling.

• Liver problems like dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or yellow skin.

• Bleeding like vomiting blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds; coughing up blood; blood in the urine; black, red, or tarry stools; bleeding from the gums; abnormal vaginal bleeding; bruises without a reason or that get bigger; or any severe or persistent bleeding.

• Kidney problems like unable to pass urine, blood in the urine, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain.

• High potassium like abnormal heartbeat, confusion, dizziness, passing out, weak, shortness of breath, numbness or tingling feeling.

• Severe cerebrovascular disease like change in strength on one side is greater than the other, difficulty speaking or thinking, change in balance, or vision changes.

• Shortness of breath

• Excessive weight gain

• Swelling of arms or legs

• Chest pain

• Fast heartbeat

• Severe headache

• Severe dizziness

• Passing out

• Severe loss of strength and energy

• Vision changes

• Tinnitus

• Mood changes

• Depression

• Severe abdominal pain

• Severe back pain

• Seizures

• Rectal bleeding

• Rectal pain

• Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis like red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin (with or without fever); red or irritated eyes; or sores in mouth, throat, nose, or eyes.

• Signs of a significant reaction like wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this medicine. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. You must talk with the healthcare provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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