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Ethinyl Estradiol, Drospirenone, and Levomefolate

Pronunciation

(ETH in il es tra DYE ole, droh SPYE re none, & lee voe me FOE late)

Index Terms

  • Drospirenone, Ethinyl Estradiol, and Levomefolate Calcium
  • Ethinyl Estradiol, Drospirenone, and Levomefolate Calcium
  • Levomefolate Calcium, Drospirenone, and Ethinyl Estradiol
  • Levomefolate, Drospirenone, and Ethinyl Estradiol

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, oral:

Beyaz: Ethinyl estradiol 0.02 mg, drospirenone 3 mg, and levomefolate calcium 0.451 mg [24 pink tablets] and levomefolate calcium 0.451 mg [4 light orange tablets] (28s)

Rajani: Ethinyl estradiol 0.02 mg, drospirenone 3 mg, and levomefolate calcium 0.451 mg [24 white tablets] and levomefolate calcium 0.451 mg [4 light orange tablets] (28s)

Safyral: Ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg, drospirenone 3 mg, and levomefolate calcium 0.451 mg [21 orange tablets] and levomefolate calcium 0.451 mg [7 light orange tablets] (28s)

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Beyaz
  • Rajani
  • Safyral

Pharmacologic Category

  • Contraceptive
  • Estrogen and Progestin Combination

Pharmacology

Combination oral contraceptives inhibit ovulation via a negative feedback mechanism on the hypothalamus, which alters the normal pattern of gonadotropin secretion of a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone by the anterior pituitary. The follicular phase FSH and midcycle surge of gonadotropins are inhibited. In addition, oral contraceptives produce alterations in the genital tract, including changes in the cervical mucus, rendering it unfavorable for sperm penetration even if ovulation occurs. Changes in the endometrium may also occur, producing an unfavorable environment for nidation. Oral contraceptive drugs may alter the tubal transport of the ova through the fallopian tubes. Progestational agents may also alter sperm fertility. Drospirenone is a spironolactone analogue with antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity.

Distribution

Drospirenone: ~4 L/kg; Ethinyl estradiol: ~4-5 L/kg

Metabolism

Drospirenone: To inactive metabolites, minor metabolism hepatically via CYP3A4; Ethinyl estradiol: Hepatic via CYP3A4; forms metabolites; undergoes first-pass metabolism and enterohepatic circulation

Excretion

Drospirenone, ethinyl estradiol, levomefolate calcium: Urine and feces

Time to Peak

Drospirenone, ethinyl estradiol: 1-2 hours; Levomefolate calcium: 0.5-1.5 hours

Half-Life Elimination

Terminal: Drospirenone: ~31 hours; Ethinyl estradiol: ~24 hours; levomefolate calcium: ~4-5 hours

Protein Binding

Drospirenone: Serum proteins (excluding sex hormone-binding globulin and corticosteroid-binding globulin): ~97%; Ethinyl estradiol: ~99%

Use: Labeled Indications

Prevention of pregnancy; treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD); treatment of acne; folate supplementation

Use: Unlabeled

Treatment of hypermenorrhea (menorrhagia); pain associated with endometriosis; dysmenorrhea; dysfunctional uterine bleeding; treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women with menstrual irregularities and hirsutism/acne

Contraindications

Adrenal insufficiency, breast cancer or other estrogen- or progestin-dependent neoplasms (current or a history of), hepatic tumors or disease, pregnancy, renal impairment, undiagnosed abnormal uterine bleeding. Use is also contraindicated in women at high risk of arterial or venous thrombotic diseases including: Cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus with vascular disease, DVT or PE (current or history of), hypercoagulopathies (inherited or acquired), headaches with focal neurological symptoms, hypertension (uncontrolled), migraine headaches if >35 years of age, thrombogenic valvular or rhythm diseases of the heart (eg, subacute bacterial endocarditis with valvular disease or atrial fibrillation), women >35 years of age who smoke.

Dosing: Adult

Acne, PMDD: Oral: Females: (Beyaz): Refer to dosing for contraception

Contraception: Oral: Females: (Beyaz, Safyral): Dosage is 1 tablet daily

Beyaz: One pink tablet daily for 24 consecutive days, then one light orange tablet daily on days 25-28

Safyral: One orange tablet daily for 21 consecutive days, then one light orange tablet daily on days 22-28

Dose should be taken at the same time each day, either after the evening meal or at bedtime. Dosing may be started on the first day of menstrual period (Day 1 starter) or on the first Sunday after the onset of the menstrual period (Sunday starter).

Day 1 starter: Dose starts on first day of menstrual cycle taking 1 tablet daily. If first dose is taken later than the first day of the menstrual cycle, an additional method of contraception should be used until after the first 7 days of consecutive administration.

Sunday starter: Dose begins on first Sunday after onset of menstruation; if the menstrual period starts on Sunday, take first tablet that very same day. With a Sunday start, an additional method of contraception should be used until after the first 7 days of consecutive administration.

Switching from a different contraceptive:

Oral contraceptive: Start on the same day that a new pack of the previous oral contraceptive would have been taken

Transdermal patch, vaginal ring, injection: Start on the day the next dose would have been due

IUD or implant: Start on the day of removal

Use after childbirth (in women who are not breast-feeding) or after second trimester abortion: Therapy may be started ≥4 weeks postpartum. Pregnancy should be ruled out prior to treatment if menstrual periods have not restarted and an additional method of contraception (nonhormonal) should be used until after the first 7 days of consecutive administration.

Missed doses:

If all doses have been taken on schedule and one menstrual period is missed, continue dosing cycle. If two consecutive menstrual periods are missed, rule out pregnancy and discontinue if pregnancy is confirmed.

If doses have been missed during the first 3 weeks or if active tablets (pink tablets) were started later than as directed and the menstrual period is missed, pregnancy should be ruled out prior to continuing treatment.

Missed doses (monophasic formulations) (refer to package insert for complete information):

One dose missed: Take as soon as remembered or take 2 tablets next day

Two consecutive doses missed in the first 2 weeks: Take 2 tablets as soon as remembered or 2 tablets next 2 days. An additional method of contraception should be used for 7 days after missed dose.

Two consecutive doses missed in week 3 or three consecutive doses missed at any time: An additional method of contraception must be used for 7 days after a missed dose.

Day 1 starter: Current pack should be discarded, and a new pack should be started that same day.

Sunday starter: Continue dose of 1 tablet daily until Sunday, then discard the rest of the pack, and a new pack should be started that same day.

Any number of doses missed in week 4: Throw away the pills that were missed. Continue taking one pill each day until pack is empty; no back-up method of contraception is needed

Dosing: Pediatric

Acne: Females: Children ≥14 years: Oral: Refer to adult dosing.

Contraception, PMDD: Females: Oral: Refer to adult dosing; not to be used prior to menarche.

Dosing: Renal Impairment

Contraindicated in patients with renal dysfunction.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment

Contraindicated in patients with hepatic disease. Exposure to drospirenone is ~3 times higher with moderate liver impairment; information not available for severe impairment.

Administration

May be administered with or without food, but must be taken at the same time each day, preferably after the evening meal or at bedtime. If severe vomiting or diarrhea occurs, additional contraception (nonhormonal) should be used. If vomiting occurs within 3-4 hours of dosing, consider the dose to be missed.

Hazardous agent; use appropriate precautions for handling and disposal (NIOSH 2014 [group 2]).

Dietary Considerations

Should be taken at the same time each day; may be taken with or without a meal. Consider other sources of folic acid and ensure supplementation continues once therapy is discontinued. The RDA for folate in women 14–50 years of age is 400 mcg/day of dietary folate equivalents. The USPSTF recommends that all women of reproductive potential should take a supplement containing folic acid 400-800 mcg/day in order to decrease the risk of neural tube defects.

Storage

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F).

Drug Interactions

ACE Inhibitors: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Drospirenone. Monitor therapy

Acitretin: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Given the potential for progestin-only preparations to fail to prevent pregnancy during acitretin therapy, such products should not be relied upon. Alternative, nonhormonal forms of contraception must be employed during acitretin therapy. Consider therapy modification

Agomelatine: CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Agomelatine. Monitor therapy

Ajmaline: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ajmaline. Specifically, the risk for cholestasis may be increased. Monitor therapy

Aliskiren: Drospirenone may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Aliskiren. Monitor therapy

Amodiaquine: CYP2C8 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Amodiaquine. Avoid combination

Anastrozole: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Anastrozole. Avoid combination

Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Drospirenone. Monitor therapy

Anthrax Immune Globulin (Human): Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Anthrax Immune Globulin (Human). Monitor therapy

Anticoagulants: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects. Management: Carefully weigh the prospective benefits of estrogens against the potential increased risk of procoagulant effects and thromboembolism. Use is considered contraindicated under some circumstances. Refer to related guidelines for specific recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Anticoagulants: Progestins may diminish the therapeutic effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some progestins and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects. Management: Carefully weigh the prospective benefits of progestins against the potential increased risk of procoagulant effects and thromboembolism. Use is considered contraindicated under some circumstances. Refer to related guidelines for specific recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Antidiabetic Agents: Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Antihepaciviral Combination Products: Ethinyl Estradiol may enhance the hepatotoxic effect of Antihepaciviral Combination Products. Avoid combination

Aprepitant: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Use of a non-hormone-based contraceptive is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Aprepitant: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Alternative or additional methods of contraception should be used both during treatment with aprepitant or fosaprepitant and for at least one month following the last aprepitant/fosaprepitant dose. Consider therapy modification

Armodafinil: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: The manufacturer recommends that patients use nonhormonal contraceptives, in addition to or in place of hormonal contraceptives, during and for one month following treatment with armodafinil. Consider therapy modification

Artemether: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Consider the use of an alternative (i.e., non-hormonal) means of contraception in all women of childbearing potential who are using artemether. Consider therapy modification

Artemether: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Consider the use of an alternative (i.e., non-hormonal) means of contraception in all women of childbearing potential who are using artemether. Consider therapy modification

Ascorbic Acid: May increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Asunaprevir: May decrease the serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol. Management: For patients using hormone-based contraception, a high-dose oral contraceptive containing at least 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol combined with norethindrone acetate/norethindrone is recommended during treatment with asunaprevir. Consider therapy modification

Atazanavir: May increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). However, atazanavir may lead to decreased ethinyl estradiol concentrations and decreased effectiveness of oral contraceptive products. Management: Consider an alternative or additional method of contraception, particularly with combined estrogen/progestin products. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate may be used without a need for additional contraception. Consider therapy modification

Barbiturates: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Use of a non-hormonal contraceptive is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Barbiturates: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Use of alternative, nonhormonal contraceptives is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Bexarotene (Systemic): May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Women of childbearing potential receiving bexarotene should use two reliable forms of contraception (including at least one nonhormonal form). Consider therapy modification

Bexarotene (Systemic): May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Women of childbearing potential receiving bexarotene should use two reliable forms of contraception (including at least one nonhormonal form). Consider therapy modification

Bile Acid Sequestrants: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Administer estrogen-based oral contraceptives at least 1-4 hours prior to or 4-6 hours after administration of a bile acid sequestrant. Consider therapy modification

Bile Acid Sequestrants: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Administer oral progestin-containing contraceptives at least 1-4 hours prior to or 4-6 hours after administration of a bile acid sequestrant. Consider therapy modification

Boceprevir: May increase the serum concentration of Drospirenone. Avoid combination

Bosentan: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Use an alternative (i.e., non-hormonal) means of contraception for all women of childbearing potential who are using bosentan, and do not rely on hormonal contraceptives alone. Consider therapy modification

Bosentan: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Use an alternative (i.e., non-hormonal) means of contraception for all women of childbearing potential who are using bosentan, and do not rely on hormonal contraceptives alone. Consider therapy modification

C1 inhibitors: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the thrombogenic effect of C1 inhibitors. Monitor therapy

C1 inhibitors: Progestins may enhance the thrombogenic effect of C1 inhibitors. Monitor therapy

CarBAMazepine: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. Consider therapy modification

CarBAMazepine: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Use of alternative, nonhormonal contraceptives is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Carfilzomib: May enhance the thrombogenic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Consider alternative, non-hormonal methods of contraception in patients requiring therapy with carfilzomib. Consider therapy modification

Carfilzomib: May enhance the thrombogenic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Consider alternative, non-hormonal methods of contraception in patients requiring therapy with carfilzomib. Consider therapy modification

Chenodiol: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Chenodiol. Management: Monitor clinical response to chenodiol closely when used together with any estrogen derivative. Monitor therapy

CloBAZam: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Consider therapy modification

CloBAZam: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Consider therapy modification

CloZAPine: CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Monitor therapy

Cobicistat: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Consider an alternative, non-hormone-based contraceptive in patients receiving cobicistat-containing products. Consider therapy modification

Cobicistat: May increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Consider an alternative, non-hormone-based contraceptive in patients receiving cobicistat-containing products. Consider therapy modification

Colesevelam: May decrease the serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol. Consider therapy modification

Corticosteroids (Systemic): Estrogen Derivatives may increase the serum concentration of Corticosteroids (Systemic). Monitor therapy

CYP1A2 Substrates: CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Moderate) may decrease the metabolism of CYP1A2 Substrates. Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May increase the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Drospirenone. Monitor therapy

Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Seek alternatives to the CYP3A4 substrate when possible. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor clinical effects of the substrate closely (particularly therapeutic effects). Consider therapy modification

Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Females of reproductive potential should use an alternative, highly effective, non-hormonal means of contraception during and at least 2 weeks (dabrafenib alone) or 4 months (dabrafenib + trametinib) after discontinuation of dabrafenib treatment. Consider therapy modification

Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Females of reproductive potential should use an alternative, highly effective, non-hormonal means of contraception during and at least 2 weeks (dabrafenib alone) or 4 months (dabrafenib + trametinib) after discontinuation of dabrafenib treatment. Consider therapy modification

Dantrolene: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the hepatotoxic effect of Dantrolene. Monitor therapy

Darunavir: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Consider using an alternative or additional means of contraception. Injected depot medroxyprogesterone acetate may be used without a need for additional contraception. Consider therapy modification

Dasabuvir: Ethinyl Estradiol may enhance the hepatotoxic effect of Dasabuvir. Avoid combination

Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Dehydroepiandrosterone: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Estrogen Derivatives. Avoid combination

Efavirenz: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Use an alternative or additional method of contraception due to possibly decreased contraceptive effectiveness. Injected depot medroxyprogesterone acetate does not appear to participate in this interaction. Consider therapy modification

Elvitegravir: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Consider the use of an alternative, non-hormone-based contraceptive, in patients who are being treated with elvitegaravir-containing products. Consider therapy modification

Enzalutamide: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Concurrent use of enzalutamide with CYP3A4 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Use of enzalutamide and any other CYP3A4 substrate should be performed with caution and close monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Eslicarbazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Alternative non-hormonal means of birth control should be considered for women of child-bearing potential. Consider therapy modification

Eslicarbazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Alternative, non-hormonal means of birth control should be considered for women of child-bearing potential. Consider therapy modification

Exemestane: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Exemestane. Avoid combination

Exenatide: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Administer oral contraceptives at least one hour prior to exenatide. Consider therapy modification

Exenatide: May decrease the serum concentration of Oral Contraceptive (Progestins). Management: Administer oral contraceptives at least one hour prior to exenatide. Consider therapy modification

Felbamate: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Felbamate: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Contraceptive failure is possible. Use of an alternative, nonhormonal method of contraception is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Flibanserin: Contraceptives (Estrogens) may increase the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Monitor therapy

Flibanserin: Contraceptives (Progestins) may increase the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Monitor therapy

Fosamprenavir: Contraceptives (Progestins) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fosamprenavir. Fosamprenavir may decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Consider using an alternative or additional means of contraception. Injected depot medroxyprogesterone acetate may be used without a need for additional contraception. Consider therapy modification

Fosaprepitant: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). The active metabolite aprepitant is likely responsible for this effect. Management: Alternative or additional methods of contraception should be used both during treatment with fosaprepitant or aprepitant and for at least one month following the last fosaprepitant/aprepitant dose. Consider therapy modification

Fosaprepitant: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). The active metabolite aprepitant is likely responsible for this effect. Management: Alternative or additional methods of contraception should be used both during treatment with aprepitant or fosaprepitant and for at least one month following the last aprepitant/fosaprepitant dose. Consider therapy modification

Fosphenytoin: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Use of an alternative, nonhormonal means of contraception is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Fosphenytoin: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Contraceptive failure is possible. Use of an alternative, nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Griseofulvin: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Avoid combination

Hemin: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Hemin. Avoid combination

Herbs (Estrogenic Properties): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Estrogen Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Herbs (Progestogenic Properties) (eg, Bloodroot, Yucca): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Progestins. Monitor therapy

Hyaluronidase: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Hyaluronidase. Management: Patients receiving estrogens (particularly at larger doses) may not experience the desired clinical response to standard doses of hyaluronidase. Larger doses of hyaluronidase may be required. Consider therapy modification

Immune Globulin: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Immune Globulin. Monitor therapy

Indium 111 Capromab Pendetide: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the diagnostic effect of Indium 111 Capromab Pendetide. Avoid combination

LamoTRIgine: Contraceptives (Estrogens) may decrease the serum concentration of LamoTRIgine. Management: Monitor for increased serum concentrations/effects of lamotrigine in patients in whom a hormonal contraceptive is discontinued/dose decreased (this includes during a pill-free week). A reduced dosage of lamotrigine may be needed. Consider therapy modification

Lenalidomide: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Lenalidomide. Monitor therapy

Lesinurad: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Use of an additional, nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended in patients being treated with lesinurad who desire effective contraception. Consider therapy modification

Lesinurad: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Use of an additional, nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended in patients being treated with lesinurad who desire effective contraception. Consider therapy modification

Lixisenatide: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Administer oral contraceptives 1 hour before or at least 11 hours after administration of lixisenatide. Consider therapy modification

Lixisenatide: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Administer oral contraceptives 1 hour before or at least 11 hours after administration of lixisenatide. Consider therapy modification

Lomitapide: Ethinyl Estradiol may increase the serum concentration of Lomitapide. Management: Patients on lomitapide 5 mg/day may continue that dose. Patients taking lomitapide 10 mg/day or more should decrease the lomitapide dose by half. The lomitapide dose may then be titrated up to a max adult dose of 40 mg/day. Consider therapy modification

Lopinavir: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Lopinavir may increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Consider using an alternative or additional means of contraception. Injected depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and etonogestrel implants may be used without a need for additional contraception. Consider therapy modification

Lumacaftor: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Do not rely on hormone-based contraceptives with concurrent use of lumacaftor/ivacaftor; an alternative, non-hormonal, method of contraception should be used if this combination is required. Consider therapy modification

Lumacaftor: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Do not rely on hormone-based contraceptives with concurrent use of lumacaftor/ivacaftor; an alternative, non-hormonal, method of contraception should be used if this combination is required. Consider therapy modification

Metreleptin: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Metreleptin may increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Monitor therapy

Metreleptin: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Metreleptin may increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Monitor therapy

MiFEPRIStone: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). MiFEPRIStone may increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Women of childbearing potential should use an effective, nonhormonal means of contraception during and 4 weeks following mifepristone treatment. Consider therapy modification

MiFEPRIStone: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). MiFEPRIStone may increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Women of childbearing potential should use an effective, nonhormonal means of contraception during and 4 weeks following mifepristone treatment. Consider therapy modification

Mitotane: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Doses of CYP3A4 substrates may need to be adjusted substantially when used in patients being treated with mitotane. Consider therapy modification

Modafinil: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: The manufacturer recommends that patients use nonhormonal contraceptives, in addition to or in place of hormonal contraceptives, during and for one month following treatment with modafinil. Consider therapy modification

Mycophenolate: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Average AUC values were unchanged, but there was evidence of substantial patient-to-patient variability in response to this combination. Management: Women of childbearing potential who are receiving mycophenolate mofetil should consider using an alternative and/or additional form of contraception. Consider therapy modification

Mycophenolate: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Use of an additional or alternative (nonhormonal) method of contraception should be considered. Consider therapy modification

Nafcillin: May increase the metabolism of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Use of an alternative, nonhormonal form of contraception during nafcillin therapy is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Nelfinavir: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Use an alternative or additional method of contraception due to possibly decreased contraceptive effectiveness. Injected depot medroxyprogesterone acetate does not appear to participate in this interaction. Consider therapy modification

Nevirapine: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Consider therapy modification

Nevirapine: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Instruct patients receiving nevirapine to use an alternative or additional nonhormonal contraceptive. Nevirapine product labeling however suggests that depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate may be used as a sole method of contraception. Consider therapy modification

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Drospirenone. Monitor therapy

Ospemifene: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ospemifene. Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Ospemifene. Avoid combination

OXcarbazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Use of an alternative, nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. Consider therapy modification

OXcarbazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Contraceptive failure is possible. Use of an additional or alternative, nonhormonal method of contraception is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Perampanel: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Patients should use an alternative, non-hormonal based form of contraception for the duration of concurrent perampanel. Both oral and non-oral progestin-based contraceptives are likely to be impacted by this interaction. Consider therapy modification

Phenytoin: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Use of an alternative, nonhormonal means of contraception is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Phenytoin: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Contraceptive failure is possible. Use of an alternative, nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Pirfenidone: CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Pirfenidone. Management: Use any such combination with caution and close monitoring for pirfenidone toxicity. Avoid the use of pirfenidone with moderate CYP1A2 inhibitors whenever CYP2C9, 2C19, 2C6, or 2E1 is also inhibited (either by the CYP1A2 inhibitor or by a third drug). Consider therapy modification

Pomalidomide: May enhance the thrombogenic effect of Estrogen Derivatives. Management: Canadian pomalidomide labeling recommends caution with use of hormone replacement therapy and states that hormonal contraceptives are not recommended. US pomalidomide labeling does not contain these specific recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Pomalidomide: Progestins may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Pomalidomide. Management: Canadian pomalidomide labeling recommends caution with use of hormone replacement therapy and states that hormonal contraceptives are not recommended. US pomalidomide labeling does not contain these specific recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: Drospirenone may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Primidone: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Use of alternative, nonhormonal contraceptives is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Protease Inhibitors: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Use oral contraceptives containing at least 35mcg ethinyl estradiol with atazanavir/ritonavir, or no more than 30mcg in patients receiving atazanavir alone. Use of an alternative, non-hormonal contraceptive is recommended with other protease inhibitors. Exceptions: Indinavir. Consider therapy modification

Prucalopride: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Consider therapy modification

Prucalopride: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Consider therapy modification

Raltitrexed: Levomefolate may diminish the therapeutic effect of Raltitrexed. Avoid combination

Retinoic Acid Derivatives: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Retinoic Acid Derivatives may decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Two forms of effective contraception should be used in patients receiving retinoic acid derivatives. Particularly, microdosed progesterone-only preparations may be inadequately effective. Exceptions: Adapalene; Bexarotene (Topical); Tretinoin (Topical). Consider therapy modification

Rifamycin Derivatives: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Use of an alternative, nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Rifamycin Derivatives: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Contraceptive failure is possible. Use of an alternative, nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. Consider therapy modification

ROPINIRole: Estrogen Derivatives may increase the serum concentration of ROPINIRole. Monitor therapy

Rufinamide: May decrease the serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol. Consider therapy modification

Saquinavir: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Use an alternative or additional method of contraception due to possibly decreased contraceptive effectiveness. Injected depot medroxyprogesterone acetate does not appear to participate in this interaction. Consider therapy modification

Selegiline: Contraceptives (Estrogens) may increase the serum concentration of Selegiline. Monitor therapy

Selegiline: Contraceptives (Progestins) may increase the serum concentration of Selegiline. Monitor therapy

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

St John's Wort: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Consider an alternative to St John's wort if possible. If this combination is used, an alternative, nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. Consider therapy modification

St John's Wort: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Consider using a product other than St John's wort. Contraceptive failure is possible. Use of an alternative, nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. Consider therapy modification

St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

Sugammadex: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Patients receiving any hormonal contraceptive (oral or non-oral) should use an additional, nonhormonal contraceptive method during and for 7 days following sugammadex treatment. Consider therapy modification

Sugammadex: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Patients receiving any hormonal contraceptive (oral or non-oral) should use an additional, nonhormonal contraceptive method during and for 7 days following sugammadex treatment. Consider therapy modification

Telaprevir: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Management: Two different nonhormonal forms of contraception are required for women of childbearing potential taking telaprevir. Hormonal contraceptives may be less effective during concurrent telaprevir and for up to 2 weeks after telaprevir discontinuation. Consider therapy modification

Telaprevir: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Two different nonhormonal forms of contraception are required for women of childbearing potential taking telaprevir. Hormonal contraceptives may be less effective during concurrent telaprevir and for up to 2 weeks after telaprevir discontinuation. Consider therapy modification

Thalidomide: Contraceptives (Estrogens) may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Thalidomide. Monitor therapy

Thalidomide: Contraceptives (Progestins) may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Thalidomide. Monitor therapy

Thalidomide: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Thalidomide. Monitor therapy

Theophylline Derivatives: Estrogen Derivatives may increase the serum concentration of Theophylline Derivatives. Exceptions: Dyphylline. Monitor therapy

Thyroid Products: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Thyroid Products. Monitor therapy

Tipranavir: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the dermatologic adverse effect of Tipranavir. The combination of tipranavir/ritonavir and ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone was associated with a high incidence of skin rash. Tipranavir may decrease the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Management: Women using hormonal contraceptives should consider alternative, non-hormonal forms of contraception. Consider therapy modification

Tipranavir: May increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Use an alternative or additional method of contraception due to possibly decreased contraceptive effectiveness. Injected depot medroxyprogesterone acetate does not appear to participate in this interaction. Consider therapy modification

TiZANidine: CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of TiZANidine. Management: If combined use cannot be avoided, initiate tizanidine in adults at 2 mg and increase in 2-4 mg increments based on patient response. Monitor for increased effects of tizanidine, including adverse reactions. Avoid combination

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Topiramate: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Risk appears greatest for higher topiramate doses (200 mg/day or greater). Some have recommended using at least 50 mcg/day of ethinyl estradiol, but the effectiveness of this is unclear. Consider a nonhormonal form of contraception. Consider therapy modification

Topiramate: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Caution patients that this combination may be associated with reduced contraceptive effectiveness. Consider adding an additional (non-hormonal) contraceptive method. Consider therapy modification

Tranexamic Acid: Contraceptives (Progestins) may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Tranexamic Acid. Avoid combination

Tranexamic Acid: Contraceptives (Estrogens) may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Tranexamic Acid. Avoid combination

Ulipristal: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Progestins. Progestins may diminish the therapeutic effect of Ulipristal. Management: Ulipristal for uterine fibroids (Canadian indication): avoid progestins within 12 days of stopping ulipristal; as emergency contraceptive (U.S. indication): avoid progestins within 5 days of stopping ulipristal. Avoid combination

Ursodiol: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Ursodiol. Monitor therapy

Valproate Products: Contraceptives (Estrogens) may decrease the serum concentration of Valproate Products. Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Contraceptives (Estrogens) may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. In contrast, enhanced anticoagulant effects have also been noted with some products. Consider therapy modification

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Contraceptives (Progestins) may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. In contrast, enhanced anticoagulant effects have also been noted with some products. Management: When possible, concomitant hormonal contraceptives and coumarin derivatives should be avoided in order to eliminate the risk of thromboembolic disorders. Consider using an alternative, nonhormonal contraceptive. Consider therapy modification

Voriconazole: May decrease the metabolism of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptives (Estrogens) may increase the serum concentration of Voriconazole. Monitor therapy

Voriconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptives (Progestins) may increase the serum concentration of Voriconazole. Monitor therapy

Adverse Reactions

Frequency not always defined. Percentages reported with Beyaz. For additional adverse events and postmarketing reports, refer to the Ethinyl Estradiol and Drospirenone (Yasmin, Yaz) monograph.

Central nervous system: Headache (≤6% to 13%), migraine (≤6% to 13%), fatigue (4%), irritability (3%), emotional lability (2%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Menstrual disease (4% to 25%, including menorrhagia, spotting, uterine hemorrhage, vaginal hemorrhage), decreased libido (3%), weight gain (3%)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea (≤4% to 16%), vomiting (≤4% to 16%)

Genitourinary: Breast tenderness (≤3% to 11%), mastalgia (≤3% to 11%), cervical carcinoma (stage 0), cervical dysplasia

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Cigarette smoke and serious cardiovascular events:

Cigarette smoking increases the risk of serious cardiovascular events from combination oral contraceptives use. This risk increases with age, particularly in women over 35 years of age, and with the number of cigarettes smoked. For this reason, combination oral contraceptives should not be used by women who are over 35 years of age and smoke.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Angioedema: Estrogens may induce or exacerbate symptoms in women with hereditary angioedema.

• Breast cancer: The use of combination hormonal contraceptives has been associated with a slight increase in frequency of breast cancer; however, studies are not consistent. Use is contraindicated in women with (or history of) breast cancer.

• Carbohydrate intolerance: May have adverse effects on glucose tolerance; use caution in women with diabetes.

• Chloasma: Use caution with a history of chloasma gravidarum; women with a tendency to chloasma should avoid sun and ultraviolet radiation exposure during therapy.

• Cholestasis: Cholestasis may occur in women with a history of pregnancy-related or previous oral contraceptive-related cholestasis.

• Hyperkalemia: Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid activity that may lead to hyperkalemia in patients with renal insufficiency, hepatic dysfunction, or adrenal insufficiency; use caution with medications that may increase serum potassium.

• Lipid effects: Combination hormonal contraceptives may affect serum triglyceride and lipoprotein levels. Estrogen compounds are generally associated with lipid effects such as increased HDL-cholesterol and decreased LDL-cholesterol. Progestins may be associated with decreased HDL-cholesterol. Triglycerides may also be increased; use with caution in patients with familial defects of lipoprotein metabolism.

• Retinal vascular thrombosis: Estrogens may cause retinal vascular thrombosis; discontinue if migraine, loss of vision, proptosis, diplopia or other visual disturbances occur; discontinue permanently if papilledema or retinal vascular lesions are observed on examination.

• Thromboembolism: Contraceptives may increase the risk of thromboembolism. Discontinue if an arterial or deep venous thrombotic event occurs. Risk may be greater with contraceptives containing drospirenone. Women with inherited thrombophilias (eg, protein C or S deficiency) may have increased risk of venous thromboembolism (DeSancho, 2010; van Vlijmen, 2011). Use is contraindicated in women with hypercoagulopathies (inherited or acquired).

• Vaginal bleeding: Unscheduled bleeding /spotting may occur within the first 3 months of use. Presentation of irregular, unresolving vaginal bleeding following previously regular cycles warrants further evaluation including endometrial sampling, if indicated, to rule out malignancy.

Disease-related concerns:

• Cardiovascular disease: Use with caution in patients with risk factors for coronary artery disease (eg, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, morbid obesity, diabetes, or women who smoke); may lead to increased risk of myocardial infarction or stroke. May have a dose-related risk of vascular disease and hypertension; women with hypertension should be encouraged to use another form of contraception. Monitor women with well-controlled hypertension and discontinue if blood pressure rises significantly. Use is contraindicated with uncontrolled hypertension or hypertension with vascular disease.

• Depression: Use with caution in patients with depression.

• Diseases exacerbated by fluid retention: Use with caution in patients with diseases which may be exacerbated by fluid retention, including asthma, epilepsy, migraine, diabetes, or renal dysfunction.

• Gallbladder disease: May have a dose-related risk of gallbladder disease.

• Hepatic adenomas: Extremely rare adenomas and focal nodular hyperplasia resulting in fatal intra-abdominal hemorrhage have been reported in association with long-term oral contraceptive use. Presentation of an abdominal mass, acute abdominal pain, or intra-abdominal bleeding warrants further evaluation to rule out source.

• Hepatic dysfunction: Steroid hormones are poorly metabolized in patients with hepatic dysfunction. Discontinue if jaundice develops or if acute or chronic hepatic disturbances occur. Use is contraindicated with hepatic disease.

• Migraine: Use with caution in patients with a history of migraine. Evaluate new, recurrent, severe, or persistent headaches. Use is contraindicated in women with headaches with focal neurological symptoms or migraine headaches if >35 years of age.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Thyroid replacement therapy: Estrogens may increase thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) levels leading to increased circulating total thyroid hormone levels. Women on thyroid replacement therapy may require higher doses of thyroid hormone while receiving estrogens.

Special populations:

• Pediatric: Not for use prior to menarche.

• Smokers: [US Boxed Warning]: The risk of cardiovascular side effects is increased in women who smoke cigarettes; risk increases with age (especially women >35 years of age) and the number of cigarettes smoked; women who use combination hormonal contraceptives should be strongly advised not to smoke. Use is contraindicated in patients >35 years of age who smoke.

• Surgical patients: Whenever possible, should be discontinued at least 4 weeks prior to and for 2 weeks following elective surgery associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism or during periods of prolonged immobilization.

Special handling:

• Hazardous agent: Use appropriate precautions for handling and disposal (NIOSH 2014 [group 2]).

Other warnings/precautions:

• Acne use: For use only in females ≥14 years of age who have reached menarche, who also desire combination hormonal contraceptive therapy.

• HIV infection protection: Inform patients that oral contraceptives do not protect against HIV infection or other sexually-transmitted diseases.

• Laboratory changes: The use of estrogens and/or progestins may change the results of some laboratory tests (eg, coagulation factors, lipids, glucose tolerance, binding proteins). Drospirenone also can caused an increase in plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone. Folates may mask vitamin B12 deficiency. The dose, route, and the specific estrogen/progestin influences these changes. In addition, personal risk factors (eg, cardiovascular disease, smoking, diabetes, age) also contribute to adverse events; use of specific products may be contraindicated in women with certain risk factors.

• Minimum effective dosage: The minimum dosage combination of estrogen/progestin that will effectively treat the individual patient should be used.

• PMDD use: For use only in females who desire combination hormonal contraceptive therapy; use for more than 3 menstrual cycles has not been evaluated. Has not been evaluated for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome.

Monitoring Parameters

Before starting therapy, a physical exam with reference to the breasts and pelvis are recommended, including a Papanicolaou smear. Exam may be deferred if appropriate; pregnancy should be ruled out prior to use. Monitor patient closely for loss of vision, sudden onset of proptosis, diplopia, migraine; blood pressure; signs and symptoms of thromboembolic disorders; signs or symptoms of depression; glycemic control in patients with diabetes; lipid profiles in patients being treated for hyperlipidemias; serum potassium in high-risk patients and those on medications with potassium-retaining properties. Adequate diagnostic measures, including endometrial sampling, if indicated, should be performed to rule out malignancy in all cases of undiagnosed abnormal vaginal bleeding.

Pregnancy Considerations

In general, the use of oral contraceptives when inadvertently taken early in pregnancy have not been associated with teratogenic effects. The addition of levomefolate in this product is intended to decrease the risk of neural tube defects if pregnancy inadvertently occurs during therapy or shortly after discontinuation. Hormonal contraceptives may be less effective in obese patients. An increase in oral contraceptive failure was noted in women with a BMI >27.3 kg/m2. Similar findings were noted in patients weighing ≥90 kg (198 lb) using the contraceptive patch.

Due to increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) postpartum, combination hormonal contraceptives should not be started in any woman <21 days following delivery. Women without risk factors for VTE and who are not breast-feeding may start combination hormonal contraceptives during 21-42 days postpartum. After 42 days postpartum, restrictions for use are not related to postpartum status and should be based on other medical conditions (CDC, 2011). The manufacturer states that combination hormonal contraceptives should not be started until ≥4 weeks after delivery in women who choose not to breastfeed, or ≥4 weeks after a second trimester abortion or miscarriage.

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience lack of appetite, increased hunger, weight gain, cramps, bloating, enlarged breasts, decreased libido, menstrual changes, or dark patches on face. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of severe cerebrovascular disease (change in strength on one side is greater than the other, difficulty speaking or thinking, change in balance, or vision changes), signs of DVT (edema, warmth, numbness, change in color, or pain in the extremities), signs of liver problems (dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or jaundice), abnormal heartbeat, angina, shortness of breath, coughing up blood, severe dizziness, passing out, severe nausea, vomiting, severe headache, depression, loss of strength and energy, urinary retention, change in amount of urine passed, lump in breast, breast soreness or pain, nipple discharge, vaginal bleeding, vaginitis, vision changes, bulging eyes, or contact lens discomfort (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.

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