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Dapagliflozin, Saxagliptin, and Metformin

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on May 11, 2019.

Pronunciation

(dap a gli FLOE zin, sax a GLIP tin, & met FOR min)

Index Terms

  • Dapagliflozin, Saxagliptin, and Metformin Hydrochloride
  • Metformin Hydrochloride, Saxagliptin, and Dapagliflozin
  • Qternmet XR
  • Saxagliptin, Dapagliflozin, and Metformin Hydrochloride
  • Saxagliptin, Metformin, and Dapagliflozin

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antidiabetic Agent, Biguanide
  • Antidiabetic Agent, Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP-4) Inhibitor
  • Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor

Pharmacology

See individual agents.

Use: Labeled Indications

Diabetes mellitus, type 2: As an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Contraindications

Serious hypersensitivity (eg, anaphylaxis, angioedema, exfoliative skin conditions) to dapagliflozin, saxagliptin, metformin, or any component of the formulation; moderate to severe renal impairment (eGFR <45 mL/minute/1.73 m2), end-stage renal disease, or patients on dialysis; acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, with or without coma

Dosing: Adult

Note: If present, correct volume depletion prior to initiation. Initiation of this combination product is intended for patients who are already on metformin.

Diabetes mellitus, type 2: Oral:

Initial: Individualize based on patient's current antidiabetic regimen. Patients not previously receiving dapagliflozin should initiate therapy with dapagliflozin 5 mg/saxagliptin 5 mg/metformin 1 g once daily or dapagliflozin 5 mg/saxagliptin 5 mg/metformin 2 g once daily.

Dosage adjustment: May gradually titrate dose based on effectiveness and tolerability; maximum: Dapagliflozin 10 mg/saxagliptin 5 mg/metformin 2 g once daily.

Missed dose: If a daily dose is missed and it is ≥12 hours until the next dose, the missed dose should be taken as soon as possible. Otherwise, skip the dose and resume therapy with the next dose taken at the usual time.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing. The initial and maintenance dosing should be conservative, due to the potential for decreased renal function (monitor).

Administration

Oral: Administer in the morning with food. Swallow whole. Do not crush, cut, or chew.

Storage

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F)

Drug Interactions

Abemaciclib: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy

Alcohol (Ethyl): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MetFORMIN. Specifically, alcohol may potentiate the risk of lactic acidosis Avoid combination

Alpha-Lipoic Acid: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Androgens: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Exceptions: Danazol. Monitor therapy

Aprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Bictegravir: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MetFORMIN. Specifically, the risk of developing lactic acidosis may be increased. Exceptions: Brinzolamide; Dorzolamide. Monitor therapy

Cephalexin: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy

Cimetidine: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Management: Consider alternatives to cimetidine in patients receiving metformin due to a potential for increased metformin concentrations and toxicity (including lactic acidosis). Consider therapy modification

Clofazimine: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Conivaptan: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May decrease the serum concentration of SAXagliptin. Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May increase the serum concentration of SAXagliptin. Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of SAXagliptin. Management: Saxagliptin U.S. product labeling recommends limiting saxagliptin adult dose to 2.5 mg/day when used with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for increased saxagliptin levels/effects. A similar recommendation is not made in the Canadian product labeling. Consider therapy modification

Dalfampridine: MetFORMIN may increase the serum concentration of Dalfampridine. Dalfampridine may increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy

Direct Acting Antiviral Agents (HCV): May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Dofetilide: MetFORMIN may increase the serum concentration of Dofetilide. Monitor therapy

Dolutegravir: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Management: Consider the risks and benefits of this combination. If combined, limit the daily metformin dose to 1,000 mg when used with dolutegravir. Monitor for increased metformin effects/toxicities (including lactic acidosis) during concomitant use. Consider therapy modification

Duvelisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Erdafitinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Erdafitinib: May increase the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Erdafitinib: May increase the serum concentration of OCT2 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Fosaprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Fosnetupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Fusidic Acid (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Glycopyrrolate (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy

Guanethidine: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Hypoglycemia-Associated Agents: Antidiabetic Agents may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemia-Associated Agents. Monitor therapy

Idelalisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Insulins: Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulins. Management: Consider a decrease in insulin dose when initiating therapy with a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor and monitor patients for hypoglycemia. Consider therapy modification

Insulins: Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulins. Management: Consider a decrease in insulin dose when initiating therapy with a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor and monitor patients for hypoglycemia. Consider therapy modification

Iodinated Contrast Agents: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MetFORMIN. Renal dysfunction that may be caused by iodinated contrast agents may lead to metformin-associated lactic acidosis. Management: Management advice varies. Refer to the full drug interaction monograph content for details. Exceptions: Diatrizoate Meglumine; Diatrizoate Sodium; Ethiodized Oil. Consider therapy modification

Isavuconazonium Sulfate: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy

LamoTRIgine: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Management: The lamotrigine Canadian product monograph states that coadministration of these drugs is not recommended. Monitor therapy

Larotrectinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Lumacaftor: May decrease the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. Lumacaftor may increase the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Maitake: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

MiFEPRIStone: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Minimize doses of CYP3A4 substrates, and monitor for increased concentrations/toxicity, during and 2 weeks following treatment with mifepristone. Avoid cyclosporine, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, fentanyl, pimozide, quinidine, sirolimus, and tacrolimus. Consider therapy modification

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Netupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Ondansetron: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy

Palbociclib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Patiromer: May decrease the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Management: Administer metformin at least 3 hours before or 3 hours after patiromer. Consider therapy modification

Pegvisomant: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers: May decrease the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. P-glycoprotein inducers may also further limit the distribution of p-glycoprotein substrates to specific cells/tissues/organs where p-glycoprotein is present in large amounts (e.g., brain, T-lymphocytes, testes, etc.). Monitor therapy

P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors: May increase the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. P-glycoprotein inhibitors may also enhance the distribution of p-glycoprotein substrates to specific cells/tissues/organs where p-glycoprotein is present in large amounts (e.g., brain, T-lymphocytes, testes, etc.). Monitor therapy

Prothionamide: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Quinolones: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Quinolones may diminish the therapeutic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Specifically, if an agent is being used to treat diabetes, loss of blood sugar control may occur with quinolone use. Monitor therapy

Ranolazine: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Management: Limit the metformin dose to a maximum of 1,700 mg per day when used together with ranolazine 1,000 mg twice daily. Monitor patients for metformin toxicities, including lactic acidosis and carefully weigh the risks and benefits of this combination. Consider therapy modification

Ritodrine: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Salicylates: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Stiripentol: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Use of stiripentol with CYP3A4 substrates that are considered to have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided due to the increased risk for adverse effects and toxicity. Any CYP3A4 substrate used with stiripentol requires closer monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Sulfonylureas: Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Sulfonylureas. Management: Consider a decrease in sulfonylurea dose when initiating therapy with a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor and monitor patients for hypoglycemia. Consider therapy modification

Sulfonylureas: Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Sulfonylureas. Management: Consider a decrease in sulfonylurea dose when initiating therapy with a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor and monitor patients for hypoglycemia. Consider therapy modification

Tafenoquine: May increase the serum concentration of MATE1 Substrates. Management: Avoid use of MATE substrates with tafenoquine, and if the combination cannot be avoided, monitor closely for evidence of toxicity of the MATE substrate and consider a reduced dose of the MATE substrate according to that substrate's labeling. Consider therapy modification

Tafenoquine: May increase the serum concentration of OCT2 Substrates. Management: Avoid use of OCT2 substrates with tafenoquine, and if the combination cannot be avoided, monitor closely for evidence of toxicity of the OCT2 substrate and consider a reduced dose of the OCT2 substrate according to that substrate's labeling. Consider therapy modification

Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Topiramate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy

Trimethoprim: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy

Trospium: MetFORMIN may decrease the serum concentration of Trospium. Monitor therapy

Vandetanib: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy

Verapamil: May diminish the therapeutic effect of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy

Test Interactions

Dapagliflozin will cause positive test for glucosuria. Dapagliflozin may interfere with 1,5-anhydroglucitol assay; use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control.

Adverse Reactions

See individual agents.

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Lactic acidosis

Postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. The onset of metformin-associated lactic acidosis is often subtle, accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, and abdominal pain. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate levels (>5 mmol/L), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio; and metformin plasma levels generally >5 mcg/mL. Risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (eg, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as topiramate), age ≥65 years, having a radiological study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (eg, acute congestive heart failure), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment. Steps to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis in these high risk groups are provided in the full prescribing information. If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, immediately discontinue and institute general supportive measures in a hospital setting. Prompt hemodialysis is recommended.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Arthralgia: Severe and disabling arthralgia has been reported with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor use; onset may occur within 1 day to years after treatment initiation and may resolve with discontinuation of therapy. Some patients may experience a recurrence of symptoms if DPP-4 inhibitor therapy is resumed.

• Bone fractures: An increased incidence of bone fractures has been observed with dapagliflozin in patients with moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30 to 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2).

• Bullous pemphigoid: DPP-4 inhibitor use has been associated with development of bullous pemphigoid; cases have typically resolved with topical or systemic immunosuppressive therapy and discontinuation of DPP-4 inhibitor therapy. Advise patients to report development of blisters or erosions. Discontinue therapy if bullous pemphigoid is suspected, and consider referral to a dermatologist.

• Genital mycotic infections: Dapagliflozin may increase the risk of genital mycotic infections (eg, vulvovaginal mycotic infection, vulvovaginal candidiasis, vulvovaginitis, candida balanitis, balanoposthitis). Patients with a history of these infections are at greater risk.

• Hematologic: Dose-related decrease in lymphocyte count has been observed with saxagliptin; clinical significance is not known. Monitoring of lymphocyte counts may be warranted in patients with unusual or persistent infection.

• Hypersensitivity reactions: Discontinue if signs/symptoms of severe hypersensitivity reaction occur. Patients may experience hypersensitivity reactions (eg, angioedema, urticaria), with some being severe, due to dapagliflozin. Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative dermatologic reactions, have been reported with saxagliptin use. Events have generally been noted within the first 3 months of therapy and may occur with the initial dose. Use with caution if patient has experienced angioedema with other DPP-4 inhibitor use.

• Hypotension: Dapagliflozin may cause symptomatic hypotension due to intravascular volume depletion especially in patients with renal impairment (eGFR <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), elderly, patients on other antihypertensives (eg, diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers), or those with low systolic blood pressure. Assess volume status prior to initiation in patients at risk of hypotension and correct if depleted; monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension after initiation.

• Ketoacidosis: Cases of ketoacidosis (some fatal) have been reported in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors; in some cases, patients have presented with normal or only modestly elevated blood glucose (<250 mg/dL) (Bobart 2016; FDA 2015; Handelsman 2016). Before initiating treatment, consider risk factors that may predispose to ketoacidosis (eg, pancreatic insulin deficiency, dose decreases or discontinuation of insulin, caloric restriction, alcohol abuse, extensive exercise, myocardial infarction, stroke, severe infection, surgery, any other extreme stress event) (Handelsman 2016). The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology recommend considering withholding SGLT2 inhibitors for ≥24 hours prior to events that may precipitate diabetic ketoacidosis (Handelsman 2016), while others have suggested withholding for 3 to 5 days (Bobart 2016). Patients presenting with nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, generalized malaise, and/or shortness of breath should be assessed immediately for ketoacidosis; discontinue therapy and treat promptly if ketoacidosis is suspected.

• Lactic acidosis: [US Boxed Warning]: Postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. The onset is often subtle, accompanied by nonspecific symptoms (eg, malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, abdominal pain); elevated blood lactate levels (>5 mmol/L); anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia); increased lactate:pyruvate ratio; metformin plasma levels generally >5 mcg/mL. Risk factors for lactic acidosis include patients with renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (eg, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as topiramate), ≥65 years of age, having a radiologic study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (eg, acute heart failure [HF]), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment. Discontinue immediately if lactic acidosis is suspected; prompt hemodialysis is recommended. Lactic acidosis should be suspected in any patient with diabetes receiving metformin with evidence of acidosis but without evidence of ketoacidosis. Discontinue metformin in patients with conditions associated with dehydration, sepsis, or hypoxemia. The risk of accumulation and lactic acidosis increases with the degree of impairment of renal function.

• Lipid abnormality: Dapagliflozin may increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; monitor and treat as needed.

• Necrotizing fasciitis: Cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum (Fournier gangrene), a rare but serious and potentially fatal infection, have been reported in patients receiving dapagliflozin. Assess patients presenting with fever or malaise along with genital or perianal pain, tenderness, erythema, or swelling for necrotizing fasciitis. Discontinue in patients who develop necrotizing fasciitis and initiate treatment immediately.

• Pancreatitis: Cases of acute pancreatitis have been reported with saxagliptin use. Monitor for signs/symptoms of pancreatitis; discontinue use immediately if pancreatitis is suspected and initiate appropriate management. Use with caution in patients with a history of pancreatitis as it is not known if this population is at greater risk.

• Renal effects: Acute kidney injury has been reported with dapagliflozin. Prior to initiation, consider risk factors for acute kidney injury (eg, hypovolemia, chronic renal insufficiency, heart failure, use of concomitant medications [eg, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs]). Temporarily discontinue use with reduced oral intake or fluid losses; discontinue use if acute kidney injury occurs. Additional abnormalities in renal function (decreased eGFR, increased serum creatinine) and adverse effects related to renal function may occur. Assess renal function prior to initiation and periodically during treatment.

• Urinary tract infection: Serious urinary infections, including urosepsis and pyelonephritis requiring hospitalization, have been reported with dapagliflozin; treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors, including dapagliflozin, increases the risk for urinary tract infection (UTI); monitor for signs and symptoms of UTI and treat as needed.

• Vitamin B12 concentrations: Long-term metformin use is associated with vitamin B12 deficiency; monitor vitamin B12 serum concentrations periodically with long-term therapy. Monitoring of B12 serum concentrations should be considered in all patients receiving metformin and in particular those with peripheral neuropathy or anemia (ADA 2019).

Disease-related concerns:

• Bariatric surgery: ­

– Altered absorption: Use alternative agents after surgery. Absorption may be altered given the anatomic and transit changes created by gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy surgery. ER tablets may have a reduced effect after gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy due to the direct bypass of the stomach and proximal small bowel with gastric bypass or a more rapid gastric emptying and proximal small bowel transit with sleeve gastrectomy (Mechanick 2013; Melissas 2013). After gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [RYGB]), administration of IR tablets led to increased absorption (AUC0-∞ increased by 21%) and bioavailability (increased by 50%) (Padwal 2011). Lactate levels decrease after gastric bypass (RYGB)-induced weight loss irrespective of the use of metformin. Routinely lowering metformin dose after gastric bypass is not necessary as long as normal renal function is preserved (Deden 2018).­

– Dehydration: Evaluate, correct, and maintain postsurgical fluid requirements and volume status prior to initiating therapy and closely monitor the patient for the duration of therapy; volume depletion and related adverse events (eg, hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, syncope) have occurred. Fluid intake may be more difficult after gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, and gastric band (Mechanick 2013). ­

– Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis: Discontinue therapy 3 to 5 days prior to surgery (Bobart 2016). Postoperatively, assess volume status, caloric intake, and need for diabetes treatment and withhold antidiabetic medication if type 2 diabetes is in remission. Ketoacidosis has been reported in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes on SGLT-2 inhibitors. In some cases, normal or only modestly elevated blood glucose was present (<250 mg/dL) (van Niekerk 2018). Risk factors include significant reduction in insulin, caloric restriction, stress of surgery, and infection.­

– Glucagon-like peptide-1 exposure and therapeutic efficacy: Closely monitor for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis; gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy may increase endogenous secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (Korner 2009; Peterli 2012). A single-dose, placebo-controlled study evaluated short-term therapy (4 weeks) with sitagliptin in gastric bypass patients having persistent or recurrent type 2 diabetes and found it to be well tolerated and provided a small, but significant, reduction in postprandial blood glucose (Shah 2018).

• Bladder cancer: Newly-diagnosed bladder cancer occurred more frequently in dapagliflozin patients in clinical trials; however, a causal relationship could not be established. Do not use in patients with active bladder cancer; weigh the benefits of glycemic control versus the unknown risks for cancer recurrence in patients with a history of bladder cancer.

• Heart failure: Metformin may be used in patients with stable HF; avoid use in unstable or hospitalized patients with HF (ADA 2019). The risk of lactic acidosis may be increased secondary to hypoperfusion. Use of metformin in patients with HF may be associated with reduced mortality and reduction in hospital readmission for HF (Crowley 2017; Eurich 2013). HF that may require hospitalization has been reported with saxagliptin in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes with a history of, or at risk for, cardiovascular events; risk was increased in patients with preexisting HF or renal impairment and during the first 12 months of therapy (Scirica 2013; Scirica 2014). A population-based retrospective study in an ambulatory setting with relatively lower baseline cardiovascular risk factors failed to demonstrate increased risk in patients on saxagliptin compared to other agents (eg, sitagliptin, pioglitazone, sulfonylureas, insulin) (Toh 2016). Monitor for signs and symptoms of HF during therapy and consider discontinuation if condition develops. In a scientific statement from the American Heart Association, saxagliptin and metformin have been determined to be agents that may exacerbate underlying myocardial dysfunction (magnitude: major) (AHA [Page 2016]). The ADA recommends avoiding use of saxagliptin in patients with HF (ADA 2019).

• Hepatic impairment: The manufacturer recommends to generally avoid metformin use in patients with hepatic impairment due to potential for lactic acidosis. However, continued use of metformin in patients with diabetes with liver dysfunction, including cirrhosis, may be associated with a survival benefit in carefully selected patients (Brackett 2010; Crowley 2017; Zhang 2014).

• Renal impairment: Metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney; assess renal function prior to initiation of therapy and periodically thereafter using eGFR; the risk of metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis increase with degree of renal impairment. The manufacturer contraindicates use of this combination product when eGFR <45 mL/minute/1.73 m2. Use of concomitant medications that may affect renal function (ie, affect tubular secretion) may also affect metformin disposition. Metformin should be withheld in patients with dehydration and/or prerenal azotemia.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Special populations:

• Elderly: Use with caution; risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with age.

• Hospitalized patients: Use of SGLT2-inhibitors are not routinely recommended for hospitalized patients (ADA 2019).

Dosage form specific issues:

• ER tablet: Inactive ingredients may appear in the stool as a soft mass resembling the tablet.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Appropriate use: Not for use in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis or patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

• Ethanol use: Instruct patients to avoid excessive acute or chronic ethanol use; ethanol may potentiate metformin's effect on lactate metabolism.

• Iodinated contrast: According to the manufacturer, it is recommended to temporarily discontinue metformin at the time of or before iodinated contrast imaging procedures in patients with a history of hepatic disease, alcoholism, HF, or in patients who will receive intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Reevaluate eGFR 48 hours after imaging procedure; restart if renal function is stable. Alternatively, the American College of Radiology (ACR) guidelines recommend that metformin may be used prior to or following administration of iodinated contrast media in patients with no evidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and with an eGFR ≥30 mL/minute/1.73 m2; ACR guidelines recommend temporary discontinuation of metformin in patients with known AKI or severe chronic kidney disease (stage IV or V [ie, eGFR <30 mL/minute/1.73 m2]) or who are undergoing arterial catheter studies (ACR 2017).

• Patient education: Diabetes self-management education is essential to maximize the effectiveness of therapy.

• Surgical procedures: Temporarily discontinue this combination product while patients have restricted food and fluid intake.

Monitoring Parameters

HbA1c (at least twice yearly in patients who have stable glycemic control and are meeting treatment goals; quarterly in patients not meeting treatment goals or with therapy change) (ADA 2019); plasma glucose; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; renal function (baseline then annually or when clinically indicated); volume status (eg blood pressure, hematocrit, electrolytes); hematologic parameters (annually); genital mycotic infections and urinary tract infection; hypersensitivity reactions; vitamin B12 every 2 to 3 years; folate (if megaloblastic anemia is suspected); if signs/symptoms of ketoacidosis (eg, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, malaise, shortness of breath) confirm diagnosis by direct measurement of blood ketones and arterial pH (measurement of serum bicarbonate or urinary ketones may not be adequate) (Handelsman 2016); signs/symptoms of pancreatitis and/or heart failure

Pregnancy Considerations

The manufacturer does not recommend use of this combination during the second or third trimesters of pregnancy.

Refer to individual monographs for additional information.

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience common cold symptoms, headache, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of lactic acidosis (fast breathing, tachycardia, abnormal heartbeat, vomiting, fatigue, shortness of breath, severe loss of strength and energy, severe dizziness, feeling cold, or muscle pain or cramps); signs of heart problems (cough or shortness of breath that is new or worse, swelling of the ankles or legs, abnormal heartbeat, weight gain of more than five pounds in 24 hours, dizziness, or passing out); signs of dehydration (dry skin, dry mouth, dry eyes, increased thirst, tachycardia, dizziness, fast breathing, or confusion); signs of kidney problems (urinary retention, hematuria, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain); signs of pancreatitis (severe abdominal pain, severe back pain, severe nausea, or vomiting); signs of a urinary tract infection (hematuria, burning or painful urination, polyuria, fever, lower abdominal pain, or pelvic pain); signs of low blood sugar (dizziness, headache, fatigue, feeling weak, shaking, tachycardia, confusion, increased hunger, or sweating); pain, edema, or signs of infection in the genitals or rectum; strong urine odor; vaginal yeast infection; penile yeast infection; skin blisters; skin breakdown; or severe or persistent joint pain (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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