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Aspirin and Omeprazole

Pronunciation

(AS pir in & oh MEP ra zole)

Index Terms

  • Omeprazole and Aspirin

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet Delayed Release, Oral:

Yosprala: Aspirin 81 mg and omeprazole 40 mg, Aspirin 325 mg and omeprazole 40 mg [contains corn starch, fd&c blue #2 (indigotine)]

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Yosprala

Pharmacologic Category

  • Analgesic, Nonopioid
  • Antiplatelet Agent
  • Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID), Oral
  • Proton Pump Inhibitor
  • Salicylate
  • Substituted Benzimidazole

Pharmacology

Aspirin: Irreversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 (COX-1 and 2) enzymes, via acetylation, which results in decreased formation of prostaglandin precursors; irreversibly inhibits formation of prostaglandin derivative, thromboxane A2, via acetylation of platelet cyclooxygenase, thus inhibiting platelet aggregation; has antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties.

Omeprazole: Suppresses gastric basal and stimulated acid secretion by inhibiting the parietal cell H+/K+ ATP pump

Use: Labeled Indications

Secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events: Reduction of the risk of aspirin-associated gastric ulcers in patients at risk of developing gastric ulcers due to age (≥55 years) or documented history of gastric ulcers who require aspirin for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.

Limitations of use: Not for use as the initial dose of aspirin therapy during onset of acute coronary syndrome, acute myocardial infarction or before percutaneous coronary intervention; has not been shown to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding due to aspirin.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to aspirin, other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), omeprazole, other substituted benzimidazole proton pump inhibitors, or to any component of the formulation; history of asthma, urticaria, rhinitis, and nasal polyps or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs; pediatric patients with suspected viral infections, with or without fever; concurrent use with rilpivirine-containing products.

Documentation of allergenic cross-reactivity for salicylates is limited. However, because of similarities in chemical structure and/or pharmacologic actions, the possibility of cross-sensitivity cannot be ruled out with certainty.

Dosing: Adult

Secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events: Oral: One tablet (aspirin 81 mg/omeprazole 40 mg or aspirin 325 mg/omeprazole 40 mg) once daily. Note: Generally 81 mg of aspirin has been accepted as an effective dose for secondary cardiovascular prevention; refer to current clinical practice guidelines when considering the need for 325 mg of aspirin.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Renal Impairment

GFR ≥10 mL/minute: No dosage adjustment necessary.

GFR <10 mL/minute: Avoid use.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment

Avoid use in patients with hepatic impairment.

Administration

Administer at least 1 hour before a meal. Swallow tablet whole with liquid; do not split, chew, crush, or dissolve.

Storage

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Store in original container. Protect from moisture.

Drug Interactions

Acalabrutinib: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Acalabrutinib. Avoid combination

Agents with Antiplatelet Properties (e.g., P2Y12 inhibitors, NSAIDs, SSRIs, etc.): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Increased risk of bleeding may result. Monitor therapy

Agents with Antiplatelet Properties (e.g., P2Y12 inhibitors, NSAIDs, SSRIs, etc.): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of other Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Ajmaline: Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ajmaline. Specifically, the risk for cholestasis may be increased. Monitor therapy

Alcohol (Ethyl): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aspirin. Specifically, alcohol may increase the bleeding risk of aspirin. Alcohol (Ethyl) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Aspirin. Specifically, alcohol may interfere with the controlled release mechanism of extended release aspirin. Management: Monitor patients who drink 3 or more alcoholic drinks a day for increased bleeding while taking aspirin. Counsel patients about the risk of bleeding and discourage such consumption. Give extended release aspirin 2 hours before, or 1 hour after, alcohol. Consider therapy modification

Alendronate: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Alendronate. Specifically, the incidence of upper gastrointestinal adverse events may be increased Monitor therapy

Ammonium Chloride: May increase the serum concentration of Salicylates. Monitor therapy

Amphetamine: Proton Pump Inhibitors may increase the absorption of Amphetamine. Monitor therapy

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: Salicylates may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Anticoagulants: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. Monitor therapy

Anticoagulants: Salicylates may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. Monitor therapy

Antihepaciviral Combination Products: May decrease the serum concentration of Omeprazole. Monitor therapy

Apixaban: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Apixaban. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely. Consider therapy modification

Atazanavir: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Management: See full drug interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Benzbromarone: Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of Benzbromarone. Monitor therapy

Bisphosphonate Derivatives: Proton Pump Inhibitors may diminish the therapeutic effect of Bisphosphonate Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Blood Glucose Lowering Agents: Salicylates may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Bosentan: CYP2C9 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Bosentan. Management: Concomitant use of both a CYP2C9 inhibitor and a CYP3A inhibitor or a single agent that inhibits both enzymes with bosentan is likely to cause a large increase in serum concentrations of bosentan and is not recommended. See monograph for details. Monitor therapy

Bosutinib: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Bosutinib. Management: Consider alternatives to proton pump inhibitors, such as antacids or H2 receptor antagonists. Administer alternative agents more than 2 hours before or after bosutinib. Consider therapy modification

Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Monitor therapy

Cannabis: CYP2C9 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Cannabis. More specifically, tetrahydrocannabinol serum concentrations may be increased. Monitor therapy

Capecitabine: Proton Pump Inhibitors may diminish the therapeutic effect of Capecitabine. Monitor therapy

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Salicylate toxicity might be enhanced by this same combination. Management: Avoid these combinations when possible.Dichlorphenamide use with high-dose aspirin as contraindicated. If another combination is used, monitor patients closely for adverse effects. Tachypnea, anorexia, lethargy, and coma have been reported. Exceptions: Brinzolamide; Dorzolamide. Consider therapy modification

Carisoprodol: Aspirin may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Carisoprodol. Specifically, Meprobamate concentrations may be increased. Aspirin may decrease the serum concentration of Carisoprodol. Monitor therapy

Carvedilol: CYP2C9 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Carvedilol. Specifically, concentrations of the S-carvedilol enantiomer may be increased. Monitor therapy

Cefditoren: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Cefditoren. Management: If possible, avoid use of cefditoren with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Consider alternative methods to minimize/control acid reflux (eg, diet modification) or alternative antimicrobial therapy if use of PPIs can not be avoided. Consider therapy modification

Cefpodoxime: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Cefpodoxime. Monitor therapy

Cefuroxime: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the absorption of Cefuroxime. Avoid combination

Cephalothin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cephalothin. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Cilostazol: CYP2C19 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Cilostazol. Management: Consider reducing the cilostazol dose to 50 mg twice daily in patients who are also receiving inhibitors of CYP2C19. Consider therapy modification

Citalopram: Omeprazole may increase the serum concentration of Citalopram. Management: Limit citalopram dose to a maximum of 20 mg/day if used with omeprazole. Consider therapy modification

CloBAZam: Omeprazole may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of CloBAZam. Monitor therapy

Clopidogrel: Omeprazole may diminish the antiplatelet effect of Clopidogrel. Omeprazole may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clopidogrel. Management: Clopidogrel labeling recommends avoiding concurrent omeprazole due to a possible decrease in clopidogrel effectiveness. Rabeprazole or pantoprazole may be lower-risk alternatives to omeprazole. Consider therapy modification

CloZAPine: Omeprazole may decrease the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Omeprazole may increase the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Monitor therapy

Collagenase (Systemic): Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Collagenase (Systemic). Specifically, the risk of injection site bruising and/or bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Corticosteroids (Systemic): Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Corticosteroids (Systemic). These specifically include gastrointestinal ulceration and bleeding. Corticosteroids (Systemic) may decrease the serum concentration of Salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids may result in salicylate toxicity. Monitor therapy

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): Omeprazole may increase the serum concentration of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). Monitor therapy

CYP2C9 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors): CYP2C9 Inhibitors (Moderate) may decrease the metabolism of CYP2C9 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Cysteamine (Systemic): Proton Pump Inhibitors may diminish the therapeutic effect of Cysteamine (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Dabigatran Etexilate: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Dabigatran Etexilate. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely; Canadian labeling states that low dose aspirin could be considered, but the use of antiplatelets are not recommended for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. Consider therapy modification

Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP2C19 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Seek alternatives to the CYP2C19 substrate when possible. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor clinical effects of the substrate closely (particularly therapeutic effects). Consider therapy modification

Dabrafenib: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Dabrafenib. Dabrafenib may decrease the serum concentration of Proton Pump Inhibitors. Management: Seek alternatives to the proton pump inhibitor when possible. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor for diminished effects of both drugs. Consider therapy modification

Darunavir: May decrease the serum concentration of Omeprazole. Monitor therapy

Dasatinib: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Dasatinib. Management: Antacids (taken 2 hours before or after dasatinib administration) can be used in place of the proton pump inhibitor if some acid-reducing therapy is needed. Avoid combination

Delavirdine: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Delavirdine. Management: Chronic therapy with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) should be avoided in patients treated with delavirdine. The clinical significance of short-term PPI therapy with delavirdine is uncertain, but such therapy should be undertaken with caution. Avoid combination

Deoxycholic Acid: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Deoxycholic Acid. Specifically, the risk for bleeding or bruising in the treatment area may be increased. Monitor therapy

Dexibuprofen: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Dexibuprofen. Dexibuprofen may diminish the cardioprotective effect of Aspirin. Avoid combination

Dexketoprofen: Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Dexketoprofen. Dexketoprofen may diminish the therapeutic effect of Salicylates. Salicylates may decrease the serum concentration of Dexketoprofen. Management: The use of high-dose salicylates (3 g/day or more in adults) together with dexketoprofen is inadvisable. Consider administering dexketoprofen 30-120 min after or at least 8 hrs before cardioprotective doses of aspirin to minimize any possible interaction. Avoid combination

Dexmethylphenidate: Proton Pump Inhibitors may increase the absorption of Dexmethylphenidate. Specifically, proton pump inhibitors may interfere with the normal release of drug from the extended-release capsules (Focalin XR brand), which could result in both increased absorption (early) and decreased delayed absorption. Monitor therapy

Dextroamphetamine: Proton Pump Inhibitors may increase the absorption of Dextroamphetamine. Specifically, the dextroamphetamine absorption rate from mixed amphetamine salt extended release (XR) capsules may be increased in the first hours after dosing. Monitor therapy

Dronabinol: CYP2C9 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Dronabinol. Monitor therapy

Edoxaban: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Edoxaban. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Aspirin may increase the serum concentration of Edoxaban. Management: Carefully consider the anticipated risks and benefits of this combination. If combined, increased monitoring for bleeding is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Enzalutamide: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP2C19 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Conversely, concentrations of active metabolites may be increased for those drugs activated by CYP2C19. Management: Concurrent use of enzalutamide with CYP2C19 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Use of enzalutamide and any other CYP2C19 substrate should be performed with caution and close monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Erlotinib: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Erlotinib. Avoid combination

Escitalopram: Omeprazole may increase the serum concentration of Escitalopram. Management: Monitor for increased escitalopram toxicity with concomitant use of omeprazole. Recommendations for management of this interaction found in product labeling may differ by country. Consult appropriate labeling. Consider therapy modification

Felbinac: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aspirin. Monitor therapy

Floctafenine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aspirin. An increased risk of bleeding may be associated with use of this combination. Floctafenine may diminish the cardioprotective effect of Aspirin. Avoid combination

Fluconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Proton Pump Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Fosphenytoin: Omeprazole may increase the serum concentration of Fosphenytoin. Fosphenytoin may decrease the serum concentration of Omeprazole. Monitor therapy

Gefitinib: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Gefitinib. Management: Avoid use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with gefitinib when possible. If required, administer gefitinib 12 hours after administration of the PPI or 12 hours before the next dose of the PPI. Consider therapy modification

Ginkgo Biloba: May enhance the anticoagulant effect of Salicylates. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination of agents. Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding (especially intracranial bleeding) if salicylates are used in combination with ginkgo biloba. Consider therapy modification

Glucosamine: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Heparin: Aspirin may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Heparin. Monitor therapy

Herbs (Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Properties) (eg, Alfalfa, Anise, Bilberry): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Bleeding may occur. Consider therapy modification

Herbs (Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Properties) (eg, Alfalfa, Anise, Bilberry): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Bleeding may occur. Consider therapy modification

Hyaluronidase: Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of Hyaluronidase. Management: Patients receiving salicylates (particularly at larger doses) may not experience the desired clinical response to standard doses of hyaluronidase. Larger doses of hyaluronidase may be required. Consider therapy modification

Ibritumomab: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ibritumomab. Both agents may contribute to impaired platelet function and an increased risk of bleeding. Monitor therapy

Ibrutinib: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Indinavir: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Indinavir. Monitor therapy

Influenza Virus Vaccine (Live/Attenuated): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Specifically, Reye's syndrome may develop. Avoid combination

Iron Salts: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the absorption of Iron Salts. Exceptions: Ferric Carboxymaltose; Ferric Citrate; Ferric Gluconate; Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex; Ferric Pyrophosphate Citrate; Ferumoxytol; Iron Dextran Complex; Iron Isomaltoside; Iron Sucrose. Monitor therapy

Itraconazole: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole. Consider therapy modification

Ketoconazole (Systemic): Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Ketoconazole (Systemic). Ketoconazole (Systemic) may increase the serum concentration of Proton Pump Inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Ketorolac (Nasal): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aspirin. An increased risk of bleeding may be associated with use of this combination. Ketorolac (Nasal) may diminish the cardioprotective effect of Aspirin. Avoid combination

Ketorolac (Systemic): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aspirin. An increased risk of bleeding may be associated with use of this combination. Ketorolac (Systemic) may diminish the cardioprotective effect of Aspirin. Avoid combination

Ledipasvir: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Ledipasvir. Management: PPI doses equivalent to omeprazole 20 mg or lower may be given with ledipasvir under fasted conditions. Administration with higher doses of PPIs, 2 hours after a PPI, or in combination with food and PPIs may reduce ledipasvir bioavailability. Consider therapy modification

Lesinurad: Aspirin may diminish the therapeutic effect of Lesinurad. Monitor therapy

Limaprost: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Loop Diuretics: Salicylates may diminish the diuretic effect of Loop Diuretics. Loop Diuretics may increase the serum concentration of Salicylates. Monitor therapy

Lumacaftor: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP2C19 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Mesalamine: Proton Pump Inhibitors may diminish the therapeutic effect of Mesalamine. Proton pump inhibitor-mediated increases in gastrointestinal pH may cause the premature release of mesalamine from specific sustained-release mesalamine products. Management: Consider avoiding concurrent administration of high-dose proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with sustained-release mesalamine products. Consider therapy modification

Methotrexate: Salicylates may increase the serum concentration of Methotrexate. Salicylate doses used for prophylaxis of cardiovascular events are not likely to be of concern. Consider therapy modification

Methylphenidate: Proton Pump Inhibitors may increase the absorption of Methylphenidate. Specifically, proton pump inhibitors may interfere with the normal release of drug from the extended-release capsules (Ritalin LA brand), which could result in both increased absorption (early) and decreased delayed absorption. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Fluoride (with ADE): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Aspirin may decrease the serum concentration of Multivitamins/Fluoride (with ADE). Specifically, aspirin may decrease the absorption of ascorbic acid. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Aspirin may decrease the serum concentration of Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron). Specifically, aspirin may decrease absorption of ascorbic acid. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Aspirin may decrease the serum concentration of Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron). Specifically, aspirin may decrease the absorption of ascorbic acid. Monitor therapy

Mycophenolate: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Mycophenolate. Specifically, concentrations of the active mycophenolic acid may be reduced. Monitor therapy

Nalmefene: Omeprazole may decrease the serum concentration of Nalmefene. Monitor therapy

Nelfinavir: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Nelfinavir. Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Nelfinavir. Avoid combination

Neratinib: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Neratinib. Specifically, proton pump inhibitors may reduce neratinib absorption. Avoid combination

Nicorandil: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nicorandil. Specifically, the risk of gastrointestinal ulceration and hemorrhage may be increased. Monitor therapy

Nilotinib: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Nilotinib. Management: Avoid this combination when possible since separation of doses is not likely to be an adequate method of minimizing the interaction. Consider therapy modification

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (COX-2 Selective): Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (COX-2 Selective). Management: Concurrent use of aspirin at doses beyond cardioprotective levels is not recommended. While concurrent use of low-dose aspirin with a COX-2 inhibitor is permissable, patients should be monitored closely for signs/symptoms of GI ulceration/bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. An increased risk of bleeding may be associated with use of this combination. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may diminish the cardioprotective effect of Salicylates. Salicylates may decrease the serum concentration of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective). Consider therapy modification

Obinutuzumab: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Obinutuzumab. Specifically, the risk of serious bleeding-related events may be increased. Monitor therapy

Omacetaxine: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Omacetaxine. Specifically, the risk for bleeding-related events may be increased. Management: Avoid concurrent use of aspirin with omacetaxine in patients with a platelet count of less than 50,000/uL. Avoid combination

Omega-3 Fatty Acids: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

PAZOPanib: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination

Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased by concurrent use of these agents. Monitor therapy

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Phenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of Omeprazole. Omeprazole may increase the serum concentration of Phenytoin. Monitor therapy

Posaconazole: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Posaconazole. Consider therapy modification

Potassium Phosphate: May increase the serum concentration of Salicylates. Monitor therapy

PRALAtrexate: Salicylates may increase the serum concentration of PRALAtrexate. Salicylate doses used for prophylaxis of cardiovascular events are unlikely to be of concern. Consider therapy modification

Probenecid: Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of Probenecid. Monitor therapy

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Raltegravir: Proton Pump Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Raltegravir. Monitor therapy

RifAMPin: May decrease the serum concentration of Omeprazole. Avoid combination

Rilpivirine: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Rilpivirine. Avoid combination

Riociguat: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Riociguat. Monitor therapy

Risedronate: Proton Pump Inhibitors may diminish the therapeutic effect of Risedronate. Proton Pump Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Risedronate. This applies specifically to use of delayed-release risedronate. Avoid combination

Rivaroxaban: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Rivaroxaban. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely. Consider therapy modification

Salicylates: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Increased risk of bleeding may result. Monitor therapy

Salicylates: May enhance the anticoagulant effect of other Salicylates. Monitor therapy

Saquinavir: Proton Pump Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Saquinavir. Monitor therapy

Secretin: Proton Pump Inhibitors may diminish the diagnostic effect of Secretin. Specifically, use of PPIs may cause a hyperresponse in gastrin secretion in response to secretin stimulation testing, falsely suggesting gastrinoma. Management: Avoid concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and secretin, and discontinue PPIs several weeks prior to secretin administration, with the duration of separation determined by the specific PPI. See full monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Monitor therapy

Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Monitor therapy

St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of Omeprazole. Avoid combination

Sulfinpyrazone: Salicylates may decrease the serum concentration of Sulfinpyrazone. Avoid combination

Tacrolimus (Systemic): Proton Pump Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Management: Tacrolimus dose adjustment may be required. Rabeprazole, pantoprazole, or selected H2-receptor antagonists (i.e., ranitidine or famotidine) may be less likely to interact. Genetic testing may predict patients at highest risk. Consider therapy modification

Talniflumate: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Talniflumate. Management: When possible, consider alternatives to this combination. Concurrent use is generally not recommended. Consider therapy modification

Tetrahydrocannabinol: CYP2C9 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol. Monitor therapy

Thiopental: Aspirin may decrease the protein binding of Thiopental. Monitor therapy

Thrombolytic Agents: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Thrombolytic Agents. Monitor therapy

Thrombolytic Agents: Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Thrombolytic Agents. An increased risk of bleeding may occur. Monitor therapy

Ticagrelor: Aspirin may enhance the antiplatelet effect of Ticagrelor. Aspirin may diminish the therapeutic effect of Ticagrelor. More specifically, the benefits of ticagrelor relative to clopidogrel may be diminished in adult patients receiving daily aspirin doses greater than 100-150 mg daily. Management: Avoid daily aspirin doses greater than 100 mg in adults receiving ticagrelor. Canadian recommendations are to avoid adult daily aspirin doses greater than 150 mg. Daily low-dose aspirin (U.S.: 75-100 mg; Canada: 75-150 mg) is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Tiludronate: Aspirin may decrease the serum concentration of Tiludronate. Monitor therapy

Tipranavir: May decrease the serum concentration of Proton Pump Inhibitors. These data are derived from studies with Ritonavir-boosted Tipranavir. Monitor therapy

Tipranavir: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab. Specifically, the risk of bleeding-related adverse events may be increased. Monitor therapy

Tricyclic Antidepressants (Tertiary Amine): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Monitor therapy

Urokinase: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Urokinase. Avoid combination

Valproate Products: Salicylates may increase the serum concentration of Valproate Products. Monitor therapy

Varicella Virus-Containing Vaccines: Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Varicella Virus-Containing Vaccines. Reye's Syndrome may develop. Consider therapy modification

Velpatasvir: Proton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Velpatasvir. Avoid combination

Vitamin E (Systemic): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Salicylates may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. Consider therapy modification

Voriconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Proton Pump Inhibitors. Proton Pump Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Voriconazole. Management: In patients receiving omeprazole 40 mg/day or greater, reduce omeprazole dose by half when initiating voriconazole. Monitor therapy

Adverse Reactions

Also see individual agents.

>10%: Gastrointestinal: Gastritis (18%)

1% to 10%:

Central nervous system: Noncardiac chest pain (2%)

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (3%), nausea (3%), gastric polyp (2%)

<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Gastrointestinal hemorrhage (including hematochezia and large intestinal hemorrhage), intestinal obstruction (small bowel), upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (gastric or duodenal)

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Atrophic gastritis: Long-term omeprazole therapy has caused atrophic gastritis (identified by biopsy).

• Carcinoma: In long-term (2-year) studies in rats, omeprazole produced a dose-related increase in gastric carcinoid tumors. While available endoscopic evaluations and histologic examinations of biopsy specimens from human stomachs have not detected a risk from short-term exposure to omeprazole, further human data on the effect of sustained hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinemia are needed to rule out the possibility of an increased risk for the development of tumors in humans receiving long-term therapy.

Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: Use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase risk of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), especially in hospitalized patients; consider CDAD diagnosis in patients with persistent diarrhea that does not improve. Use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate for the condition being treated.

• Cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus: Has been reported as new onset or exacerbation of existing autoimmune disease; most cases were cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE), most commonly, subacute CLE (occurring within weeks to years after continuous therapy). Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is less common (typically occurs within days to years after initiating treatment) and occurred primarily in young adults up to the elderly. Discontinue therapy if signs or symptoms of CLE or SLE occur and refer to specialist for evaluation; most patients improve 4 to 12 weeks after discontinuation of omeprazole.

• Fractures: Increased incidence of osteoporosis-related bone fractures of the hip, spine, or wrist may occur with PPI therapy. Patients on high-dose (multiple daily doses) or long-term (≥1 year) therapy should be monitored. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration of time, use vitamin D and calcium supplementation, and follow appropriate guidelines to reduce risk of fractures in patients at risk.

• GI effects: Aspirin may cause serious GI adverse reactions, including inflammation, bleeding ulceration and perforation. Other adverse reactions include stomach pain, heartburn, nausea, and vomiting. Monitor patients for signs of ulceration and bleeding. Discontinue therapy if active and significant bleeding occurs. Use aspirin with caution in patients with erosive gastritis; avoid use in patients with active peptic ulcer disease.

• Hypomagnesemia: Reported rarely, usually with prolonged PPI use of >3 months (most cases >1 year of therapy). May be symptomatic or asymptomatic; severe cases may cause tetany, seizures, and cardiac arrhythmias. Consider obtaining serum magnesium concentrations prior to beginning long-term therapy, especially if taking concomitant digoxin, diuretics, or other drugs known to cause hypomagnesemia; and periodically thereafter. Hypomagnesemia may be corrected by magnesium supplementation, although discontinuation of omeprazole may be necessary; magnesium levels typically return to normal within 1 week of stopping.

• Interstitial nephritis: Acute interstitial nephritis has been observed in patients taking PPIs; may occur at any time during therapy and is generally due to an idiopathic hypersensitivity reaction. Discontinue if acute interstitial nephritis develops.

• Salicylate sensitivity: Patients with sensitivity to tartrazine dyes, nasal polyps, and asthma may have an increased risk of salicylate sensitivity.

• Tinnitus: Discontinue use if tinnitus or impaired hearing occurs.

• Upper gastrointestinal events (eg, symptomatic or complicated ulcers): Low-dose aspirin for cardioprotective effects is associated with a two- to fourfold increase in upper gastrointestinal (UGI) events. The risks of these events increase with increasing aspirin dose; during the chronic phase of aspirin dosing, doses >81 mg are not recommended unless indicated (Bhatt 2008).

• Vitamin B12 deficiency: Prolonged treatment (>3 years) of PPIs may lead to vitamin B12 malabsorption and subsequent vitamin B12 deficiency. The magnitude of the deficiency is dose-related and the association is stronger in females and those younger in age (<30 years); prevalence is decreased after discontinuation of therapy (Lam 2013).

Disease-related concerns:

• Bleeding disorders: Use aspirin with caution in patients with platelet and bleeding disorders.

• Dehydration: Use aspirin with caution in patients with dehydration.

• Gastric malignancy: Relief of gastric symptoms does not preclude the presence of a gastric malignancy.

• Gastrointestinal infection (eg, Salmonella, Campylobacter): Use of PPIs may increase risk of these infections.

• Hepatic impairment: Avoid use in patients with hepatic impairment.

• Renal impairment: Avoid use in patients with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <10 mL/minute.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Clopidogrel: PPIs may diminish the therapeutic effect of clopidogrel, thought to be due to reduced formation of the active metabolite of clopidogrel. The manufacturer of clopidogrel recommends either avoidance of both omeprazole (even when scheduled 12 hours apart) and esomeprazole or use of a PPI with comparatively less effect on the active metabolite of clopidogrel (eg, pantoprazole). In contrast to these warnings, others have recommended the continued use of PPIs, regardless of the degree of inhibition, in patients with a history of GI bleeding or multiple risk factors for GI bleeding who are also receiving clopidogrel since no evidence has established clinically meaningful differences in outcome; however, a clinically significant interaction cannot be excluded in those who are poor metabolizers of clopidogrel (Abraham 2010; Levine 2011).

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Special populations:

• Asian ethnicity: Avoid use in Asian patients with unknown CYP2C19 genotype or those who are known to be poor metabolizers.

Dosage form specific issues:

•Interchangeability: Aspirin/omeprazole combination product is not interchangeable with the individual components of aspirin and omeprazole.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Laboratory test interference: Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to drug-induced decreases in gastric acid; may cause false-positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. Temporarily stop omeprazole treatment at least 14 days before CgA test; if initial CgA levels are high, repeat test to confirm. Use same commercial laboratory for testing to prevent variable results.

Monitoring Parameters

Magnesium levels (prior to initiation of therapy and periodically thereafter).

Pregnancy Considerations

Use of aspirin in women ≥30 weeks gestation is associated with an increased risk for premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus; third trimester use may be also associated with an increased risk of neonatal complications. In addition, use of aspirin during labor may increase the risk for excessive blood loss at delivery. Use of this combination should be avoided in women ≥30 weeks gestation. Refer to individual monographs for additional information.

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience heartburn. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of bleeding (vomiting blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds; coughing up blood; hematuria; black, red, or tarry stools; bleeding from the gums; abnormal vaginal bleeding; bruises without a reason or that get bigger; or any severe or persistent bleeding), signs of low magnesium (mood changes; muscle pain or weakness; muscle cramps or spasms; seizures; tremors; lack of appetite; severe nausea or vomiting; or an abnormal heartbeat), signs of kidney problems (urinary retention, hematuria, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain), signs of infection, signs of liver problems (dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or jaundice), signs of pancreatitis (severe abdominal pain, severe back pain, severe nausea, or vomiting), signs of lupus (rash on the cheeks or other body parts, sunburn easy, muscle or joint pain, angina or shortness of breath, or swelling in the arms or legs), severe nausea, vomiting, severe abdominal pain, bone pain, edema, severe dizziness, passing out, tinnitus, signs of Clostridium difficile (C. diff)-associated diarrhea (abdominal pain or cramps, severe diarrhea or watery stools, or bloody stools), or signs of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin [with or without fever]; red or irritated eyes; or sores in mouth, throat, nose, or eyes) (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.

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