Class: Prostaglandin Analogs
VA Class: OP109
Molecular Formula: C26H40O5
CAS Number: 130209-82-4
Ocular hypotensive agent; a synthetic analog of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α).1 2 3 32 33
Uses for Latanoprost
Ocular Hypertension and Glaucoma
Reduction of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.1 3 10 11 12 13 15 30 31 32 33 48 55 60 One of several first-line agents to reduce elevated IOP.75
Safety and efficacy not established for the treatment of angle-closure, inflammatory, or neovascular glaucoma.1
Appears to be more effective than unoprostone, as effective as travoprost, and slightly less effective than bimatoprost in reducing IOP in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.76 77 78 79 80 81
May be more effective or at least as effective as twice daily administration of timolol 0.5% in reducing IOP in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.1 3 10 11 12 30 31 32 33 Appears to be more effective than thrice-daily administration of dorzolamide 2%.86 87
May be used in conjunction with a topical β-adrenergic blocking agent (e.g., betaxolol, carteolol, levobunolol, metipranolol, timolol),3 28 29 32 33 36 topical dipivefrin,33 59 topical epinephrine, an oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (e.g., acetazolamide), 33 or a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (e.g., dorzolamide).1 44 56
Tolerance does not occur, and reduction in mean IOP is maintained for up to at least 24 months of therapy after initial stabilization.1 3 10 11 12 15 36 44 48
Latanoprost Dosage and Administration
Apply topically to the affected eye(s).1 10 11 12 32 33 36
Avoid contamination of the solution container.1
If more than one topical ophthalmic drug is used, administer the drugs at least 5 minutes apart.1 (See Interactions.)
Ocular Hypertension and Glaucoma
One drop of a 0.005% solution (1.5 mcg) in the affected eye(s) once daily in the evening.1 10 11 12 32 33 36 More frequent dosing may paradoxically diminish the IOP-lowering effect of the drug.1 15 29 39 If a dose is missed, omit the dose and apply the next dose the following evening.15
Cautions for Latanoprost
Known hypersensitivity to latanoprost, benzalkonium chloride, or any ingredient in the formulation.1
Increases in brown pigmentation of the iris and periorbital tissue (eyelid) or increases in length, thickness, and pigmentation of eyelashes or vellus hair in the treated eye reported;1 3 10 11 12 15 31 32 33 36 misdirected growth of eyelashes also may occur.1 Pigmentation is expected to increase throughout the treatment period.1 Increased pigmentation of the iris may be permanent, while pigmentation of the periorbital tissue and eyelash changes reportedly are reversible in some patients.1 Long-term effects (i.e., beyond 5 years) of increased pigmentation are unknown.1
Increased pigmentation of iris develops slowly; may not be evident until after several months to years of latanoprost therapy.1 In clinical studies, noticeable increased pigmentation of the iris generally occurred within the first year of therapy.1 Therapy generally may be continued in the presence of increased iris pigmentation;1 patients should be examined regularly.1 33 36
Macular edema, including cystoid macular edema, reported in aphakic patients, in pseudophakic patients with a torn posterior lens capsule, or in patients with known risk factors for macular edema; use with caution in such patients.1 51 52 53 54 58 61 62 63 64 65
Use with caution in patients with a history of intraocular inflammation (e.g., iritis, uveitis); use generally not recommended in patients with active intraocular inflammation.1
Not known if distributed into milk; use with caution.1
Safety and efficacy not established in pediatric patients.1 15
No substantial differences in safety and efficacy relative to younger adults.1 10 11 12
Common Adverse Effects
Blurred vision, burning and stinging, conjunctival hyperemia, foreign body sensation, pruritus, increased pigmentation of the iris, punctate epithelial keratopathy.1
Interactions for Latanoprost
Ocular Hypotensive Agents
Potential for additive IOP-lowering effects when used concomitantly with another ocular hypotensive agent (e.g., topical β-adrenergic blocking agent, oral or topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor).1 3 19 28 29 32 33 36 56 59 Additive effect may be used to therapeutic advantage.1 3 19 28 29 32 33 36
Precipitation occurs when ophthalmic solutions containing thimerosal are admixed with latanoprost ophthalmic solution.1 If more than one topical ophthalmic drug is used, administer the drugs at least 5 minutes apart.1
Approximately 1% of a topically applied dose penetrates the human eye;15 remaining portion is absorbed into systemic circulation through blood vessels in the conjunctiva and mucous membranes of the nose, pharynx, esophagus, and GI tract.6 15
Prodrug; absorbed through the cornea following ocular instillation and rapidly hydrolyzed to active form (latanoprost acid).1 6 14 15 16 18 Peak plasma concentrations of latanoprost acid occur within 2 hours.1 15
Reduction in IOP generally occurs within 3–4 hours after topical application and peaks within 8–12 hours.
Effects on IOP generally persist for up to 24 hours or longer.1 10 11 12 13 15 17
Following long-term therapy (i.e., 6 months), pharmacologic effects may persist for at least 14 days after the drug is discontinued.15
The volume of distribution of latanoprost acid in humans following ocular or IV administration is 0.36 or 0.16 L/kg, respectively.1 15 Latanoprost acid can be measured in aqueous humor during the first 4 hours, and in plasma only during the first hour after ocular instillation.1
Not known whether the drug or its metabolites distribute into milk in humans.1
Rapidly hydrolyzed by esterases in the cornea and plasma to biologically active form (latanoprost acid).1 15 16 33
Systemically absorbed latanoprost acid is metabolized in the liver.1 15
Metabolites are excreted principally in urine; however, biliary excretion also may occur.1 6 15 Unchanged latanoprost or latanoprost acid generally are not recovered in urine or feces.15 Following topical administration of radiolabeled latanoprost to the eye, 88% of the dose was eliminated in urine.15
The elimination half-life of latanoprost acid from aqueous humor is approximately 3 hours.15
Following topical application to the eye, the plasma elimination half-life of latanoprost acid is approximately 17 minutes.15
Unopened bottles: refrigerate at 2–8°C and protect from light.1 15
Opened bottles: room temperature (not exceeding 25°C) for up to 6 weeks.1
Selective prostanoid agonist.1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 33 40
Appears to reduce IOP by increasing uveoscleral outflow of aqueous humor.1 2 3 5 6 7 9 31 32 33
Advice to Patients
Risk of changes in eyelashes and permanent darkening of iris, eyelashes, or skin around the eyes associated with therapy.1 Potential for disparity between eyes if only one eye is treated.1 36
Importance of learning and adhering to proper administration techniques to avoid contamination of the solution with common bacteria that can cause ocular infections.1 Serious damage to the eye and subsequent loss of vision may result from using contaminated ophthalmic solutions.1
Importance of informing clinicians if intercurrent ocular condition (e.g., trauma, infection) develops or ocular surgery is planned.1 Importance of immediately reporting ocular reactions, particularly conjunctivitis and eyelid reactions.1
Importance of delaying insertion of contact lenses for at least 15 minutes after latanoprost instillation, since benzalkonium chloride preservative may be absorbed by soft lenses.1
Importance of administering different topical ophthalmic preparations at least 5 minutes apart.1
Importance of informing clinician of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs.1
Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or intend to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.1
Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information. (See Cautions.)
Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.
Please refer to the ASHP Drug Shortages Resource Center for information on shortages of one or more of these preparations.
Xalatan (with benzalkonium chloride)
AHFS DI Essentials. © Copyright 2017, Selected Revisions July 1, 2007. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 4500 East-West Highway, Suite 900, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.
1. Pharmacia & Upjohn Inc. Xalatan (latanoprost) sterile ophthalmic solution 0.005% (50 mcg/mL) prescribing information. Kalamazoo, MI; 2003 Sep.
2. Stjernschantz J, Resul B. Phenyl substituted prostaglandin analogs for glaucoma treatment. Drugs Future. 1992; 17:691-704.
3. Camras CB. Prostaglandins. In: Ritch R, Shields MB, Krupin T eds. The glaucomas. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, Inc; 1996:1449-61.
4. Campbell WB, Halushka PV. Lipid-derived autacoids: eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor. In: Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Molinoff PB et al, eds. Goodman and Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1996:601-16.
5. Toris CB, Camras CB, Yablonski ME. Effects of PhXA41, a new prostaglandin F2α analog, on aqueous humor dynamics in human eyes. Ophthalmology. 1993; 100:1297-304. [PubMed 8371915]
6. Stjernschantz J, Selén G, Sjöquist B et al. Preclinical pharmacology of latanoprost, a phenyl-substituted PGF2α analogue. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukotriene Res. 1995; 23:513-8.
7. True Gabelt B, Kaufman PL. Prostaglandin F2α increases uveoscleral outflow in the cynomolgus monkey. Exp Eye Res. 1989; 49:389-402. [PubMed 2792235]
8. Nilsson SFE, Samuelsson M, Bill A et al. Increased uveoscleral outflow as a possible mechanism of ocular hypotension caused by prostaglandin F2α-1-isopropylester in the cynomolgus monkey. Exp Eye Res. 1989; 48:707-16. [PubMed 2737263]
9. Ziai N, Dolan JW, Kacere RD et al. The effects on aqueous dynamics of PhXA41, a new prostaglandin F2α analogue, after topical application in normal and ocular hypertensive human eyes. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993; 111:1351-8. [PubMed 8216015]
10. Alm A, Stjernschantz J, and the Scandinavian Latanoprost Study Group. Effects on intraocular pressure and side effects of 0.005% latanoprost applied once daily, evening or morning: a comparison with timolol. Ophthalmology. 1995; 102:1743-52. [PubMed 9098273]
11. Camras CB, and the United States Latanoprost Study Group. Comparison of latanoprost and timolol in patients with ocular hypertension and glaucoma: a six-month, masked, multicenter trial in the United States. Ophthalmology. 1996; 103:138-47. [PubMed 8628544]
12. Watson P, Stjernschantz J, and the Latanoprost Study Group. A six-month, randomized, double-masked study comparing latanoprost with timolol in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Ophthalmology. 1996; 103:126-37. [PubMed 8628543]
13. Rácz P, Ruzsonyi MR, Nagy ZT et al. Around-the-clock intraocular pressure reduction with once-daily application of latanoprost by itself or in combination with timolol. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996; 114:268-73. [PubMed 8600885]
14. Bito LZ, Baroody RA. The ocular pharmacokinetics of eicosanoids and their derivatives. 1. Comparison of ocular eicosanoid penetration and distribution following the topical application of PGF2α, PGF2α-1-methyl ester, and PGF2α-1-isopropyl ester. Exp Eye Res. 1987; 44:217-26. [PubMed 3472899]
15. Pharmacia & Upjohn Inc, Kalamazoo, MI: Personal communication.
16. Basu S, Sjöquist B, Stjernschantz J et al. Corneal permeability to and ocular metabolism of phenyl substituted prostaglandin esters in vitro. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essent Fatty Acids. 1994; 50:161-8.
17. Rácz P, Ruzsonyi MR, Nagy ZT et al. Maintained intraocular pressure reduction with once-a-day application of a new prostaglandin F2α analogue (PhXA41): an in-hospital, placebo-controlled study. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993; 111:657-61. [PubMed 8489449]
18. Bito LZ, Stjernschantz J, Resul B et al. The ocular effects of prostaglandins and the therapeutic potential of a new PGF2α analog, PhXA41 (latanoprost), for glaucoma management. J Lipid Mediators. 1993; 6:535-43.
19. Friström B, Nilsson SEG. Interaction of PhXA41, a new prostaglandin analogue, with pilocarpine: a study on patients with elevated intraocular pressure. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993; 111:662-5. [PubMed 8489450]
20. Alm A, Villumsen J, Törnquist P et al. Intraocular pressure-reducing effect of PhXA41 in patients with increased eye pressure: a one-month study. Ophthalmology. 1993; 100:1312-7. [PubMed 8371917]
21. Lichter PR. Another blockbuster glaucoma drug? Ophthalmology. 1993; 100:1281-2. Editorial.
22. Serle JB. Pharmacological advances in the treatment of glaucoma. Drugs Aging. 1994; 5:156-70. [PubMed 7803944]
23. Bienfang DC, Kelly LD, Nicholson DH et al. Ophthalmology. N Engl J Med. 1990; 323:956-67. [PubMed 2205800]
24. Cotton P. Glaucoma: detection before damage, fewer side effects may be possible. JAMA. 1990; 264:1793. [PubMed 2402030]
25. Rosenberg LF. Glaucoma: early detection and therapy for prevention of vision loss. Am Fam Physician. 1995; 52:2289-98. [PubMed 7484722]
26. Chaudhry I, Wong S. Recognizing glaucoma. A guide for the primary care physician. Postgrad Med. 1996; 99:247-8,251-2,257-9. [PubMed 8650090]
27. Hayreh SS, Zimmerman MB, Podhajsky P et al. Nocturnal arterial hypotension and its role in optic nerve head and ocular ischemic disorders. Am J Ophthalmol. 1994; 117: 603-24.
28. Rulo AH, Greve EL, Hoyng PF. Additive effect of latanoprost, a prostaglandin F2α analogue, and timolol in patients with elevated intraocular pressure. Br J Ophthalmol. 1994; 78:899-902. [PubMed 7819171]
29. Alm A, Widengard I, Kjellgren D et al. Latanoprost administered once daily caused a maintained reduction of intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients treated concomitantly with timolol. Br J Ophthalmol. 1995; 79:12-6. [PubMed 7880782]
30. Mishima HK, Masuda K, Kitazawa Y et al. A comparison of latanoprost and timolol in primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996; 114: 929-932. [PubMed 8694726]
31. Higginbotham EJ. Will latanoprost be the “wonder” drug of the ’90s for the treatment of glaucoma? Arch Ophthalmol. 1996; 114:998-999.
32. Anon. A topical prostaglandin for glaucoma. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1996; 38:100-1. [PubMed 8914508]
33. Patel SS, Spencer CM. Latanoprost: a review of its pharmacological properties, clinical efficacy and tolerability in the management of primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Drugs Aging. 1996; 9:363-78. [PubMed 8922563]
34. The eye: I. Optics of vision. In: Guyton AC ed. Textbook of medical physiology. 8th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 1991:542-4.
35. Prostaglandin. Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary. 28th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 1994:1366.
36. Camras CB, Alm A, Watson P et al et al. Latanoprost, a prostaglandin analog, for glaucoma therapy. Ophthalmology. 1996; 103:1916-24. [PubMed 8942890]
37. Rulo AH, Greve EL, Geijssen HC et al. Reduction of intraocular pressure with treatment of latanoprost once daily in patients with normal-pressure glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1996; 103:1276-82. [PubMed 8764799]
38. Nicolela MT, Buckley AR, Walman BE et al. A comparative study of the effects of timolol and latanoprost on blood flow velocity of the retrobulbar vessels. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996; 122:784-9. [PubMed 8956632]
39. Nagasubramanian S, Sheth GP, Hitchings RA et al. Intraocular pressure-reducing effect of PhXA41 in ocular hypertension: comparison of dose regimens. Ophthalmology. 1993; 100:1305-11. [PubMed 8371916]
40. Coleman RA, Smith WL, Narumiya S. International union of pharmacology classification of prostanoid receptors: properties, distribution, and structure of the receptors and their subtypes. Pharmacol Rev. 1994; 46:205-29. [PubMed 7938166]
41. Johnstone MA. Hypertrichosis and increased pigmentation of lashes and adjacent hair in the region of the eye in patients treated with unilateral topical latanoprost. Am J Ophthalmol. (in press)
42. Lindsey JD, Kashiwagi K, Boyle D et al. Prostaglandins increase proMMP-1 and proMMP-3 secretion by human ciliary smooth muscle cells. Curr Eye Res. 1996; 15: 869-75.
43. Lindsey JD, Kashiwagi K, Kashiwagi F et al. Prostaglandin action on ciliary smooth muscle extracellular matrix metabolism: implications for uveoscleral outflow. Surv Ophthalmol. 1997; 42(Suppl 2):S53-9.
44. Reviewers’ comments (personal observations).
46. Alward WLM. Medical management of glaucoma. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339:1298-307. [PubMed 9791148]
47. Crawford K, Kaufman PL. Pilocarpine antagonizes prostaglandin F2 alpha-induced ocular hypotension in monkeys. Evidence for enhancement of uveoscleral outflow by prostaglandin F2 alpha. Arch Ophthalmol. 1987; 105:1112-6. [PubMed 3477218]
48. Watson PG, and the Latanoprost Study Group. Latanoprost: two years’ experience of its use in the United Kingdom. Ophthalmology. 1998; 105:82-7. [PubMed 9442782]
49. Peak AS, Sutton BM. Systmic adverse effects associated with topically applied latanoprost. Ann Pharmacother. 1998; 32:504-5. [PubMed 9562149]
50. Reynolds A, Murray PI, Colloby PS. Darkening of eyelashes in a patient treated with latanoprost. Eye. 1998; 12:741-3. [PubMed 9850277]
51. Ayyala RS, Cruz DA, Margo CE et al. Cystoid macular edema associated with latanoprost in aphakic and pseudophakic eyes. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998; 126:602-4. [PubMed 9780112]
52. Thorne JE, Maguire AM, Lanciano R. CME and anterior uveitis with latanoprost use. Ophthalmology. 1998; 105:1981-3. [PubMed 9818590]
53. Camras CB. CME and anterior uveitis with latanoprost use. Ophthalmology. 1998; 105:1978-81. [PubMed 9818589]
54. Eisenberg D. CME and anterior uveitis with latanoprost use. Ophthalmology. 1998; 105:1978. [PubMed 9818588]
55. Camras CB, Wax MB, Ritch R et al and the United States Latanoprost Study Group. Latanoprost treatment for glaucoma: effects of treating for 1 year and of switching from timolol. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998; 126:390-9. [PubMed 9744372]
56. Vanlandigham BD, Brubaker RF. Combined effect of dorzolamide and latanoprost on the rate of aqueous humor flow. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998; 126:191-6. [PubMed 9727512]
57. Fechtner RD, Khouri AS, Zimmerman TJ et al. Anterior uveitis associated with latanoprost. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998; 126:37-41. [PubMed 9683147]
58. Callanan D, Fellman RL, Savage JA. Latanoprost-associated cystoid macular edema. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998; 126:134-5. [PubMed 9683162]
59. Widengard I, Maepea O, Alm A. Effects of latanoprost and dipivefrin, alone or combined, on intraocular pressure and on blood-aqueous barrier permeability. Br J Ophthalmol. 1998; 82:404-6. [PubMed 9640189]
60. Drance SM, Crichton A, Mills RP. Comparison of the effect of latanoprost 0.005% and timolol 0.5% on the calculated ocular perfusion pressure in patients with normal-tension glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998; 125:585-92. [PubMed 9625541]
61. Heier JS, Steinert RF, Frederick AR Jr. Cystoid macular edema associated with latanoprost use. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998; 116:680-2. [PubMed 9596510]
62. Avakian A, Renier SA, Butler PJ. Adverse effects of latanaprost on patients with medically resistant glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998; 116:679-80. [PubMed 9596509]
63. Gaddie IB, Bennett DW. Cystoid macular edema associated with the use of latanoprost. J Am Optom Assoc. 1998; 69:122-8. [PubMed 9549261]
64. Warwar RE, Bullock JD, Ballal D. Cystoid macular edema and anterior uveitis associated with latanoprost use: experience and incidence in a retrospective review of 94 patients. Ophthalmology. 1998; 105:263-8. [PubMed 9479285]
65. Rowe JA, Hattenhauer MG, Herman DC. Adverse side effects associated with latanoprost. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997; 124:683-5. [PubMed 9372723]
66. Wand M. Latanoprost and hyperpigmentation of eyelashes. Arch Ophthalmol. 1997; 115:1206-8. [PubMed 9298071]
67. Hedner J, Everts B, Moller CS. Latanoprost and respiratory function in asthmatic patients: randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled crossover evaluation. Arch Ophthalmol. 1999; 117:1305-9. [PubMed 10532438]
68. Kent AR, Vroman DT, Thomas TJ et al. Interaction of pilocarpine with latanoprost in patients with glaucoma and ocular hypertension. J Glaucoma. 1999; 8:257-62. [PubMed 10464735]
69. Moroi SE, Gottfredsdottir MS, Schteingart MT et al. Cystoid macular edema associated with latanoprost therapy in a case series of patients with glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Ophthalmology. 1999; 106:1024-9. [PubMed 10328408]
70. Wand M, Gilbert CM, Liesegang TJ. Latanoprost and herpes simplex keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999; 127:602-4. [PubMed 10334356]
71. Weston BC. Migraine headache associated with latanoprost. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001; 119:300-1. [PubMed 11176999]
72. Wand M, Ritch R, Isbey EK et al. Latanoprost and periocular skin color changes. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001; 119:614-5. [PubMed 11296032]
73. Demitsu T, Manabe M, Harima N et al. Hypertrichosis induced by latanoprost. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001; 44:721-3. [PubMed 11260563]
74. Johnstone MA, Albert DM. Prostaglandin-induced hair growth. Surv Ophthalmol. 2002; 47(suppl 1):S185-202.
75. Distelhorst JS and Hughes GM. Open-angle glaucoma. Am Fam Physician. 2003; 67: 1937-44. [PubMed 12751655]
76. Noecker RS, Dirks MS, Choplin NT et al. A six-month randomized clinical trial comparing the intraocular pressure-lowering efficacy of bimatoprost and latanoprost in patients with ocular hypertension or glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003; 135:55-63. [PubMed 12504698]
77. Choplin N, Bernstein P, Batoosingh AL et al. A randomized, investigator-masked comparison of diurnal responder rates with bimatoprost and latanoprost in the lowering of intraocular pressure. Surv Ophthalmol. 2004; 49(suppl 1):S19-25. [PubMed 15016558]
78. Gandolfi S, Simmons ST, Sturm R et al. Three-month comparison of bimatoprost and latanoprost in patients with glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Adv Ther. 2001; 18:110-21. [PubMed 11571823]
79. Dubiner H, Cooke D, Dirks M et al. Efficacy and safety of bimatoprost in patients with elevated intraocular pressure: a 30-day comparison with latanoprost. Surv Ophthalmol. 2001; 45(suppl 4):S353-60. [PubMed 11434938]
80. Dubiner HB, Sircy MD, Landry T et al. Comparison of the diurnal ocular hypotensive efficacy of travoprost and latanoprost over a 44-hour period in patients with elevated intraocular pressure. Clin Ther. 2004; 26:84-91. [PubMed 14996520]
81. Perry CM, McGavin JK,, Culy CR et al. Latanoprost: an update of its use in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Drugs Aging. 2003; 20:597-630. [PubMed 12795627]
82. Jampel HD, Bacharach J, Sheu WP et al. Randomized clinical trial of latanoprost and unoprostone in patients with elevated intraocular pressure. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002; 134:863-71. [PubMed 12470755]
83. Sponsel WE, Paris G, Trigo Y et al. Comparative effects of latanoprost (Xalatan) and unoprostone (Rescula) in patients with open-angle glaucoma and suspected glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002; 134:552-9. [PubMed 12383812]
84. Aung T, Chew PT, Yip CC et al. A randomized double-masked crossover study comparing latanoprost 0.005% with unoprostone 0.12% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001; 131:636-42. [PubMed 11336940]
85. Susanna R Jr, Giampani J Jr, Borges AS et al. A double-masked, randomized clinical trial comparing latanoprost with unoprostone in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Ophthalmology. 2001; 108:259-63. [PubMed 11158796]
86. Niazi MK and Raja N. Comparison of latanoprost and dorzolamide in the treatment of patients with open angle glaucoma. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2004; 16:50-3. [PubMed 15125183]
87. O’Donoghue EP for the Ireland Latanoprost Study Group. A comparison of latanoprost and dorzolamide in patients with glaucoma and ocular hypertension: a 3 month, randomised study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2000; 84:579-82. [PubMed 10837379]
88. Shin DH, McCracken MS, Bendel RE et al. The additive effect of latanoprost to maximum-tolerated medications with low-dose, high-dose, or no pilocarpine therapy. Ophthalmology. 1999; 106:386-90. [PubMed 9951495]
89. Toris CB, Zhan GL, Zhao J et al. Potential mechanism for the additivity of pilocarpine and latanoprost. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001; 131:722-8. [PubMed 11384567]
More about latanoprost ophthalmic
- Side Effects
- During Pregnancy or Breastfeeding
- Dosage Information
- Drug Interactions
- Support Group
- Pricing & Coupons
- En Español
- 15 Reviews – Add your own review/rating
- Drug class: ophthalmic glaucoma agents
Other brands: Xalatan