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Theo-24 (theophylline) Disease Interactions

There are 7 disease interactions with Theo-24 (theophylline):

Major

Methylxanthines (Includes Theo-24) ↔ Pud

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Peptic Ulcer

Methylxanthines are known to stimulate peptic acid secretion. Therapy with products containing methylxanthines should be administered with extreme caution in patients with active peptic ulcer disease. Some manufacturers consider their use to be contraindicated under such circumstance.

References

  1. "Product Information. Theo-Dur (theophylline)." Schering Laboratories, Kenilworth, NJ.
  2. Stoller JL "Oesophageal ulceration and theophylline." Lancet 2 (1985): 328-9
  3. Alterman P, Spiegel D, Feldman J, Yaretzky A "Histamine h2-receptor antagonists and chronic theophylline toxicity." Am Fam Physician 54 (1996): 1473
  4. "Product Information. Lufyllin (dyphylline)" Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
View all 4 references
Major

Methylxanthines (Includes Theo-24) ↔ Renal Dysfunction

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction

The metabolites of theophylline, which are generally undetectable in patients with normal renal function, may accumulate in patients with renal impairment and contribute to the toxicity of theophylline. In addition, the plasma protein binding of theophylline may be significantly decreased in renal impairment, resulting in elevated free drug concentrations and further increasing the risk of toxicity. Therapy with theophyllines should be administered cautiously in patients with impaired renal function. Dosage adjustments and more intensive monitoring of serum theophylline concentrations may be required.

References

  1. Vanholder R, Van Landschoot N, De Smet R, Schoots A, Ringoir S "Drug protein binding in chronic renal failure: evaluation of nine drugs." Kidney Int 33 (1988): 996-1004
  2. Leakey TE, Elias-Jones AC, Coates PE, Smith KJ "Pharmacokinetics of theophylline and its metabolites during acute renal failure: a case report." Clin Pharmacokinet 21 (1991): 400-8
  3. Kraan J, Jonkman JH, Koeter GH, et al "The pharmacokinetics of theophylline and enprofylline in patients with liver cirrhosis and in patients with chronic renal disease." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1988): 357-62
  4. Reidenberg MM, Restivo K "The binding of theophylline to serum proteins of hemodialysis patients." J Dial 3 (1979): 375-81
  5. Nicot G, Charmes JP, Lachatre G, et al "Theophylline toxicity risks and chronic renal failure." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 27 (1989): 398-401
  6. Shaw LM, Fields L, Mayock R "Factors influencing theophylline serum protein binding." Clin Pharmacol Ther 32 (1982): 490-6
  7. Bauer LA, Bauer SP, Blouin RA "The effect of acute and chronic renal failure on theophylline clearance." J Clin Pharmacol 22 (1982): 65-8
  8. Leopold D, Webb D, Buss DC, Fifield RA, Smith AP, Routledge PA "The ex vivo plasma protein binding of theophylline in renal disease." Br J Clin Pharmacol 19 (1985): 823-5
View all 8 references
Major

Methylxanthines (Includes Theo-24) ↔ Seizure Disorders

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Seizures, Head Injury, Cerebral Vascular Disorder

The use of theophyllines is considered by some manufacturers to be contraindicated in patients with underlying seizure disorders unless they are receiving adequate anticonvulsant therapy. Theophyllines may cause seizures, which have generally been associated with toxic drug levels but have also been reported at therapeutic concentrations in patients with head trauma or cerebral infarct. If theophylline therapy is administered in patients with these or other risk factors for seizures, serum drug levels should be monitored closely and maintained in the low therapeutic range. Intractable seizures and death have been reported during acute theophylline toxicity.

References

  1. Bahls FH, Ma KK, Bird TD "Theophylline-associated seizures with "therapeutic" or low toxic serum concentrations: risk factors for serious outcome in adults." Neurology 41 (1991): 1309-12
  2. Hendeles L, Weinberger M, Johnson G "Monitoring serum theophylline levels." Clin Pharmacokinet 3 (1978): 294-312
  3. Milgrom H, Bender B "Current issues in the use of theophylline." Am Rev Respir Dis 147 (1993): s33-9
  4. Covelli HD, Knodel AR, Heppner BT "Predisposing factors to apparent theophylline-induced seizures." Ann Allergy 54 (1985): 411-5
  5. Aderka D, Shavit G, Garfinkel D, et al "Life-threatening theophylline intoxication in a hypothyroid patient." Respiration 44 (1983): 77-80
  6. Sessler CN "Theophylline toxicity: clinical features of 116 consecutive cases." Am J Med 88 (1990): 567-76
  7. Stewart JT "Prolongation of ECT-induced seizures with theophylline." J Am Geriatr Soc 44 (1996): 475
  8. Nakada T, Kwee IL, Lerner AM, Remler MP "Theophylline-induced seizures: clinical and pathophysiologic aspects." West J Med 138 (1983): 371-4
  9. Schiff GD, Hegde HK, LaCloche L, Hryhorczuk DO "Inpatient theophylline toxicity: preventable factors." Ann Intern Med 114 (1991): 748-53
  10. "Product Information. Theo-Dur (theophylline)." Schering Laboratories, Kenilworth, NJ.
  11. Albert S "Aminophylline toxicity." Pediatr Clin North Am 34 (1987): 61-73
View all 11 references
Moderate

Methylxanthines (Includes Theo-24) ↔ Gerd

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Methylxanthines increase gastric acidity and may also relax lower esophageal sphincter, which can lead to gastric reflux into the esophagus. Therapy with products containing methylxanthines should be administered cautiously in patients with significant gastroesophageal reflux.

References

  1. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  2. Stoller JL "Oesophageal ulceration and theophylline." Lancet 2 (1985): 328-9
  3. Alterman P, Spiegel D, Feldman J, Yaretzky A "Histamine h2-receptor antagonists and chronic theophylline toxicity." Am Fam Physician 54 (1996): 1473
  4. "Product Information. Lufyllin (dyphylline)" Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
View all 4 references
Moderate

Methylxanthines (Includes Theo-24) ↔ Hemodialysis

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: hemodialysis

Theophylline is removed by hemodialysis. Doses should either be scheduled for administration after dialysis or supplemental doses be given after dialysis.

References

  1. Lee CS, Marbury TC, Perrin JH, Fuller TJ "Hemodialysis of theophylline in uremic patients." J Clin Pharmacol April (1979): 219-26
  2. Vaziri ND, Barton CH, Ness R, Clark D "Dialysability of theophylline." J Dial 2 (1978): 243-9
  3. Anderson JR, Poklis A, McQueen RC, Purtell JN, Slavin RG "Effects of hemodialysis on theophylline kinetics." J Clin Pharmacol 23 (1983): 428-32
  4. Kradjan WA, Martin TR, Delaney CJ, et al "Effect of hemodialysis on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in chronic renal failure." Nephron 32 (1982): 40-4
  5. Slaughter RL, Green L, Kohli R "Hemodialysis clearance of theophylline." Ther Drug Monit 4 (1982): 191-3
  6. Lee CS, Peterson JC, Marbury TC "Comparative pharmacokinetics of theophylline in peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis." J Clin Pharmacol 23 (1983): 274-80
  7. Blouin RA, Bauer LA, Bustrack JA, Record KE, Bivins BA "Theophylline hemodialysis clearance." Ther Drug Monit 2 (1980): 221-3
  8. Levy G, Gibson TP, Whitman W, Procknai J "Hemodialysis clearance of theophylline." JAMA 237 (1977): 1466-7
View all 8 references
Moderate

Methylxanthines (Includes Theo-24) ↔ Reduced Clearance

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Congestive Heart Failure, Pulmonary Edema, Cor Pulmonale, Liver Disease, Shock, Influenza, Fever, Hypothyroidism, Panhypopituitarism

Certain conditions have been identified as causes of reduced theophylline clearance. They include age (neonates and infants < 1 year as well as elderly patients > 60 years) and the following concurrent diseases: acute pulmonary edema; decompensated heart failure; cor pulmonale; fever (>= 102 degrees for 24 hours or more, or lesser temperature elevations for longer periods); influenza; untreated or uncontrolled hypothyroidism; liver disease, cirrhosis or acute hepatitis; reduced renal function in infants < 3 months of age; sepsis with multi-organ failure; and shock. Therapy with theophyllines should be administered cautiously in patients presenting with one or more of these risk factors, and the dosage should be appropriately reduced to prevent toxicity. More intensive monitoring of serum theophylline concentrations may be required. Toxicity is most likely to occur when levels exceed 20 mcg/mL. Severe cases, sometimes without previous warning, have led to cardiac arrhythmias, intractable seizures, and death.

References

  1. Kraan J, Jonkman JH, Koeter GH, et al "The pharmacokinetics of theophylline and enprofylline in patients with liver cirrhosis and in patients with chronic renal disease." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1988): 357-62
  2. O'Connor P, Feely J "Clinical pharmacokinetics and endocrine disorders. Therapeutic implications." Clin Pharmacokinet 13 (1987): 345-64
  3. Clark BG, Vestal RE "Adverse drug reactions in the elderly: case studies." Geriatrics 39 (1984): 53-4,60-3,66
  4. Aderka D, Shavit G, Garfinkel D, et al "Life-threatening theophylline intoxication in a hypothyroid patient." Respiration 44 (1983): 77-80
  5. Dal Negro R, Turco P, Pomari C, Monici-Preti P "Effect of various disease states on theophylline plasma levels and on pulmonary function in patients with chronic airway obstruction treated with a sustained release theophylline preparation." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 25 (1987): 401-5
  6. Jeong CS, Hwang SC, Jones DW, Ryu HS, Sohn K, Sands CD "Theophylline disposition in korean patients with congestive heart failure." Ann Pharmacother 28 (1994): 396-401
  7. Staib AH, Schuppan D, Lissner R, Zilly W, von Bomhard G, Richter E "Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of theophylline in patients with liver diseases." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 18 (1980): 500-2
  8. Sessler CN "Theophylline toxicity: clinical features of 116 consecutive cases." Am J Med 88 (1990): 567-76
  9. Shin SG, Juan D, Rammohan M "Theophylline pharmacokinetics in normal elderly subjects." Clin Pharmacol Ther 44 (1988): 522-30
  10. Piafsky KM, Sitar DS, Rangno RE, Ogilvie RI "Theophylline disposition in patients with hepatic cirrhosis." N Engl J Med 296 (1977): 1495-7
  11. Shannon M "Predictors of major toxicity after theophylline overdose." Ann Intern Med 119 (1993): 1161-7
  12. Ogilvie RJ "Clinical pharmacokinetics of theophylline." Clin Pharmacokinet 3 (1978): 267-93
  13. Hendeles L, Weinberger M, Johnson G "Monitoring serum theophylline levels." Clin Pharmacokinet 3 (1978): 294-312
  14. Schiff GD, Hegde HK, LaCloche L, Hryhorczuk DO "Inpatient theophylline toxicity: preventable factors." Ann Intern Med 114 (1991): 748-53
  15. Albert S "Aminophylline toxicity." Pediatr Clin North Am 34 (1987): 61-73
  16. Au WY, Dutt AK, DeSoyza N "Theophylline kinetics in chronic obstructive airway disease in the elderly." Clin Pharmacol Ther 37 (1985): 472-8
  17. "Product Information. Theo-Dur (theophylline)." Schering Laboratories, Kenilworth, NJ.
  18. Blouin RA, Erwin WG, Foster TS, Scott S "Pharmacokinetics of theophylline in young and elderly subjects." Gerontology 28 (1982): 323-7
  19. Covelli HD, Knodel AR, Heppner BT "Predisposing factors to apparent theophylline-induced seizures." Ann Allergy 54 (1985): 411-5
  20. Amodio P, Lauro S, Rondana M, et al "Theophylline pharmacokinetics and liver function indexes in chronic liver disease." Respiration 58 (1991): 106-11
  21. Vicuna N, McNay JL, Ludden TM, Schwertner H "Impaired theophylline clearance in patients with cor pumonale." Br J Clin Pharmacol 7 (1979): 33-7
  22. Jackson SH, Johnston A, Woollard R, Turner P "The relationship between theophylline clearance and age in adult life." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 36 (1989): 29-34
  23. Vozeh S, Otten M, Staub JJ, Follath F "Influence of thyroid function on theophylline kinetics." Clin Pharmacol Ther 36 (1984): 634-40
  24. Jenne JW "Effect of disease states on theophylline elimination." J Allergy Clin Immunol 78 (1986): 727-35
  25. Pokrajac M, Simic D, Varagic VM "Pharmacokinetics of theophylline in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 33 (1987): 483-6
  26. Milgrom H, Bender B "Current issues in the use of theophylline." Am Rev Respir Dis 147 (1993): s33-9
  27. Kuntz HD, Straub H, May B "Theophylline elimination in congestive heart failure." Klin Wochenschr 61 (1983): 1105-6
View all 27 references
Moderate

Methylxanthines (Includes Theo-24) ↔ Tachyarrhythmias

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Tachyarrhythmia, Angina Pectoris, Myocardial Infarction, Post MI Syndrome, Hypertension, Hyperthyroidism

The use of theophyllines is associated with an increase in heart rate which may progress to supraventricular tachycardia or ventricular arrhythmia at high serum drug concentrations. Appearance of cardiac adverse effects is generally an indication of theophylline toxicity, although patients with a history of tachyarrhythmias may be more susceptible to the chronotropic effect of these drugs. Therapy with theophyllines should be administered cautiously in such patients. Caution is also advised in patients with hypertension, hyperthyroidism, angina pectoris, or recent myocardial infarction, since high dosages of the drugs are associated with positive inotropic as well as chronotropic effects. Clinical monitoring of serum drug concentrations is recommended to prevent toxicity.

References

  1. Sessler CN "Theophylline toxicity: clinical features of 116 consecutive cases." Am J Med 88 (1990): 567-76
  2. Levine JH, Michael JR, Guarnieri T "Multifocal atrial tachycardia: a toxic effect of theophylline." Lancet 1 (1985): 12-4
  3. Bittar G, Friedman HS "The arrhythmogenicity of theophylline: a multivariate analysis of clinical determinants." Chest 99 (1991): 1415-20
  4. Albert S "Aminophylline toxicity." Pediatr Clin North Am 34 (1987): 61-73
  5. Chazan R, Karwat K, Tyminska K, Tadeusiak W, Droszcz W "Cardiac arrhythmias as a result of intravenous infusions of theophylline in patients with airway obstruction." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 33 (1995): 170-5
  6. Taniguchi A, Ohe T, Shimorura K "Theophylline-induced ventricular tachycardia in a patient with chronic lung disease: sensitivity to verapamil." Chest 96 (1989): 958-9
  7. Marchlinski FE, Miller JM "Atrial arrhythmias exacerbated by theophylline: response to verapamil and evidence for triggered activity in man." Chest 88 (1985): 931-4
  8. Schiff GD, Hegde HK, LaCloche L, Hryhorczuk DO "Inpatient theophylline toxicity: preventable factors." Ann Intern Med 114 (1991): 748-53
  9. Patel AK, Skatrud JB, Thomsen JH "Cardiac arrhythmias due to oral aminophylline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Chest 80 (1981): 661-5
  10. Milgrom H, Bender B "Current issues in the use of theophylline." Am Rev Respir Dis 147 (1993): s33-9
  11. Hendeles L, Weinberger M, Johnson G "Monitoring serum theophylline levels." Clin Pharmacokinet 3 (1978): 294-312
  12. Mccarthy M "Theophylline, beta-agonists, and cardiovascular death." Lancet 349 (1997): 33
View all 12 references

Theo-24 (theophylline) drug Interactions

There are 386 drug interactions with Theo-24 (theophylline)

Theo-24 (theophylline) alcohol/food Interactions

There are 3 alcohol/food interactions with Theo-24 (theophylline)

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No information available.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

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