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Dyazide Disease Interactions

There are 20 disease interactions with Dyazide (hydrochlorothiazide / triamterene).

Major

Potassium-sparing diuretics (applies to Dyazide) acidosis

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Diabetes Mellitus, Pulmonary Impairment

Acidosis alters the ratio of extracellular to intracellular potassium and may commonly lead to rapid increases in serum potassium levels. Conversely, high serum potassium concentrations may potentiate acidosis. Because of their hyperkalemic effects, therapy with potassium-sparing diuretics should be avoided in patients with metabolic or respiratory acidosis. These agents should be used cautiously in patients in whom acidosis may occur, such as patients with cardiopulmonary disease, severe respiratory disease, or poorly controlled diabetes. Acid-base balance and serum potassium levels should be monitored at regular intervals.

References

  1. Vidt DG "Mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, and therapeutic uses of amiloride hydrochloride, a new potassium-sparing diuretic." Pharmacotherapy 1 (1981): 179-86
  2. "Product Information. Dyrenium (triamterene)." SmithKline Beecham (2001):
  3. Ochs HR, Greenblatt DJ, Bodem G, Smith TW "Spironolactone." Am Heart J 96 (1978): 389-400
  4. Gabow PA, Moore S, Schrier RW "Spironolactone-induced hyperchloremic acidosis in cirrhosis." Ann Intern Med 90 (1979): 338-40
  5. Feinfeld DA, Carvounis CP "Fatal hyperkalemia and hyperchloremic acidosis. Association with spironolactone in the absence of renal impairment." JAMA 240 (1978): 1516
  6. Jariwalla AG, Jones CR, Lever A, Hall R "Spironolactone and diabetic ketoacidosis." Postgrad Med J 57 (1981): 573-4
  7. "Product Information. Midamor (amiloride)." Merck & Company Inc (2001):
  8. "Product Information. Aldactone (spironolactone)." Searle (2001):
View all 8 references
Major

Potassium-sparing diuretics (applies to Dyazide) diabetes

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Diabetes Mellitus

Potassium-sparing diuretics can cause hyperkalemia, which may result in life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Patients with diabetes mellitus, with or without nephropathy, may be particularly susceptible to the hyperkalemic effect of these drugs due to a defect in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis. Therapy with potassium-sparing diuretics should be avoided, if possible, in patients with diabetes, especially uncontrolled or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. If these drugs are used, serum potassium levels and renal function should be monitored at regular intervals. Determination of serum electrolytes is especially important during initiation of therapy, after a dosage adjustment, and during illness that could alter renal function.

References

  1. Vidt DG "Mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, and therapeutic uses of amiloride hydrochloride, a new potassium-sparing diuretic." Pharmacotherapy 1 (1981): 179-86
  2. Svendsen UG, Ibsen H, Rasmussen S, Leth A, Nielsen MD, Dige-Petersen H, Giese J "Effects of amiloride on plasma and total body potassium, blood pressure, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in thiazide-treated hypertensive patients." Clin Pharmacol Ther 34 (1983): 448-53
  3. McNay JL, Oran E "Possible predisposition of diabetic patients to hyperkalemia following administration of potassium-retaining diuretic, amiloride (MK 870)." Metabolism 19 (1970): 58-70
  4. Hollenberg NK, Mickiewicz C "Hyperkalemia in diabetes mellitus. Effect of a triamterene- hydrochlorothiazide combination." Arch Intern Med 149 (1989): 1327-30
  5. Amery A, Berthaux P, Bulpitt C, Deruyttere M, de Schaepdryver A, Dollery C, Fagard R, Forette F, Hellemans J, Lund-Johansen PMutsers A, Tuomilehto J "Glucose intolerance during diuretic therapy. Results of trial by the European Working Party on Hypertension in the Elderly." Lancet 1 (1978): 681-3
  6. Hollenberg NK, Mickiewicz CW "Postmarketing surveillance in 70,898 patients treated with a triamterene/hydrochlorothiazide combination (Maxzide) [published erratum appears in Am J Cardiol 1990 Aug 1;66(3):388]." Am J Cardiol 63 (1989): b37-41
  7. Walker BR, Capuzzi DM, Alexander F, Familiar RG, Hoppe RC "Hyperkalemia after triamterene in diabetic patients." Clin Pharmacol Ther 13 (1972): 643-51
  8. "Product Information. Dyrenium (triamterene)." SmithKline Beecham (2001):
  9. Yap V, Patel A, Thomsen J "Hyperkalemia with cardiac arrhythmia. Induction by salt substitutes, spironolactone, and azotemia." JAMA 236 (1976): 2775-6
  10. Jariwalla AG, Jones CR, Lever A, Hall R "Spironolactone and diabetic ketoacidosis." Postgrad Med J 57 (1981): 573-4
  11. "Product Information. Midamor (amiloride)." Merck & Company Inc (2001):
  12. "Product Information. Aldactone (spironolactone)." Searle (2001):
  13. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
View all 13 references
Major

Potassium-sparing diuretics (applies to Dyazide) electrolytes/fluid

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Electrolyte Abnormalities, Hyponatremia

All diuretics may cause or aggravate fluid and electrolyte disturbances. Potassium-sparing diuretics may cause hyperkalemia and, infrequently, hyponatremia. The latter generally occurs when these agents are combined with other diuretics such as thiazides or used in markedly edematous patients with restricted sodium intake. Therapy with potassium-sparing diuretics should be administered cautiously in patients with or predisposed to electrolyte abnormalities. Electrolyte imbalances should be corrected prior to initiating therapy, and serum electrolyte concentrations should be monitored periodically and maintained at normal ranges during therapy. Determination of serum electrolytes is especially important during initiation of therapy, after a dosage adjustment, and during illness that could alter renal function.

References

  1. Vidt DG "Mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, and therapeutic uses of amiloride hydrochloride, a new potassium-sparing diuretic." Pharmacotherapy 1 (1981): 179-86
  2. Tarssanen L, Huikko M, Rossi M "Amiloride-induced hyponatremia." Acta Med Scand 208 (1980): 491-4
  3. Svendsen UG, Ibsen H, Rasmussen S, Leth A, Nielsen MD, Dige-Petersen H, Giese J "Effects of amiloride on plasma and total body potassium, blood pressure, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in thiazide-treated hypertensive patients." Clin Pharmacol Ther 34 (1983): 448-53
  4. McNay JL, Oran E "Possible predisposition of diabetic patients to hyperkalemia following administration of potassium-retaining diuretic, amiloride (MK 870)." Metabolism 19 (1970): 58-70
  5. Davidson C, Burkinshaw L, Morgan DB "The effects of potassium supplements, spironolactone or amiloride on the potassium status of patients with heart failure." Postgrad Med J 54 (1978): 405-9
  6. Maddox RW, Arnold WS, Dewell WM "Extreme hyperkalemia associated with amiloride ." South Med J 78 (1985): 365
  7. Millar JA, Fraser R, Mason P, Leckie B, Cumming AM, Robertson JI "Metabolic effects of high dose amiloride and spironolactone: a comparative study in normal subjects." Br J Clin Pharmacol 18 (1984): 369-75
  8. Schiffl H, Schollmeyer P "Clinical efficacy and safety of long-term diuretic treatment in renal parenchymal hypertension." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 23 (1985): 585-8
  9. Cohen AB "Hyperkalemic effects of triamterene." Ann Intern Med 65 (1966): 521-7
  10. Hollenberg NK, Mickiewicz C "Hyperkalemia in diabetes mellitus. Effect of a triamterene- hydrochlorothiazide combination." Arch Intern Med 149 (1989): 1327-30
  11. Roberts CJ, Channer KS, Bungay D "Hyponatraemia induced by a combination of hydrochlorothiazide and triamterene." Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 288 (1984): 1962
  12. Hansen KB, Bender AD "Changes in serum potassium levels occurring in patients treated with triamterene and a triamterene-hydrochlorothiazide combination." Clin Pharmacol Ther 8 (1967): 392-9
  13. Hollenberg NK, Mickiewicz CW "Postmarketing surveillance in 70,898 patients treated with a triamterene/hydrochlorothiazide combination (Maxzide) [published erratum appears in Am J Cardiol 1990 Aug 1;66(3):388]." Am J Cardiol 63 (1989): b37-41
  14. Walker BR, Capuzzi DM, Alexander F, Familiar RG, Hoppe RC "Hyperkalemia after triamterene in diabetic patients." Clin Pharmacol Ther 13 (1972): 643-51
  15. "Product Information. Dyrenium (triamterene)." SmithKline Beecham (2001):
  16. Ochs HR, Greenblatt DJ, Bodem G, Smith TW "Spironolactone." Am Heart J 96 (1978): 389-400
  17. Feinfeld DA, Carvounis CP "Fatal hyperkalemia and hyperchloremic acidosis. Association with spironolactone in the absence of renal impairment." JAMA 240 (1978): 1516
  18. Yap V, Patel A, Thomsen J "Hyperkalemia with cardiac arrhythmia. Induction by salt substitutes, spironolactone, and azotemia." JAMA 236 (1976): 2775-6
  19. Udezue EO, Harrold BP "Hyperkalaemic paralysis due to spironolactone." Postgrad Med J 56 (1980): 254-5
  20. Brest AN "Spironolactone in the treatment of hypertension: a review." Clin Ther 8 (1986): 568-85
  21. Jeunemaitre X, Dreft-Jais C, Chatellier G, Julien J, Degoulet P, Plouin P, Menard J, Corvol P "Long-term experience of spironolactone in essential hypertension." Kidney Int 34 Suppl (1988): s14-7
  22. "Product Information. Midamor (amiloride)." Merck & Company Inc (2001):
  23. "Product Information. Aldactone (spironolactone)." Searle (2001):
  24. Hirschl MM, Seidler D, Laggner AN "Spironolactone-associated hyponatremic coma." Nephron 67 (1994): 503
View all 24 references
Major

Potassium-sparing diuretics (applies to Dyazide) hyperkalemia

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility.

The use of potassium-sparing diuretics is contraindicated in the presence of elevated serum potassium concentrations (> 5.5 mEq/L). Potassium-sparing diuretics can cause hyperkalemia, which may result in life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Careful monitoring of serum potassium levels is necessary in all patients treated with potassium-sparing diuretics, especially during initiation of therapy, after dosage adjustment, and during illness that could alter renal function. The diuretic should be withdrawn immediately if hyperkalemia develops, and measures should be initiated to lower serum potassium if it exceeds 6.5 mEq/L. The combined use of a potassium-sparing diuretic with a kaliuretic diuretic (e.g., thiazides) may decrease the risk of hyperkalemia.

References

  1. Vidt DG "Mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, and therapeutic uses of amiloride hydrochloride, a new potassium-sparing diuretic." Pharmacotherapy 1 (1981): 179-86
  2. Svendsen UG, Ibsen H, Rasmussen S, Leth A, Nielsen MD, Dige-Petersen H, Giese J "Effects of amiloride on plasma and total body potassium, blood pressure, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in thiazide-treated hypertensive patients." Clin Pharmacol Ther 34 (1983): 448-53
  3. McNay JL, Oran E "Possible predisposition of diabetic patients to hyperkalemia following administration of potassium-retaining diuretic, amiloride (MK 870)." Metabolism 19 (1970): 58-70
  4. Davidson C, Burkinshaw L, Morgan DB "The effects of potassium supplements, spironolactone or amiloride on the potassium status of patients with heart failure." Postgrad Med J 54 (1978): 405-9
  5. Maddox RW, Arnold WS, Dewell WM "Extreme hyperkalemia associated with amiloride ." South Med J 78 (1985): 365
  6. Millar JA, Fraser R, Mason P, Leckie B, Cumming AM, Robertson JI "Metabolic effects of high dose amiloride and spironolactone: a comparative study in normal subjects." Br J Clin Pharmacol 18 (1984): 369-75
  7. Schiffl H, Schollmeyer P "Clinical efficacy and safety of long-term diuretic treatment in renal parenchymal hypertension." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 23 (1985): 585-8
  8. Cohen AB "Hyperkalemic effects of triamterene." Ann Intern Med 65 (1966): 521-7
  9. Hollenberg NK, Mickiewicz C "Hyperkalemia in diabetes mellitus. Effect of a triamterene- hydrochlorothiazide combination." Arch Intern Med 149 (1989): 1327-30
  10. Hansen KB, Bender AD "Changes in serum potassium levels occurring in patients treated with triamterene and a triamterene-hydrochlorothiazide combination." Clin Pharmacol Ther 8 (1967): 392-9
  11. Hollenberg NK, Mickiewicz CW "Postmarketing surveillance in 70,898 patients treated with a triamterene/hydrochlorothiazide combination (Maxzide) [published erratum appears in Am J Cardiol 1990 Aug 1;66(3):388]." Am J Cardiol 63 (1989): b37-41
  12. Walker BR, Capuzzi DM, Alexander F, Familiar RG, Hoppe RC "Hyperkalemia after triamterene in diabetic patients." Clin Pharmacol Ther 13 (1972): 643-51
  13. "Product Information. Dyrenium (triamterene)." SmithKline Beecham (2001):
  14. Ochs HR, Greenblatt DJ, Bodem G, Smith TW "Spironolactone." Am Heart J 96 (1978): 389-400
  15. Feinfeld DA, Carvounis CP "Fatal hyperkalemia and hyperchloremic acidosis. Association with spironolactone in the absence of renal impairment." JAMA 240 (1978): 1516
  16. Yap V, Patel A, Thomsen J "Hyperkalemia with cardiac arrhythmia. Induction by salt substitutes, spironolactone, and azotemia." JAMA 236 (1976): 2775-6
  17. Udezue EO, Harrold BP "Hyperkalaemic paralysis due to spironolactone." Postgrad Med J 56 (1980): 254-5
  18. Brest AN "Spironolactone in the treatment of hypertension: a review." Clin Ther 8 (1986): 568-85
  19. Jeunemaitre X, Dreft-Jais C, Chatellier G, Julien J, Degoulet P, Plouin P, Menard J, Corvol P "Long-term experience of spironolactone in essential hypertension." Kidney Int 34 Suppl (1988): s14-7
  20. "Product Information. Midamor (amiloride)." Merck & Company Inc (2001):
  21. "Product Information. Aldactone (spironolactone)." Searle (2001):
  22. Marcy TR, Ripley TL "Aldosterone antagonists in the treatment of heart failure." Am J Health Syst Pharm 63 (2006): 49-58
View all 22 references
Major

Potassium-sparing diuretics (applies to Dyazide) liver disease

Major Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility.

Rapid alterations in fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma in patients with liver disease. Hepatic encephalopathy has been associated with the use of diuretics, most frequently thiazides but also some potassium-sparing diuretics. Therapy with all diuretics should be administered cautiously in patients with severely impaired hepatic function. These patients should be monitored carefully for signs and symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy such as tremors, confusion, increased jaundice, and coma. Since spironolactone and triamterene are primarily metabolized by the liver, reduced dosages of these drugs may also be necessary in severe hepatic impairment.

References

  1. Karim A, Zagarella J, Hribar J, Dooley M "Spironolactone I: disposition and metabolism." Clin Pharmacol Ther 19 (1976): 158-69
  2. Sadee W, Schroder R, Leitner E, Dagcioglu M "Multiple dose kinetics of spironolactone and canrenoate-potassium in cardiac and hepatic failure." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 7 (1974): 195-200
  3. Villeneuve JP, Rocheleau F, Raymond G "Triamterene kinetics and dynamics in cirrhosis." Clin Pharmacol Ther 35 (1984): 831-7
  4. Mutschler E, Gilfrich HJ, Knauf H, Mohrke W, Volger KD "Pharmacokinetics of triamterene." Clin Exp Hypertens A 5 (1983): 249-69
  5. Dao MT, Villeneuve JP "Kinetics and dynamics of triamterene at steady-state in patients with cirrhosis." Clin Invest Med 11 (1988): 6-9
  6. Sungaila I, Bartle WR, Walker SE, DeAngelis C, Uetrecht J, Pappas C, Vidins E "Spironolactone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in patis with cirrhotic ascites." Gastroenterology 102 (1992): 1680-5
  7. Abshagen U, Rennekamp H, Luszpinski G "Disposition kinetics of spironolactone in hepatic failure after single doses and prolonged treatment." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 11 (1977): 169-76
  8. Overdiek HW, Merkus FW "The metabolism and biopharmaceutics of spironolactone in man." Rev Drug Metab Drug Interact 5 (1987): 273-302
  9. "Product Information. Dyrenium (triamterene)." SmithKline Beecham (2001):
  10. "Product Information. Midamor (amiloride)." Merck & Company Inc (2001):
  11. "Product Information. Aldactone (spironolactone)." Searle (2001):
  12. Renkes P, Gaucher P, Trechot P "Spironolactone and hepatic toxicity." JAMA 273 (1995): 376-7
View all 12 references
Major

Potassium-sparing diuretics (applies to Dyazide) renal dysfunction

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility.

The use of potassium-sparing diuretics is contraindicated in patients with anuria, acute or progressive renal insufficiency, or diabetic nephropathy. Potassium-sparing diuretics can cause hyperkalemia, which may result in life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Patients with impaired renal function may be particularly susceptible to the hyperkalemic effect of these drugs. Therapy with potassium-sparing diuretics should be administered cautiously in patients with evidence of renal function impairment (BUN > 30 mg/dL or serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL). If these drugs are used, serum potassium levels and renal function should be monitored at regular intervals. Determination of serum electrolytes is especially important during initiation of therapy, after a dosage adjustment, and during illness that could alter renal function.

References

  1. Vidt DG "Mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, and therapeutic uses of amiloride hydrochloride, a new potassium-sparing diuretic." Pharmacotherapy 1 (1981): 179-86
  2. Svendsen UG, Ibsen H, Rasmussen S, Leth A, Nielsen MD, Dige-Petersen H, Giese J "Effects of amiloride on plasma and total body potassium, blood pressure, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in thiazide-treated hypertensive patients." Clin Pharmacol Ther 34 (1983): 448-53
  3. Lynn KL, Bailey RR, Swainson CP, Sainsbury R, Low WI "Renal failure with potassium-sparing diuretics." N Z Med J 98 (1985): 629-33
  4. George CF "Amiloride handling in renal failure." Br J Clin Pharmacol 9 (1980): 94-5
  5. Somogyi A, Hewson D, Muirhead M, Bochner F "Amiloride disposition in geriatric patients: importance of renal function." Br J Clin Pharmacol 29 (1990): 1-8
  6. Knauf H, Reuter K, Mutschler E "Limitation on the use of amiloride in early renal failure." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 28 (1985): 61-6
  7. Schiffl H, Schollmeyer P "Clinical efficacy and safety of long-term diuretic treatment in renal parenchymal hypertension." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 23 (1985): 585-8
  8. Hollenberg NK, Mickiewicz CW "Postmarketing surveillance in 70,898 patients treated with a triamterene/hydrochlorothiazide combination (Maxzide) [published erratum appears in Am J Cardiol 1990 Aug 1;66(3):388]." Am J Cardiol 63 (1989): b37-41
  9. "Triamterene and the kidney." Lancet 1 (1986): 424
  10. Roy LF, Villeneuve JP, Dumont A, Dufresne LR, Duran MA, Morin C, Jobin J "Irreversible renal failure associated with triamterene." Am J Nephrol 11 (1991): 486-8
  11. "Product Information. Dyrenium (triamterene)." SmithKline Beecham (2001):
  12. Yap V, Patel A, Thomsen J "Hyperkalemia with cardiac arrhythmia. Induction by salt substitutes, spironolactone, and azotemia." JAMA 236 (1976): 2775-6
  13. Neale TJ, Lynn KL, Bailey RR "Spironolactone-associated aggravation of renal functional impairment." N Z Med J 83 (1976): 147-9
  14. "Product Information. Midamor (amiloride)." Merck & Company Inc (2001):
  15. "Product Information. Aldactone (spironolactone)." Searle (2001):
View all 15 references
Major

Thiazides (applies to Dyazide) anuria

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility.

The use of thiazide diuretics is contraindicated in patients with anuria.

References

  1. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2002):
  2. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2002):
  3. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2001):
  4. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc (2001):
  5. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2001):
  6. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical (2001):
  7. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion Roussel (2001):
  8. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories (2001):
  9. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
View all 9 references
Major

Thiazides (applies to Dyazide) electrolyte losses

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Hypokalemia, Diarrhea, Electrolyte Abnormalities, Hyperaldosteronism, Hyponatremia, Magnesium Imbalance, Malnourished, Vomiting, Ventricular Arrhythmia, Dehydration

The use of thiazide diuretics is commonly associated with loss of electrolytes, most significantly potassium but also sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, and magnesium. The loss of other electrolytes such as phosphate, bromide and iodide is usually slight. Potassium and magnesium depletion may lead to cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Other electrolyte-related complications include metabolic alkalosis and hyponatremia, which are rarely life-threatening. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously in patients with or predisposed to fluid and electrolyte depletion, including patients with primary or secondary aldosteronism (may have low potassium levels); those with severe or prolonged diarrhea or vomiting; and those with poor nutritional status. Fluid and electrolyte abnormalities should be corrected prior to initiating therapy, and blood pressure as well as serum electrolyte concentrations monitored periodically and maintained at normal ranges during therapy. Patients should be advised to immediately report signs and symptoms of fluid or electrolyte imbalance, including dry mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, restlessness, muscle pains or cramps, muscular fatigue, hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia, arrhythmia, or gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea and vomiting. Digitalized patients and patients with a history of ventricular arrhythmias should be monitored carefully, since development of hypokalemia may be particularly dangerous in these patients. The risk of hypokalemia may be minimized by slow diuresis, a lower thiazide dosage, potassium supplementation, or combined use with a potassium-sparing diuretic.

References

  1. Lindy S, Tarssanen L "Serum calcium and phosphorus in patients treated with thiazides and furosemide." Acta Med Scand 194 (1973): 319-22
  2. Leigh H "Letter: Factitious hypokalemia." Ann Intern Med 80 (1974): 111-2
  3. Moore TD, Bechtel TP "Hyponatremia secondary to tolbutamide and chlorothiazide." Am J Hosp Pharm 36 (1979): 1107-10
  4. Falch DK, Schreiner AM "Changes in urinary electrolytes versus serum electrolytes during treatment of primary hypertension with chlorthalidone alone and in combination with spironolactone." Acta Med Scand 209 (1981): 111-4
  5. Papademetriou V, Fletcher R, Khatri IM, Freis ED "Diuretic-induced hypokalemia in uncomplicated systemic hypertension: effect of plasma potassium correction on cardiac arrhythmias." Am J Cardiol 52 (1983): 1017-22
  6. Kuller L, Farrier N, Caggiula A, Borhani N, Dunkle S "Relationship of diuretic therapy and serum magnesium levels among participants in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial." Am J Epidemiol 122 (1985): 1045-59
  7. Remenchik AP, Johnston LC "Potassium depletion produced by administration of chlorthalidone to nonedematous patients with arterial hypertensin." Am J Med Sci 252 (1966): 171-6
  8. Katz FH, Eckert RC, Gebott MD "Hypokalemia caused by surreptitious self-administration of diuretics." Ann Intern Med 76 (1972): 85-90
  9. Fichman MP, Vorherr H, Kleeman CR, Telfer N "Diuretic-induced hyponatremia." Ann Intern Med 75 (1971): 853-63
  10. Stewart DE, Ikram H, Espiner EA, Nicholls MG "Arrhythmogenic potential of diuretic induced hypokalaemia in patients with mild hypertension and ischaemic heart disease." Br Heart J 54 (1985): 290-7
  11. Kuller LH, Hulley SB, Cohen JD, Neaton J "Unexpected effects of treating hypertension in men with electrocardiographic abnormalities: a critical analysis." Circulation 73 (1986): 114-23
  12. Landmann-Suter R, Struyvenberg A "Initial potassium loss and hypokalaemia during chlorthalidone administration in patients with essential hypertension: the influence of dietary sodium restriction." Eur J Clin Invest 8 (1978): 155-64
  13. Navarro RP, O'Brien DK, Nuffort P, Spencer DL "Diuretic induced hypokalemia in the elderly." J Fam Pract 14 (1982): 685-9
  14. Oh SJ, Douglas JE, Brown RA "Hypokalemic vacuolar myopathy associated with chlorthalidone treatment." JAMA 216 (1971): 1858-9
  15. Mozes B, Pines A, Werner D, Olchovsky D, Lieberman P, Frankl O "Thiazide-induced hyponatremia: an unusual neurologic course." South Med J 79 (1986): 629-31
  16. Jensen OB, Mosdal C, Reske-Nielsen E "Hypokalemic myopathy during treatment with diuretics." Acta Neurol Scand 55 (1977): 465-82
  17. Cembrowski GS, Huntington RW, 3d "Probable fatal cardiac dysrhythmia secondary to diuretic-induced hypokalemia." Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2 (1981): 243-8
  18. Sumiye L, Vivian AS, Frisof KB, Podany EC "Potassium loss associated with hydrochlorothiazide versus chlorthalidone." Clin Ther 4 (1981): 308-20
  19. Berg KJ, Gisholt K, Wideroe TE "Potassium deficiency in hypertensives treated with diuretics. Analysis of three alternative treatments by an oral test for potassium deficiency." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 7 (1974): 401-5
  20. Chowdhury FR, Bleicher SJ "Chlorthalidone--induced hypokalemia and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism." Horm Metab Res 2 (1970): 13-6
  21. Carney SL, Morgan TO "Diuretic-induced hypokalemia and altered renal function." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 24 (1986): 665-7
  22. Ragnarsson J, Hardarson T, Snorrason SP "Ventricular dysrhythmias in middle-aged hypertensive men treated either with a diuretic agent or a beta-blocker." Acta Med Scand 221 (1987): 143-8
  23. Hollifield JW, Slaton PE "Thiazide diuretics, hypokalemia and cardiac arrhythmias." Acta Med Scand Suppl 647 (1981): 67-73
  24. Papademetriou V, Price M, Notargiacomo A, Gottdiener J, Fletcher RD, Freis ED "Effect of diuretic therapy on ventricular arrhythmias in hypertensive patients with or without left ventricular hypertrophy." Am Heart J 110 (1985): 595-9
  25. Papademetriou V, Fletcher R, Khatri IM, Freis ED "Diuretic-induced hypokalemia in uncomplicated systemic hypertension: effect of plasma potassium correction on cardiac arrhythmias." Am J Cardiol 52 (1983): 1017-22
  26. Krishna GG, Narins RG "Hemodynamic consequences of diuretic-induced hypokalemia." Am J Kidney Dis 12 (1988): 329-31
  27. Polanska AI, Baron DN "Hyponatraemia associated with hydrochlorothiazide treatment ." Br Med J 1 (1978): 175-6
  28. Pinnock CA "Hyponatraemia associated with hydrochlorothiazide treatment ." Br Med J 1 (1978): 48
  29. Itescu S, Haskell LP, Tannenberg AM "Thiazide-induced clinically significant hypophosphatemia ." Clin Nephrol 27 (1987): 161-2
  30. Byatt CM, Millard PH, Levin GE "Diuretics and electrolyte disturbances in 1000 consecutive geriatric admissions." J R Soc Med 83 (1990): 704-8
  31. Bain PG, Egner W, Walker PR "Thiazide-induced dilutional hyponatraemia masquerading as subarachnoid haemorrhage ." Lancet 2 (1986): 634
  32. Benfield GF, Haffner C, Harris P, Stableforth DE "Dilutional hyponatraemia masquerading as subarachnoid haemorrhage in patient on hydrochlorothiazide/amiloride/timolol combined drug ." Lancet 2 (1986): 341
  33. Gould L, Reddy CV, Zen B, Singh BK "Life-threatening reaction to thiazides." N Y State J Med 80 (1980): 1975-6
  34. Seelig CB "Magnesium deficiency in two hypertensive patient groups." South Med J 83 (1990): 739-42
  35. Peters RW, Hamilton J, Hamilton BP "Incidence of cardiac arrhythmias associated with mild hypokalemia induced by low-dose diuretic therapy for hypertension." South Med J 82 (1989): 966-9,
  36. Kone B, Gimenez L, Watson AJ "Thiazide-induced hyponatremia." South Med J 79 (1986): 1456-7
  37. Holland OB, Kuhnert L, Pollard J, Padia M, Anderson RJ, Blomqvist G "Ventricular ectopic activity with diuretic therapy." Am J Hypertens 1 (1988): 380-5
  38. Mouallem M, Friedman E, Shemesh Y, Mayan H, Pauzner R, Farfel Z "Cardiac conduction defects associated with hyponatremia." Clin Cardiol 14 (1991): 165-8
  39. Kaur J, Wahi PL "Polythiazide as a diuretic. A clinical trial." J Indian Med Assoc 48 (1967): 13-7
  40. Mroczek WJ "Indapamide: clinical pharmacology, therapeutic efficacy in hypertension, and adverse effects." Pharmacotherapy 3 (1983): 61-7
  41. Beling S, Vukovich RA, Neiss ES, Zisblatt M, Webb E, Losi M "Long-term experience with indapamide." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 258-62
  42. Slotkoff L "Clinical efficacy and safety of indapamide in the treatment of edema." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 233-7
  43. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2002):
  44. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2002):
  45. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2001):
  46. Stern A "Metolazone, a diuretic agent." Am Heart J 91 (1976): 262-3
  47. Black W, Shiner P, Roman J "Severe electrolyte disturbances associated with metolazone and furosemide." South Med J 71 (1978): 381
  48. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc (2001):
  49. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2001):
  50. Ghose RR "Letter: Hyponatraemia and diuretics." Lancet 1 (1975): 578-9
  51. Brors O, Enger E, Jacobsen S, Aakvaag A, Foss OP "Effects of hydroflumethiazide in congestive heart failure: renal electrolyte excretion related to urinary thiazide excretion and aldosterone." Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 49 (1981): 399-406
  52. Brors O, Jacobsen S, Foss OP, Aakvaag A "Effect of repeated doses of hydroflumethiazide on renal excretion of electrolytes and uric acid in healthy subjects." Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 48 (1981): 145-50
  53. el-Meheiry MM, Nabih AE, Soliman MD "A clinical study of a new diuretic, Trichlormethiazide." J Trop Med Hyg 69 (1966): 209-14
  54. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical (2001):
  55. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion Roussel (2001):
  56. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories (2001):
  57. Husby S, Marthedal NJ "Hyponatraemia due to a thiazide diuretic. A case report." Acta Med Scand 210 (1981): 523-4
  58. Berglund G, Andersson O, Larsson O, Wilhelmsen L "Antihypertensive effect and side-effects of bendroflumethiazide and propranolol." Acta Med Scand 199 (1976): 499-506
  59. Gudbrandsson T, Hansson L "Combination therapy with saluretics and atenolol in essential hypertension. Effects on blood pressure, electrolytes and uric acid." Acta Med Scand Suppl 625 (1979): 86-91
  60. Elmfeldt D, Berglund G, Wedel H, Wilhelmsen L "Incidence and importance of metabolic side-effects during antihypertensive therapy." Acta Med Scand Suppl 672 (1983): 79-83
  61. Condon JR, Nassim R "Hypophosphataemia and hypokalaemia." Br Med J 1 (1970): 110
  62. Winchester JF, Kellett RJ, Boddy K, Boyle P, Dargie HJ, Mahaffey ME, Ward DM, Kennedy AC "Metolazone and bendroflumethiazide in hypertension: physiologic and metabolic observations." Clin Pharmacol Ther 28 (1980): 611-8
  63. Lee MR, Morgan DB "Familial hyperkalaemia responsive to benzothiadiazine diuretic." Lancet 1 (1980): 879
  64. Hesp R, Wilkinson PR "Potassium supplementation of thiazide therapy." Lancet 2 (1976): 1144
  65. Struthers AD, Whitesmith R, Reid JL "Prior thiazide diuretic treatment increases adrenaline-induced hypokalaemia." Lancet 1 (1983): 1358-61
  66. Petri M, Cumber P, Grimes L, Treby D, Bryant R, Rawlins D, Ising H "The metabolic effects of thiazide therapy in the elderly: a population study." Age Ageing 15 (1986): 151-5
  67. Starr JM, Whalley LJ "Hypertensive Old People in Edinburgh (HOPE) Study: electrocardiographic changes after captopril or bendrofluazide treatment." Age Ageing 22 (1993): 343-8
  68. Toner JM, Ramsay LE "Thiazide-induced hypokalaemia; prevalence higher in women." Br J Clin Pharmacol 18 (1984): 449-52
  69. Jorgensen FS, Brunner S "The long-term effect of bendroflumethiazide on renal calcium and magnesium excretion and stone formation in patients with recurring renal stones." Scand J Urol Nephrol 8 (1974): 128-31
  70. Ljunghall S, Backman U, Danielson BG, Fellstrom B, Johansson G, Wikstrom B "Calcium and magnesium metabolism during long-term treatment with thiazides." Scand J Urol Nephrol 15 (1981): 257-62
  71. Medical Research Council Working Party on Mild to Moderate Hypertension. "Ventricular extrasystoles during thiazide treatment: substudy of MRC mild hypertension trial." Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 287 (1983): 1249-53
  72. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  73. Freis ED "The efficacy and safety of diuretics in treating hypertension." Ann Intern Med 122 (1995): 223-6
  74. Read SJ, Trenerry HM, Whiting GF "Hyponatraemia and raised creatine kinase level associated with indapamide." Med J Aust 161 (1994): 607-8
  75. Chan TY "Indapamide-induced severe hyponatremia and hypokalemia." Ann Pharmacother 29 (1995): 1124-8
  76. Simunic M, Rumboldt Z, Ljutic D, Sardelic S "Ramipril decreases chlorthalidone-induced loss of magnesium and potassium in hypertensive patients." J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1995): 1150-5
  77. Brater DC "Drug therapy: Diuretic therapy." N Engl J Med 339 (1998): 387-95
  78. Palmer BF, Gates JR, Lader M "Causes and management of hyponatremia." Ann Pharmacother 37 (2003): 1694-702
View all 78 references
Major

Thiazides (applies to Dyazide) liver disease

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility.

Patients with severe liver disease or cirrhosis are very susceptible to thiazide-induced hypokalemic hypochloremic alkalosis. Blood ammonia concentrations may be further increased in patients with previously elevated concentrations. Hepatic encephalopathy and death have occurred secondary to the electrolyte alterations accompanying diuretic use. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, and discontinued promptly if signs of impending hepatic coma appear (e.g., tremors, confusion, and increased jaundice).

References

  1. Aneckstein AG, Weingold AB "Chlorothiazide-induced hepatic coma in pregnancy." Am J Obstet Gynecol 95 (1966): 136-7
  2. Sherlock S, Senewiratne B, Scott A, Walker JG "Complications of diuretic therapy in hepatic cirrhosis." Lancet 1 (1966): 1049-52
  3. Sherlock S, Walker JG, Senewiratne B, Scott A "The complications of diuretic therapy in patients with cirrhosis." Ann N Y Acad Sci 139 (1966): 497-505
  4. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2002):
  5. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2002):
  6. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2001):
  7. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc (2001):
  8. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2001):
  9. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical (2001):
  10. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion Roussel (2001):
  11. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories (2001):
  12. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
View all 12 references
Major

Thiazides (applies to Dyazide) lupus erythematosus

Major Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility.

The use of thiazide diuretics has been reported to possibly exacerbate or activate systemic lupus erythematosus. Reported cases have generally been associated with chlorothiazide and hydrochlorothiazide. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously in patients with a history or risk of SLE.

References

  1. Reed BR, Huff JC, Jones SK, Orton PW, Lee LA, Norris DA "Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus associated with hydrochlorothiazide therapy." Ann Intern Med 103 (1985): 49-51
  2. Parodi A, Romagnoli M, Rebora A "Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus-like eruption caused by hydrochlorothiazide." Photodermatol 6 (1989): 100-2
  3. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2002):
  4. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2002):
  5. Goodrich AL, Kohn SR "Hydrochlorothiazide-induced lupus erythematosus: a new variant?" J Am Acad Dermatol 28 (1993): 1001-2
  6. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2001):
  7. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc (2001):
  8. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2001):
  9. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical (2001):
  10. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion Roussel (2001):
  11. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories (2001):
  12. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  13. Rich MW, Eckman JM "Can hydrochlorothiazide cause lupus?" J Rheumatol 22 (1995): 1001
  14. Brown CW, Deng JS "Thiazide diuretics induce cutaneous lupus-like adverse reaction." J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 33 (1995): 729-33
View all 14 references
Major

Thiazides (applies to Dyazide) renal function disorders

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Renal Dysfunction

Thiazide diuretics may be ineffective when the glomerular filtration rate is low (GFR < 25 mL/min) because they are not expected to be filtered into the renal tubule, their site of action. In addition, thiazide diuretics decrease the GFR and may precipitate azotemia in renal disease. Cumulative effects may also develop because most of these drugs are excreted unchanged in the urine by glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously at reduced dosages in patients with renal impairment. If renal function becomes progressively worse, as indicated by rising BUN or serum creatinine levels, an interruption or discontinuation of thiazide therapy should be considered.

References

  1. Fleuren HLJ, Verwey-van Wissen C, van Rossum JM "Dose-dependent urinary excretion of chlorthalidone." Clin Pharmacol Ther 25 (1979): 806-12
  2. Beermann B, Groschinsky-Grind M, Rosen A "Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of hydrochlorothiazide." Clin Pharmacol Ther 19 (1975): 531-7
  3. Niemeyer C, Hasenfub G, Wais U, et al. "Pharmacokinetics of hydrochlorothiazide in relation to renal function." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 24 (1983): 661-5
  4. Gehr TW, Sica DA, Brater DC, et al. "Metolazone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in renal transplantation." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 29 (1991): 116-23
  5. Jones B, Nanra RS "Double-blind trial of antihypertensive effect of chlorothiazide in severe renal failure." Lancet 2 (1979): 1258-60
  6. Carney SL, Morgan TO "Diuretic-induced hypokalemia and altered renal function." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 24 (1986): 665-7
  7. Magil AB, Ballon HS, Cameron EC, Rae A "Acute interstitial nephritis associated with thiazide diuretics. Clinical and pathologic observations in three cases." Am J Med 69 (1980): 939-43
  8. Magil AB "Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas." Hum Pathol 14 (1983): 36-41
  9. Delevett AF, Recalde M "Diuretic-induced renal colic." JAMA 225 (1973): 992
  10. Riess W, Dubach UC, Burckhardt D, Theobald W, Vuillard P, Zimmerli M "Pharmacokinetic studies with chlorthalidone (Hygroton) in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 12 (1977): 375-82
  11. Tilstone WJ, Dargie H, Dargie EN, Morgan HG, Kennedy AC "Pharmacokinetics of metolazone in normal subjects and in patients with cardiac or renal failure." Clin Pharmacol Ther 16 (1974): 322-9
  12. Bennett WM, Porter GA "Efficacy and safety of metolazone in renal failure and the nephrotic syndrome." J Clin Pharmacol 13 (1973): 357-64
  13. Craswell PW, Ezzat E, Kopstein J, Varghese Z, Moorhead JF "Use of metolazone, a new diuretic, in patients with renal disease." Nephron 12 (1974): 63-73
  14. Acchiardo SR, Skoutakis VA "Clinical efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of indapamide in renal impairment." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 237-44
  15. Brennan L, Wu MJ, Laquer UJ "A multicenter study of indapamide in hypertensive patients with impaired renal function." Clin Ther 5 (1982): 121-8
  16. Klunk LJ, Ringel S, Neiss ES "The disposition of 14C-indapamide in man." J Clin Pharmacol 23 (1983): 377-84
  17. Newstead CG, Moore RH, Barnes AJ "Interstitial nephritis associated with indapamide." BMJ 300 (1990): 1344
  18. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2002):
  19. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2002):
  20. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2001):
  21. Gilman AG, eds., Nies AS, Rall TW, Taylor P "Goodman and Gilman's the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics." New York, NY: Pergamon Press Inc. (1990):
  22. Seyffart, G "Drug Dosage in Renal Insufficiency." Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers 1 (1991): 227-8
  23. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc (2001):
  24. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2001):
  25. Hobbs DC, Twomey TM "Kinetics of polythiazide." Clin Pharmacol Ther 23 (1978): 241-6
  26. Lant AF, Baba WI, Wilson GM "Localization of the site of action of oral diuretics in the human kidney." Clin Sci 33 (1967): 11-27
  27. Brors O, Jacobsen S "Distribution of elimination of hydroflumethiazide in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 16 (1979): 125-31
  28. Brors O, Haffner JF, Jacobsen S "Excretion of hydroflumethiazide in bile and urine of man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 15 (1979): 287-9
  29. Yakatan GJ, Smith RB, Frome EL, Doluisio JT "Pharmacokinetics of orally administered hydroflumethiazide in man." J Clin Pharmacol 17 (1977): 37-47
  30. el-Meheiry MM, Nabih AE, Soliman MD "A clinical study of a new diuretic, Trichlormethiazide." J Trop Med Hyg 69 (1966): 209-14
  31. Sketris IS, Skoutakis VA, Acchiardo SR, Meyer MC "The pharmacokinetics of trichlormethiazide in hypertensive patients with normal and compromised renal function." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 20 (1981): 453-7
  32. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical (2001):
  33. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion Roussel (2001):
  34. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories (2001):
  35. Larsson GB, Langer L, Nassberger L "Thiazide-induced kidney damage with circulating antibodies against myeloperoxidase and cardiolipin." J Intern Med 233 (1993): 493-4
  36. Beermann B, Groschinsky-Grind M, Lindstrom B "Pharmacokinetics of bendroflumethiazide." Clin Pharmacol Ther 22 (1977): 385-8
  37. Beermann B, Groschinsky-Grind M, Lindstrom B, Wikland B "Pharmacokinetics of bendroflumenthiazide in hypertensive patients." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 13 (1978): 119-24
  38. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  39. Read SJ, Trenerry HM, Whiting GF "Hyponatraemia and raised creatine kinase level associated with indapamide." Med J Aust 161 (1994): 607-8
  40. Madkour H, Gadallah M, Plante GE, Massry SG "Comparison between the effects of indapamide and hydrochlorothiazide on creatinine clearance in patients with impaired renal function and hypertension." Am J Nephrol 15 (1995): 251-5
  41. Brater DC "Drug therapy: Diuretic therapy." N Engl J Med 339 (1998): 387-95
View all 41 references
Major

Triamterene (applies to Dyazide) nephrolithiasis

Major Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility.

Triamterene and its metabolites have been reported in renal stones in association with other calculus components. Therapy with triamterene should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of nephrolithiasis.

References

  1. Dooley DP, Callsen ME, Geiling JA "Triamterene nephrolithiasis." Mil Med 154 (1989): 126-7
  2. Jick H, Dinan BJ, Hunter JR "Triamterene and renal stones." J Urol 127 (1982): 224-5
  3. Socolow EL "Triamterene-induced nephrolithiasis ." Ann Intern Med 92 (1980): 437
  4. Ettinger B, Weil E, Mandel NS, Darling S "Triamterene-induced nephrolithiasis." Ann Intern Med 91 (1979): 745-6
  5. Gault MH, Snedden W, Taor RE, Churchill DN, Ahmed M "Triamterene urolithiasis." Can Med Assoc J 124 (1981): 1556-7
  6. Werness PG, Bergert JH, Smith LH "Triamterene urolithiasis: solubility, pk, effect on crystal formation, and matrix binding of triamterene and its metabolites." J Lab Clin Med 99 (1982): 254-62
  7. Carr MC, Prien EL, Jr Babayan RK "Triamterene nephrolithiasis: renewed attention is warranted." J Urol 144 (1990): 1339-40
  8. White DJ, Nancollas GH "Triamterene and renal stone formation." J Urol 127 (1982): 593-7
  9. Patel KM "Triamterene nephrolithiasis complicating dyazide therapy." J Urol 126 (1981): 230
  10. Dickstein ES, Loeser WD "Triamterene calculus." J Urol 133 (1985): 1019
  11. Grunberg RW, Silberg SJ "Triamterene-induced nephrolithiasis." JAMA 245 (1981): 2494-5
  12. Ettinger B, Oldroyd NO, Sorgel F "Triamterene nephrolithiasis." JAMA 244 (1980): 2443-5
  13. "Triamterene and the kidney." Lancet 1 (1986): 424
  14. Fairley KF, Woo KT, Birch DF, Leaker BR, Ratnaike S "Triamterene-induced crystalluria and cylinduria: clinical and experimental studies." Clin Nephrol 26 (1986): 169-73
  15. Carey RA, Beg MM, McNally CF, Tannenbaum P "Triamterene and renal lithiasis: a review." Clin Ther 6 (1984): 302-9
  16. Hollander JB "Triamterene bladder calculus." Urology 30 (1987): 154-5
  17. "Product Information. Dyrenium (triamterene)." SmithKline Beecham (2001):
View all 17 references
Moderate

Potassium-sparing diuretics (applies to Dyazide) hyperuricemia

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Gout

Potassium-sparing diuretics have been reported to elevate serum uric acid levels. Therapy with these agents should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of gout.

References

  1. "Product Information. Dyrenium (triamterene)." SmithKline Beecham (2001):
  2. "Product Information. Aldactone (spironolactone)." Searle (2001):
Moderate

Thiazides (applies to Dyazide) asthma

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility.

Thiazide diuretics should be used with caution in patients with history of bronchial asthma as sensitivity reactions may occur.

References

  1. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2002):
  2. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2002):
  3. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2001):
  4. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc (2001):
  5. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2001):
  6. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical (2001):
  7. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion Roussel (2001):
  8. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories (2001):
  9. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
View all 9 references
Moderate

Thiazides (applies to Dyazide) diabetes

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Diabetes Mellitus, Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

Thiazide diuretics may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria in patients with diabetes. They may also precipitate diabetes in prediabetic patients. These effects are usually reversible following discontinuation of the drugs. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously in patients with diabetes mellitus, glucose intolerance, or a predisposition to hyperglycemia. Patients with diabetes mellitus should be monitored more closely during thiazide therapy, and their antidiabetic regimen adjusted accordingly.

References

  1. Pollare T, Lithell H, Berne C "A comparison of the effects of hydrochlorothiazide and captopril on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension." N Engl J Med 321 (1989): 868-73
  2. Goldman JA, Neri A, Ovadia J, Eckerling B, Vries A, de "Effect of chlorothiazide on intravenous glucose tolerance in pregnancy." Am J Obstet Gynecol 105 (1969): 556-60
  3. Miller NR, Moses H "Transient oculomotor nerve palsy. Association with thiazide-induced glucose intolerance." JAMA 240 (1978): 1887-8
  4. Kansal PC, Buse J, Buse MG "Thiazide diuretics and control of diabetes mellitus." South Med J 62 (1969): 1372-9
  5. Andersen OO, Persson I "Carbohydrate metabolism during treatment with chlorthalidone and ethacrynic acid." Br Med J 2 (1968): 798-801
  6. Curtis J, Horrigan F, Ahearn D, Varney R, Sandler SG "Chlorthalidone-induced hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma." JAMA 220 (1972): 1592-3
  7. Chowdhury FR, Bleicher SJ "Chlorthalidone--induced hypokalemia and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism." Horm Metab Res 2 (1970): 13-6
  8. Diamond MT "Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma associated with hydrochlorothiazide and pancreatitis." N Y State J Med 72 (1972): 1741-2
  9. Jones IG, Pickens PT "Diabetes mellitus following oral diuretics." Practitioner 199 (1967): 209-10
  10. Beling S, Vukovich RA, Neiss ES, Zisblatt M, Webb E, Losi M "Long-term experience with indapamide." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 258-62
  11. Slotkoff L "Clinical efficacy and safety of indapamide in the treatment of edema." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 233-7
  12. Murphy MB, Kohner E, Lewis PJ, Schumer B, Dollery CT "Glucose intolerance in hypertensive patients treated with diuretics: a fourteen-year follow-up." Lancet 2 (1982): 1293-5
  13. Seltzer HS, Allen EW "Hyperglycemia and inhibition of insulin secretion during administration of diazoxide and trichlormethiazide in man." Diabetes 18 (1969): 19-28
  14. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2002):
  15. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2002):
  16. Bell DS "Insulin resistance. An often unrecognized problem accompanying chronic medical disorders." Postgrad Med 93 (1993): 99-103,
  17. Berlin I "Prazosin, diuretics, and glucose intolerance." Ann Intern Med 119 (1993): 860
  18. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2001):
  19. Rowe P, Mather H "Hyperosmolar non-ketotic diabetes mellitus associated with metolazone." Br Med J 291 (1985): 25-6
  20. Domenet JG "Diabetogenic effect of oral diuretics." Br Med J 3 (1968): 188
  21. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc (2001):
  22. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2001):
  23. Schmitz O, Hermansen K, Nielsen OH, Christensen CK, Arnfred J, Hansen HE, Mogensen CE, Orskov H, Beck-Nielsen H "Insulin action in insulin-dependent diabetics after short-term thiazide therapy." Diabetes Care 9 (1986): 631-6
  24. Blayac JP, Ribes G, Buys D, Puech R, Loubatieres-Mariani MM "Effects of a new benzothiadiazine derivative, LN 5330, on insulin secretion." Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 253 (1981): 154-63
  25. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical (2001):
  26. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion Roussel (2001):
  27. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories (2001):
  28. Berglund G, Andersson O, Widgren B "Low-dose antihypertensive treatment with a thiazide diuretic is not diabetogenic. A 10-year controlled trial with bendroflumethiazide." Acta Med Scand 220 (1986): 419-24
  29. Elmfeldt D, Berglund G, Wedel H, Wilhelmsen L "Incidence and importance of metabolic side-effects during antihypertensive therapy." Acta Med Scand Suppl 672 (1983): 79-83
  30. Winchester JF, Kellett RJ, Boddy K, Boyle P, Dargie HJ, Mahaffey ME, Ward DM, Kennedy AC "Metolazone and bendroflumethiazide in hypertension: physiologic and metabolic observations." Clin Pharmacol Ther 28 (1980): 611-8
  31. Petri M, Cumber P, Grimes L, Treby D, Bryant R, Rawlins D, Ising H "The metabolic effects of thiazide therapy in the elderly: a population study." Age Ageing 15 (1986): 151-5
  32. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  33. Freis ED "The efficacy and safety of diuretics in treating hypertension." Ann Intern Med 122 (1995): 223-6
  34. Nielsen S, Schmitz A, Knudsen RE, Dollerup J, Mogensen CE "Enalapril versus bendroflumethiazide in type 2 diabetes complicated by hypertension." Q J Med 87 (1994): 747-54
  35. Harper R, Ennis CN, Heaney AP, Sheridan B, Gormley M, Atkinson AB, Johnston GD, Bell PM "A comparison of the effects of low- and conventional-dose thiazide diuretic on insulin action in hypertensive patients with NIDDM." Diabetologia 38 (1995): 853-9
  36. Pickkers P, Schachter M, Hughes AD, Feher MD, Sever PS "Thiazide-induced hyperglycaemia: a role for calcium-activated potassium channels?" Diabetologia 39 (1996): 861-4
View all 36 references
Moderate

Thiazides (applies to Dyazide) hyperlipidemia

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility.

Thiazide diuretics may increase serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels, primarily LDL and VLDL. Whether these effects are dose-related and sustained during chronic therapy are unknown. Patients with preexisting hyperlipidemia may require closer monitoring during thiazide therapy, and adjustments made accordingly in their lipid-lowering regimen

References

  1. Pollare T, Lithell H, Berne C "A comparison of the effects of hydrochlorothiazide and captopril on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension." N Engl J Med 321 (1989): 868-73
  2. Ames RP, Hill P "Increase in serum-lipids during treatment of hypertension with chlorthalidone." Lancet 1 (1976): 721-3
  3. Pollare T, Lithell H, Berne C "A comparison of the effects of hydrochlorothiazide and captopril on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension." N Engl J Med 321 (1989): 868-73
  4. Fager G, Berglund G, Bondjers G, Elmfeldt D, Lager I, Olofsson SO, Smith U, Wiklund O "Effects of anti-hypertensive therapy on serum lipoproteins. Treatment with metoprolol, propranolol and hydrochlorothiazide." Artery 11 (1983): 283-96
  5. Beling S, Vukovich RA, Neiss ES, Zisblatt M, Webb E, Losi M "Long-term experience with indapamide." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 258-62
  6. Slotkoff L "Clinical efficacy and safety of indapamide in the treatment of edema." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 233-7
  7. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2002):
  8. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2002):
  9. Luther RR, Glassman HN, Estep CB, Maurath CJ, Jordan DC "The effects of terazosin and methyclothiazide on blood pressure and serum lipids." Am Heart J 117 (1989): 842-7
  10. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2001):
  11. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc (2001):
  12. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2001):
  13. Smith WM "Diuretics and cholesterol elevation." JAMA 242 (1979): 1612
  14. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical (2001):
  15. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion Roussel (2001):
  16. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories (2001):
  17. Elmfeldt D, Berglund G, Wedel H, Wilhelmsen L "Incidence and importance of metabolic side-effects during antihypertensive therapy." Acta Med Scand Suppl 672 (1983): 79-83
  18. Winchester JF, Kellett RJ, Boddy K, Boyle P, Dargie HJ, Mahaffey ME, Ward DM, Kennedy AC "Metolazone and bendroflumethiazide in hypertension: physiologic and metabolic observations." Clin Pharmacol Ther 28 (1980): 611-8
  19. Petri M, Cumber P, Grimes L, Treby D, Bryant R, Rawlins D, Ising H "The metabolic effects of thiazide therapy in the elderly: a population study." Age Ageing 15 (1986): 151-5
  20. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  21. Kasiske BL, Ma JZ, Kalil RS, Louis TA "Effects of antihypertensive therapy on serum lipids." Ann Intern Med 122 (1995): 133-41
  22. Freis ED "The efficacy and safety of diuretics in treating hypertension." Ann Intern Med 122 (1995): 223-6
  23. Ames RP "A comparison of blood lipid and blood pressure responses during the treatment of systemic hypertension with indapamide and with thiazides." Am J Cardiol 77 (1996): b12-6
View all 23 references
Moderate

Thiazides (applies to Dyazide) hyperparathyroidism

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility.

Urinary calcium excretion is decreased by thiazide diuretics during chronic administration. Pathologic changes in the parathyroid gland with hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia have been reported during prolonged therapy. However, the common complications of hyperparathyroidism such as renal lithiasis, bone resorption, and peptic ulceration have not been seen. Clinicians should be cognizant of these effects when prescribing or administering thiazide therapy to patients with hyperparathyroidism. These drugs should be discontinued before carrying out tests for parathyroid function.

References

  1. Anderson PE, Ellis GG, Austin SM "Case report: metolazone-associated hypercalcemia and acute pancreatitis." Am J Med Sci 302 (1991): 235-7
  2. Lindy S, Tarssanen L "Serum calcium and phosphorus in patients treated with thiazides and furosemide." Acta Med Scand 194 (1973): 319-22
  3. Gammon GD, Docherty JP "Thiazide-induced hypercalcemia in a manic-depressive patient." Am J Psychiatry 137 (1980): 1453-5
  4. Parfitt AM "Thiazide-induced hypercalcemia in vitamin D-treated hypoparathyroidism." Ann Intern Med 77 (1972): 557-63
  5. Popovtzer MM, Subryan VL, Alfrey AC, Reeve EB, Schrier RW "The acute effect of chlorothiazide on serum-ionized calcium. Evidence for a parathyroid hormone-dependent mechanism." J Clin Invest 55 (1975): 1295-302
  6. Paloyan E, Farland M, Pickleman JR "Hyperparathyroidism coexisting with hypertension and prolonged thiazide administration." JAMA 210 (1969): 1243-5
  7. Parfitt AM "Chlorothiazide-induced hypercalcemia in juvenile osteoporosis and hyperparathyroidism." N Engl J Med 281 (1969): 55-9
  8. Palmer FJ "Letter: Chlorthalidone-induced hypercalcemia." JAMA 229 (1974): 267
  9. Hakim R, Tolis G, Goltzman D, Meltzer S, Friedman R "Severe hypercalcemia associated with hydrochlorothiazide and calcium carbonate therapy." Can Med Assoc J 121 (1979): 591-4
  10. Itescu S, Haskell LP, Tannenberg AM "Thiazide-induced clinically significant hypophosphatemia ." Clin Nephrol 27 (1987): 161-2
  11. Byatt CM, Millard PH, Levin GE "Diuretics and electrolyte disturbances in 1000 consecutive geriatric admissions." J R Soc Med 83 (1990): 704-8
  12. Balizet L "Recurrent parathyroid adenoma. Association with prolonged thiazide administration." JAMA 225 (1973): 1238-9
  13. Paloyan E, Farland M, Pickleman JR "Hyperparathyroidism coexisting with hypertension and prolonged thiazide administration." JAMA 210 (1969): 1243-5
  14. Duarte CG, Winnacker JL, Becker KL, Pace A "Thiazide-induced hypercalcemia." N Engl J Med 284 (1971): 828-30
  15. Klimiuk PS, Davies M, Adams PH "Primary hyperparathyroidism and thiazide diuretics." Postgrad Med J 57 (1981): 80-3
  16. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2002):
  17. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2002):
  18. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2001):
  19. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc (2001):
  20. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2001):
  21. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical (2001):
  22. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion Roussel (2001):
  23. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories (2001):
  24. Hilker RR "Reversible hypercalcemia associated with prolonged thiazide administration to control hypertension." J Occup Med 12 (1970): 444-5
  25. Jorgensen FS, Brunner S "The long-term effect of bendroflumethiazide on renal calcium and magnesium excretion and stone formation in patients with recurring renal stones." Scand J Urol Nephrol 8 (1974): 128-31
  26. Ljunghall S, Backman U, Danielson BG, Fellstrom B, Johansson G, Wikstrom B "Calcium and magnesium metabolism during long-term treatment with thiazides." Scand J Urol Nephrol 15 (1981): 257-62
  27. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
View all 27 references
Moderate

Thiazides (applies to Dyazide) hyperuricemia

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Gout

Thiazide diuretics decrease the rate of uric acid excretion. Hyperuricemia occurs frequently but is usually asymptomatic and rarely leads to clinical gout except in patients with a history of gout or chronic renal failure. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously in such patients.

References

  1. Lapidus PW, Guidotti FP "Gout in orthopaedic practice: review of 232 cases." Clin Orthop 28 (1963): 97-110
  2. Labeeuw M, Pozet N, Aissa AH, Zech PY, Sassard J, Laville M "Uric acid renal handling: spontaneous changes and influence of a thiazide alone or associated with triamterene." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 26 (1988): 79-83
  3. Beling S, Vukovich RA, Neiss ES, Zisblatt M, Webb E, Losi M "Long-term experience with indapamide." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 258-62
  4. Slotkoff L "Clinical efficacy and safety of indapamide in the treatment of edema." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 233-7
  5. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2002):
  6. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2002):
  7. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2001):
  8. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc (2001):
  9. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2001):
  10. Brors O, Jacobsen S, Foss OP, Aakvaag A "Effect of repeated doses of hydroflumethiazide on renal excretion of electrolytes and uric acid in healthy subjects." Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 48 (1981): 145-50
  11. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical (2001):
  12. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion Roussel (2001):
  13. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories (2001):
  14. Gudbrandsson T, Hansson L "Combination therapy with saluretics and atenolol in essential hypertension. Effects on blood pressure, electrolytes and uric acid." Acta Med Scand Suppl 625 (1979): 86-91
  15. Elmfeldt D, Berglund G, Wedel H, Wilhelmsen L "Incidence and importance of metabolic side-effects during antihypertensive therapy." Acta Med Scand Suppl 672 (1983): 79-83
  16. Winchester JF, Kellett RJ, Boddy K, Boyle P, Dargie HJ, Mahaffey ME, Ward DM, Kennedy AC "Metolazone and bendroflumethiazide in hypertension: physiologic and metabolic observations." Clin Pharmacol Ther 28 (1980): 611-8
  17. Petri M, Cumber P, Grimes L, Treby D, Bryant R, Rawlins D, Ising H "The metabolic effects of thiazide therapy in the elderly: a population study." Age Ageing 15 (1986): 151-5
  18. Ljunghall S, Backman U, Danielson BG, Fellstrom B, Johansson G, Odlind B, Wikstrom B "Effects of bendroflumethiazide on urate metabolism during treatment of patients with renal stones." J Urol 127 (1982): 1207-10
  19. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  20. Freis ED "The efficacy and safety of diuretics in treating hypertension." Ann Intern Med 122 (1995): 223-6
View all 20 references
Moderate

Thiazides (applies to Dyazide) thyroid function tests

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Thyroid Disease

Thiazide diuretics may decrease serum PBI (protein-bound iodine) levels without associated thyroid disturbance. Clinicians should be cognizant of this effect when prescribing or administering thiazide therapy to patients with thyroid disorders.

References

  1. Bech K, Skovsted L, Siersbaek-Nielsen K, Hansen JM "Influence of thiazides on thyroid parameters in man." Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 89 (1978): 673-8
  2. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2002):
  3. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2002):
  4. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone Poulenc Rorer (2001):
  5. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc (2001):
  6. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Company Inc (2001):
  7. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical (2001):
  8. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion Roussel (2001):
  9. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories (2001):
  10. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
View all 10 references
Moderate

Triamterene (applies to Dyazide) folate antagonism

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Folic Acid/Cyanocobalamin Deficiency, Cirrhosis, Anemia Associated with Folate Deficiency

Triamterene is a weak folate antagonist and may contribute to megaloblastic anemia in cases where folic acid stores have been depleted. Therapy with triamterene should be administered cautiously in patients with or predisposed to megaloblastic anemia, including cirrhotic patients with splenomegaly. These patients should be observed for exacerbations of underlying liver disease during triamterene therapy.

References

  1. Corcino J, Waxman S, Herbert V "Mechanism of triamterene-induced megaloblastosis." Ann Intern Med 73 (1970): 419-24
  2. "Product Information. Dyrenium (triamterene)." SmithKline Beecham (2001):
  3. Lieberman FL, Bateman JR "Megaloblastic anemia possibly induced by triamterene in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Two case reports." Ann Intern Med 68 (1968): 168-73

Dyazide drug interactions

There are 480 drug interactions with Dyazide (hydrochlorothiazide / triamterene).

Dyazide alcohol/food interactions

There are 2 alcohol/food interactions with Dyazide (hydrochlorothiazide / triamterene).


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Drug Interaction Classification

These classifications are only a guideline. The relevance of a particular drug interaction to a specific individual is difficult to determine. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting or stopping any medication.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No interaction information available.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.