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Panixine (cephalexin) Disease Interactions

There are 5 disease interactions with Panixine (cephalexin):

Moderate

Antibiotics (Includes Panixine) ↔ Colitis

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Colitis/Enteritis (Noninfectious)

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with most antibacterial agents and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening, with an onset of up to two months following cessation of therapy. Antibiotic therapy can alter the normal flora of the colon and permit overgrowth of Clostridium difficile, whose toxin is believed to be a primary cause of antibiotic- associated colitis. The colitis is usually characterized by severe, persistent diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps, and may be associated with the passage of blood and mucus. The most common culprits are clindamycin, lincomycin, the aminopenicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin), and the cephalosporins. Therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics and other agents with significant antibacterial activity should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of gastrointestinal diseases, particularly colitis. There is some evidence that pseudomembranous colitis, if it occurs, may run a more severe course in these patients and that it may be associated with flares in their underlying disease activity. The offending antibiotic(s) should be discontinued if significant diarrhea occurs during therapy. Stool cultures for Clostridium difficile and stool assay for C. difficile toxin may be helpful diagnostically. A large bowel endoscopy may be considered to establish a definitive diagnosis in cases of severe diarrhea.

References

  1. Moriarty HJ, Scobie BA "Pseudomembranous colitis in a patient on rifampicin and ethambutol." N Z Med J 04/23/80 (1980): 294-5
  2. Thomas E, Mehta JB "Pseudomembranous colitis due to oxacillin therapy." South Med J 77 (1984): 532-3
  3. Saadah HA "Carbenicillin and pseudomembranous enterocolitis." Ann Intern Med 93 (1980): 645
  4. Daly JJ, Chowdary KV "Pseudomembranous colitis secondary to metronidazole." Dig Dis Sci 28 (1983): 573-4
  5. Lyon JA "Imipenem/cilastatin: the first carbapenem antibiotic." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 19 (1985): 894-8
  6. Trexler MF, Fraser TG, Jones MP "Fulminant pseudomembranous colitis caused by clindamycin phosphate vaginal cream." Am J Gastroenterol 92 (1997): 2112-3
  7. Davies J, Beck E "Recurrent colitis following antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Postgrad Med J 57 (1981): 599-601
  8. O'Meara TF, Simmons RA "Carbenicillin and pseudomembranous enterocolitis." Ann Intern Med 92 (1980): 440-1
  9. Meadowcroft AM, Diaz PR, Latham GS "Clostridium difficile toxin-induced colitis after use of clindmycin phosphate vaginal cream." Ann Pharmacother 32 (1998): 309-11
  10. Milstone EB, McDonald AJ, Scholhamer CF Jr "Pseudomembranous colitis after topical application of clindamycin." Arch Dermatol 117 (1981): 154-5
  11. Harmon T, Burkhart G, Applebaum H "Perforated pseudomembranous colitis in the breast-fed infant." J Pediatr Surg 27 (1992): 744-6
  12. Ehrenpreis ED, Lievens MW, Craig RM "Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea after norfloxacin." J Clin Gastroenterol 12 (1990): 188-9
  13. Bauwens JE, McFarland LV, Melcher SA "Recurrent clostridium difficile disease following ciprofloxacin use." Ann Pharmacother 31 (1997): 1090
  14. Burt RA "A review of the drug events reported by 12,917 patients treated with cephalexin." Postgrad Med J 59 (1983): 47-50,51-3
  15. Dan M, Samra Z "Clostridium difficile colitis associated with ofloxacin therapy." Am J Med 87 (1989): 479
  16. Bernstein L "Adverse reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, with particular reference to long-term therapy." Can Med Assoc J 112 (1975): s96-8
  17. Calandra GB, Brown KR, Grad LC, et al "Review of adverse experiences and tolerability in the first 2,516 patients treated with imipenem/cilastatin." Am J Med 78 (1985): 73-8
  18. Osler T, Lott D, Bordley J, et al "Cefazolin-induced pseudomembranous colitis resulting in perforation of the sigmoid colon." Dis Colon Rectum 29 (1986): 140-3
  19. Parry MF, Rha CK "Pseudomembranous colitis caused by topical clindamycin phosphate." Arch Dermatol 122 (1986): 583-4
  20. Clissold SP, Todd PA, Campoli-Richards DM "Imipenem/cilastatin: a review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy." Drugs 33 (1987): 185-241
  21. Van Ness MM, Cattau EL Jr "Fulminant colitis complicating antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis: case report and review of the clinical manifestations and treatment." Am J Gastroenterol 82 (1987): 374-7
  22. Cone JB, Wetzel W "Toxic megacolon secondary to pseudomembranous colitis." Dis Colon Rectum 25 (1982): 478-82
  23. Hutcheon DF, Milligan FD, Yardley JH, Hendrix TR "Cephalosporin-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Am J Dig Dis 23 (1978): 321-6
  24. Bingley PJ, Harding GM "Clostridium difficile colitis following treatment with metronidazole and vancomycin." Postgrad Med J 63 (1987): 993-4
  25. Hinton NA "The effect of oral tetracycline HCl and doxycycline on the intestinal flora." Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 12 (1970): 341-52
  26. Cannon SR, Dyson PH, Sanderson PJ "Pseudomembranous colitis associated with antibiotic prophylaxis in orthopaedic surgery." J Bone Joint Surg Br 70-B (1988): 600-2
  27. Sugarman B "Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pseudomembranous colitis, and spinal cord injury." South Med J 78 (1985): 711-3
  28. Miller DL, Sedlack JD, Holt RW "Perforation complicating rifampin-associated pseudomembranous enteritis." Arch Surg 124 (1989): 1082
  29. Miller SN, Ringler RP "Vancomycin-induced pseudomembranous colitis." J Clin Gastroenterol 9 (1987): 114-5
  30. Wang C, Calandra GB, Aziz MA, Brown KR "Efficacy and safety of imipenem/cilastatin: a review of worldwide clinical experience." Rev Infect Dis 7 (1985): s528-36
  31. Midtvedt T, Carlstedt-Duke B, Hoverstad T, et al "Influence of peroral antibiotics upon the biotransformatory activity of the intestinal microflora in healthy subjects." Eur J Clin Invest 16 (1986): 11-7
  32. Golledge CL, Riley TV "Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea after doxycycline malaria prophylaxis." Lancet 345 (1995): 1377-8
  33. Pokorney BH, Nichols TW, Jr "Pseudomembranous colitis. A complication of sulfasalazine therapy in a patient with Crohn's colitis." Am J Gastroenterol 76 (1981): 374-6
  34. Saginur R, Hawley CR, Bartlett JG "Colitis associated with metronidazole therapy." J Infect Dis 141 (1980): 772-4
  35. Altamirano A, Bondani A "Adverse reactions to furazolidone and other drugs. A comparative review." Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 169 (1989): 70-80
  36. Edlund C, Lidbeck A, Kager L, Nord CE "Effect of enoxacin on colonic microflora of healthy volunteers." Eur J Clin Microbiol 6 (1987): 298-300
  37. Sankarankutty M, McGeorge D, Galasko CS "Pseudomembranous colitis following cephradine prophylaxis." Postgrad Med J 58 (1982): 726-8
  38. Boriello SP, Jones RH, Phillips I "Rifampicin-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Br Med J 281 (1980): 1180-1
  39. Klinger D, Radford P, Collin J "Pneumoperitoneum without faecal peritonitis in a patient with pseudomembranous colitis." Br Med J 288 (1984): 1271-2
  40. Gordin F, Gibert C, Schmidt ME "Clostridium difficile colitis associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole given as prophylaxis for pneumocystis carinii pneumonia." Am J Med 96 (1994): 94-5
  41. Edlund C, Brismar B, Nord CE "Effect of lomefloxacin on the normal oral and intestinal microflora." Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1 (1990): 35-9
  42. Ring FA, Hershfield NB, Machin GA, Scott RB "Sulfasalazine-induced colitis complicating idiopathic ulcerative colitis." Can Med Assoc J 131 (1984): 43-5
  43. Friedman RJ, Mayer IE, Galambos JT, Hersh T "Oxacillin-induced pseudomembranous colitis." Am J Gastroenterol 73 (1980): 445-7
  44. "Multum Information Services, Inc. Expert Review Panel"
  45. Leigh DA, Simmons K, Williams S "Gastrointestinal side effects following clindamycin and lincomycin treatment: a follow up study." J Antimicrob Chemother 6 (1980): 639-45
  46. Hecht JR, Olinger EJ "Clostridium difficile colitis secondary to intravenous vancomycin." Dig Dis Sci 34 (1989): 148-9
  47. Brause BD, Romankiewicz JA, Gotz V, Franklin JE Jr, Roberts RB "Comparative study of diarrhea associated with clindamycin and ampicillin therapy." Am J Gastroenterol 73 (1980): 244-8
View all 47 references
Moderate

Beta-Lactams (Oral) (Includes Panixine) ↔ Renal Dysfunction

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction

Most beta-lactam antibiotics are eliminated by the kidney as unchanged drug and, in some cases, also as metabolites. The serum concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics and their metabolites may be increased and the half-lives prolonged in patients with impaired renal function. Dosage adjustments may be necessary and modifications should be based on the degree of renal impairment as well as severity of infection in accordance with the individual product package labeling. Renal function tests should be performed periodically during prolonged and/or high-dose therapy, since nephrotoxicity and alterations in renal function have occasionally been associated with the use of these drugs.

References

  1. Sjovall J, Westerlund D, Alvan G "Renal excretion of intravenously infused amoxycillin and ampicillin." Br J Clin Pharmacol 19 (1985): 191-201
  2. Jackson EA, McLeod DC "Pharmacokinetics and dosing of antimicrobial agents in renal impairment, part I." Am J Hosp Pharm 31 (1974): 36-52
  3. Solomon AE, Briggs JD "The administration of cephradine to patients in renal failure." Br J Clin Pharmacol 2 (1975): 443-8
  4. DeSante KA, Zeckel ML "Pharmacokinetic profile of loracarbef." Am J Med 92 (1992): s16-9
  5. Guay DR, Meatherall RC, Harding GK, Brown GR "Pharmacokinetics of cefixime (CL 284,635; FK 027) in healthy subjects and patients with renal insufficiency." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 30 (1986): 485-90
  6. Therasse DG, Farlow DS, Davidson RL, et al. "Effect of renal dysfunction on the pharmacokinetics of loracarbef." Clin Pharmacol Ther 54 (1993): 311-6
  7. "Product Information. Geocillin (carbenicillin)." Roerig Division, New York, NY.
  8. Granero L, Gimeno MJ, Torresmolina F, Chesajimenez J, Peris JE "Studies on the renal excretion mechanisms of cefadroxil." Drug Metab Dispos 22 (1994): 447-50
  9. Latos DL, Bryan CS, Stone WJ "Carbenicillin therapy in patients with normal and impaired renal function." Clin Pharmacol Ther 17 (1975): 692-700
  10. Kunin CM, Finkelberg Z "Oral cephalexin and ampicillin: antimicrobial activity, recovery in urine, and persistence in blood of uremic patients." Ann Intern Med 72 (1970): 349-56
  11. Nix DE, Symonds WT, Hyatt JM, et al. "Comparative pharmacokinetics of oral ceftibuten, cefixime, cefaclor, and cefuroxime axetil in healthy volunteers." Pharmacotherapy 17 (1997): 121-5
  12. "Product Information. Suprax (cefixime)." Lupin Pharmaceuticals Inc, Baltimore, MD.
  13. "Product Information. Spectracef (cefditoren)." TAP Pharmaceuticals Inc, Deerfield, IL.
  14. Nakano H, Sasaki K, Mizoguchi M, Ishibe T, Nihira H "Absorption and excretion of carbenicillin indanyl sodium in patients with reduced kidney function." Chemotherapy 23 (1977): 299-308
  15. Bergan T "Pharmacokinetic comparison of oral bacampicillin and parenteral ampicillin." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 13 (1978): 971-4
  16. Nelson JD, Reimold EW "Carbenicillin pharmacokinetics in an anephric patient." Lancet 1 (1973): 486-7
  17. Bloch R, Szwed JJ, Sloan RS, Luft FC "Pharmacokinetics of cefaclor in normal subjects and patients with chronic renal failure." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 12 (1977): 730-2
  18. St Peter JV, Borin MT, Hughes GS, et al "Disposition of cefpodoxime proxetil in healthy volunteers and patients with impaired renal function." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 36 (1992): 126-31
  19. Humbert G, Leroy A, Fillastre JP, Godin M "Pharmacokinetics of cefadroxil in normal subjects and in patients with renal insufficiency." Chemotherapy 25 (1979): 189-95
  20. "Product Information. Cefzil (cefprozil)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  21. Braga PC, Fraschini F, Ceccarelli G, Scaglione F, Scarpazza G "Clinical pharmacokinetic evaluation of bacampicillin." Clin Ther 4 (1981): 32-42
  22. "Product Information. Spectrobid (bacampicillin)." Roerig Division, New York, NY.
  23. Regamey C, Humair L "Pharmacokinetics of cephalexin in renal insufficiency." Postgrad Med J 47 Supp) (1971): 69-77
  24. Santoro J, Agarwal BN, Martinelli R, et al "Pharmacology of cefaclor in normal volunteers and patients with renal failure." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 13 (1978): 951-4
  25. Spyker DA, Thomas BL, Sande MA, Bolton WK "Pharmacokinetics of cefaclor and caphalexin: dosage nomograms for impaired renal function." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 14 (1978): 172-7
  26. Arancibia A, Droguett MT, Fuentes G, et al "Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin in subjects with normal and impaired renal function." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 20 (1982): 447-53
  27. Fillastre JP, Leroy A, Humbert G, Godin M "Cefaclor pharmacokinetics and renal impairment." J Antimicrob Chemother 6 (1980): 155-6
  28. "Product Information. Amoxil (amoxicillin)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  29. Bailey RR, Gower PE, Dash CH "The effect of impairment of renal function and haemodialysis on serum and urine levels of cephalexin." Postgrad Med J 46 (1970): 60-4
  30. Guay DRP "Ceftibuten: A new expanded-spectrum oral cephalosporin." Ann Pharmacother 31 (1997): 1022-33
  31. Yamasaku F, Tsuchida R, Usuda Y "A study of the kinetics of cephalosporins in renal impairment." Postgrad Med J Suppl (1970): 57-9
  32. Leroy A, Humbert G, Godin M, Fillastre JP "Pharmacokinetics of cefadroxil in patients with impaired renal function." J Antimicrob Chemother 10 (1982): 39-46
  33. Dhib M, Moulin B, Leroy A, et al "Relationship between renal function and disposition of oral cefixime." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 41 (1991): 579-83
  34. Standiford HC, Jordan MC, Kirby WM "Clinical pharmacology of carbenicillin compared with other penicillins." J Infect Dis 122 (1970): s9-13
  35. Berman SJ, Boughton WH, Sugihara JG, et al "Pharmacokinetics of cefaclor in patients with end stage renal disease and during hemodialysis." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 14 (1978): 281-3
  36. Humbert G, Spyker DA, Fillastre JP, Leroy A "Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin: dosage nomogram for patients with impaired renal function." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 15 (1979): 28-33
  37. "Product Information. Polymox (amoxicillin)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  38. Schwinghammer TL, Norden CW, Gill E "Pharmacokinetics of cephradine administered intravenously and orally to young and elderly subjects." J Clin Pharmacol 30 (1990): 893-9
  39. "Product Information. Duricef (cefadroxil)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  40. Chow M, Quintiliani R, Cunha BA, et al "Pharmacokinetics of high-dose oral cephalosporins." J Clin Pharmacol 19 (1979): 185-94
  41. Hori R, Okumura K, Nihira H, et al "A new dosing regimen in renal insufficiency: application to cephalexin." Clin Pharmacol Ther 38 (1985): 290-5
  42. Finkelstein ER, Quintiliani R, Nightingale CH "Pharmacokinetics of oral cephalosporins." J Pediatr 93 (1978): 902
  43. Gibaldi M, Perrier D "Drug distribution and renal failure." J Clin Pharmacol 12 (1972): 201-4
  44. Brogard JM, Pinget M, Dorner M, Lavillaureix J "Determination of cefalexin pharmacokinetics and dosage adjustments in relation to renal function." J Clin Pharmacol 15 (1975): 666-73
  45. Neu HC "The pharmacokinetics of bacampicillin." Rev Infect Dis 3 (1981): 110-6
  46. Shyu WC, Pittman KA, Wilber RB, et al "Pharmacokinetics of cefprozil in healthy subjects and patients with renal impairment." J Clin Pharmacol 31 (1991): 362-71
  47. "Product Information. Keflex (cephalexin)." Dista Products Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  48. Reisberg BE, Mandelbaum JM "Cephalexin: absorption and excretion as related to renal function and hemodialysis." Infect Immun 3 (1971): 540-3
  49. Andriole VT "Pharmacokinetics of cephalosporins in patients with normal or reduced renal function." J Infect Dis 137 (1978): s88-99
  50. Spyker DA, Gober LL, Scheld WM, et al "Pharmacokinetics of cefaclor in renal failure: effects of multiple doses and hemodialysis." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 21 (1982): 278-81
  51. Yamasaku F, Tsuchida R, Usada Y "A study of the kinetics of cephalosporins in renal impairment." Postgrad Med J Suppl (1970): 57-9
  52. Pommer W, Krause PH, Berg PA, et al "Acute interstitial nephritis and non-oliguric renal failure after cefaclor treatment." Klin Wochenschr 64 (1986): 290-3
  53. Bailey RR, Eastwood JB, Vaughan RB "The pharmacokinetics of an oral form of carbenicillin in patients with renal failure." Postgrad Med J 48 (1972): 422-5
  54. Ehrnebo M, Nilsson SO, Boreus LO "Pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and its prodrugs bacampicillin and pivampicillin in man." J Pharmacokinet Biopharm 7 (1979): 429-51
  55. Kabins SA, Kelner B, Walton E, Goldstein E "Cephalexin therapy as related to renal function." Am J Med Sci 259 (1970): 133-42
  56. Hyslop DL "Cefaclor safety profile: a ten-year review." Clin Ther 11 Suppl A (1988): 83-94
  57. "Product Information. Ceclor (cefaclor)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  58. "Product Information. Vantin (cefpodoxime)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  59. Kirby WM, de Maine JB, Serrill WS "Pharmacokinetics of the cephalosporins in healthy volunteers and uremic patients." Postgrad Med J 47 Suppl (1971): 41-6
  60. Hoffman TA, Cestero R, Bullock WE "Pharmacodynamics of carbenicillin in hepatic and renal failure." Ann Intern Med 73 (1970): 173-8
  61. "Product Information. Velosef (cephradine)." Apothecon Inc, Plainsboro, NJ.
  62. "Product Information. Cedax (ceftibuten)." Schering-Plough, Liberty Corner, NJ.
  63. Gartenberg G, Meyers BR, Hirschman SZ, Srulevitch E "Pharmacokinetics of cefaclor in patients with stable renal impairment, and patients undergoing haemodialysis." J Antimicrob Chemother 5 (1979): 465-70
  64. Hoffler D, Koeppe P, Corcilius M, Przyklink A "Cefpodoxime proxetil in patients with endstage renal failure on hemodialysis." Infection 18 (1990): 157-62
  65. "Product Information. Lorabid (loracarbef)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  66. Andriole VT "Pharmacokinetics of cephalosporins in patients with normal or reduced renal function." J Infect Dis 137 (1978): s88-97
  67. "Product Information. Omnicef (cefdinir)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
View all 67 references
Moderate

Cephalosporins (Includes Panixine) ↔ Dialysis

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: hemodialysis

Most cephalosporin antibiotics are removed by hemodialysis. Doses should either be scheduled for administration after dialysis or supplemental doses be given after dialysis. Cefonicid, cefixime, and ceftriaxone are not significantly removed by hemodialysis.

References

  1. Barriere SL, Gambertoglio JG, Alexander DR, et al "Pharmacokinetic disposition of cefonicid in patients with renal failure and receiving hemodialysis." Rev Infect Dis 6 (1984): s809-15
  2. Chodos J, Francke EL, Saltzman M, Neu HC "Pharmacokinetics of intravenous cefotaxime in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis." Ther Drug Monit 3 (1981): 71-4
  3. "Product Information. Vantin (cefpodoxime)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  4. Nikolaidis P, Tourkantonis A "Effect of hemodialysis on ceftazidime pharmacokinetics." Clin Nephrol 24 (1985): 142-6
  5. Aziz NS, Gambertoglio JG, Lin ET, Grausz H, Benet LZ "Pharmacokinetics of cephalothin and its metabolite in uremic patients undergoing hemodialysis using an HPLC assay." Jernal Perubatan UKM (Medical Journal, National Univ. of Malaysia) 2 (2) (1980): 82-9
  6. "Product Information. Duricef (cefadroxil)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  7. "Product Information. Cedax (ceftibuten)." Schering-Plough, Liberty Corner, NJ.
  8. Allaouchiche B, Breilh D, Jaumain H, Gaillard B, Renard S, Saux MC "Pharmacokinetics of cefepime during continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41 (1997): 2424-7
  9. "Product Information. Ceftin (cefuroxime)." Glaxo Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, NC.
  10. "Product Information. Velosef (cephradine)." Apothecon Inc, Plainsboro, NJ.
  11. "Product Information. Claforan (cefotaxime)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  12. Shyu WC, Pittman KA, Wilber RB, et al "Pharmacokinetics of cefprozil in healthy subjects and patients with renal impairment." J Clin Pharmacol 31 (1991): 362-71
  13. Ohkawa M, Okasho A, Motoi I, et al "Elimination kinetics of cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime in patients with renal insufficiency and during hemodialysis." Chemotherapy 29 (1983): 4-12
  14. Spyker DA, Richmond JD, Scheld WM, Bolton WK "Pharmacokinetics of multiple-dose cefoperazone in hemodialysis patients." Am J Nephrol 5 (1985): 355-60
  15. Ti TY, Fortin L, Kreeft JH, East DS, Ogilvie RI, Somerville PJ "Kinetic disposition of intravenous ceftriaxone in normal subjects and patients with renal failure on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 25 (1984): 83-7
  16. "Product Information. Maxipime (cefepime)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  17. Garcia RL, Santivanez V, Battilana CA "Single-dose pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in patients with end-stage renal disease and hemodialysis." Chemotherapy 34 (1988): 261-6
  18. Gartenberg G, Meyers BR, Hirschman SZ, Srulevitch E "Pharmacokinetics of cefaclor in patients with stable renal impairment, and patients undergoing haemodialysis." J Antimicrob Chemother 5 (1979): 465-70
  19. Browning MJ, Holt HA, White LO, et al "Pharmacokinetics of cefotetan in patients with end-stage renal failure on maintenance dialysis." J Antimicrob Chemother 18 (1986): 103-6
  20. Reisberg BE, Mandelbaum JM "Cephalexin: absorption and excretion as related to renal function and hemodialysis." Infect Immun 3 (1971): 540-3
  21. "Product Information. Spectracef (cefditoren)." TAP Pharmaceuticals Inc, Deerfield, IL.
  22. Matzke GR, Frye RF, Joy MS, Palevsky PM "Determinants of ceftriaxone clearance by continuous venovenous hemofiltration and hemodialysis." Pharmacotherapy 20 (2000): 635-43
  23. Appel GB, Neu HC, Parry MF, et al "Pharmacokinetics of cefamandole in the presence of renal failure and in patients undergoing hemodialysis." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 10 (1976): 623-5
  24. "Product Information. Tazicef (ceftazidime)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  25. "Product Information. Rocephin (ceftriaxone)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  26. "Product Information. Ancef (cefazolin)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  27. Hoffler D, Koeppe P, Corcilius M, Przyklink A "Cefpodoxime proxetil in patients with endstage renal failure on hemodialysis." Infection 18 (1990): 157-62
  28. Kroh UF, Lennartz H, Edwards DJ, Stoeckel K "Pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in patients undergoing continuous veno-venous hemofiltration." J Clin Pharmacol 36 (1996): 1114-9
  29. Garcia MJ, Dominguez-Gil A, Tabernero JM, Molina MD "Pharmacokinetics of cefoxitin during haemofiltration." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 25 (1983): 395-8
  30. "Product Information. Mandol (cefamandole)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  31. Gambertoglio JG, Aziz NS, Lin ET, et al "Cefamandole kinetics in uremic patients undergoing hemodialysis." Clin Pharmacol Ther 26 (1979): 592-9
  32. Weiss LG, Cars O, Danielson BG, et al "Pharmacokinetics of intravenous cefuroxime during intermittent and continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration." Clin Nephrol 30 (1988): 282-6
  33. "Product Information. Cefadyl (cephapirin)." Apothecon Inc, Plainsboro, NJ.
  34. "Product Information. Ceclor (cefaclor)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  35. Bunke CM, Aronoff GR, Luft FC "Pharmacokinetics of common antibiotics used in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis." Am J Kidney Dis 3 (1983): 114-7
  36. "Product Information. Keflex (cephalexin)." Dista Products Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  37. Craig CP, Rifkin SI "Pharmacokinetics and hemodialyzability of cefazolin in uremic patients." Clin Pharmacol Ther 19 (1976): 825-9
  38. "Product Information. Lorabid (loracarbef)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  39. Gabutti L, TaminelliBeltraminelli L, Marone C "Clearance of ceftriaxone during haemodialysis using cuprophane, haemophane and polysulfone dialysers." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 53 (1997): 123-6
  40. Bunke CM, Aronoff GR, Brier ME, et al "Cefazolin and cephalexin kinetics in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis." Clin Pharmacol Ther 33 (1983): 66-72
  41. Ohkawa M, Nakashima T, Shoda R, et al "Pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime in patients with renal insufficiency and in those undergoing hemodialysis." Chemotherapy 31 (1985): 410-6
  42. Spyker DA, Gober LL, Scheld WM, et al "Pharmacokinetics of cefaclor in renal failure: effects of multiple doses and hemodialysis." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 21 (1982): 278-81
  43. "Product Information. Omnicef (cefdinir)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  44. Madhavan T, Yaremchuk K, Levin N, et al "Effects of renal failure and dialysis on cefazolin pharmacokinetics." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 8 (1975): 63-6
  45. "Product Information. Cefobid (cefoperazone)." Roerig Division, New York, NY.
  46. Johnson CA, Ateshkadi A, Zimmerman SW, Hughes GS, Craig WA, Carey PM, Borin MT "Pharmacokinetics and ex vivo susceptibility of cefpodoxime proxetil in patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 37 (1993): 2650-5
  47. "Product Information. Suprax (cefixime)." Lupin Pharmaceuticals Inc, Baltimore, MD.
  48. "Product Information. Monocid (cefonicid)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  49. "Product Information. Mefoxin (cefoxitin)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  50. Brogard JM, Pinget M, Brandt C, Lavillaureix J "Pharmacokinetics of cefazolin in patients with renal failure: special reference to hemodialysis." J Clin Pharmacol 17 (1977): 225-30
  51. Cohen D, Appel GB, Scully B, Neu HC "Pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in patients with renal failure and in those undergoing hemodialysis." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 24 (1983): 529-32
  52. "Product Information. Cefotan (cefotetan)." Stuart Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  53. Hasegawa H, Imada A, Horiuchi A, et al "Pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime in patients undergoing haemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis." J Antimicrob Chemother 14 Suppl (1984): 135-42
  54. "Product Information. Cefizox (ceftizoxime)." Fujisawa, Deerfield, IL.
  55. "Product Information. Cefzil (cefprozil)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  56. Bailey RR, Gower PE, Dash CH "The effect of impairment of renal function and haemodialysis on serum and urine levels of cephalexin." Postgrad Med J 46 (1970): 60-4
  57. "Product Information. Keflin (cephalothin)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  58. Ahern MJ, Finkelstein FO, Andriole VT "Pharmacokinetics of cefamandole in patients undergoing hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 10 (1976): 457-61
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Moderate

Cephalosporins (Includes Panixine) ↔ Liver Disease

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Cases of hepatitis have been reported with the use of certain cephalosporins. Transient rise in SGOT, SGPT, and alkaline phosphatase levels have also been observed. Caution and monitoring is recommended when these agents are prescribed to patients with hepatic disorders.

Moderate

Cephalosporins (Includes Panixine) ↔ Seizure Disorders

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Seizures

Several cephalosporins have been implicated in triggering seizures, particularly in patients with renal impairment when the dosage was not reduced. If seizures occur with drug therapy, the drug should be discontinued. Anticonvulsant therapy can be given if clinically indicated. Monitor patients with preexisting seizure disorders.

Panixine (cephalexin) drug Interactions

There are 48 drug interactions with Panixine (cephalexin)

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No information available.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

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