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Pindolol

Pronunciation

Pronunciation

(PIN doe lole)

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral:

Generic: 5 mg, 10 mg

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antihypertensive
  • Beta-Blocker With Intrinsic Sympathomimetic Activity

Pharmacology

Blocks both beta1- and beta2-receptors and has mild intrinsic sympathomimetic activity; pindolol has negative inotropic and chronotropic effects and can significantly slow AV nodal conduction. Augmentive action of antidepressants thought to be mediated via a serotonin 1A autoreceptor antagonism.

Absorption

Rapid, >95%

Distribution

Vd: ~2 L/kg

Metabolism

Hepatic (60% to 65%) to conjugates

Excretion

Urine (35% to 40% as unchanged drug); feces (6% to 9%)

Time to Peak

Serum: ~1 hour

Half-Life Elimination

3 to 4 hours; prolonged in the elderly (average 7 hours; up to 15 hours reported), and cirrhosis (range: 2.5 to 30 hours)

Protein Binding

40%

Special Populations: Renal Function Impairment

50% decreased in volume of distribution in uremic patients, generally excreted in less than 15% of dose as unchanged in the urine.

Special Populations: Hepatic Function Impairment

In cirrhosis patients, elimination was more variable in rate and slower, half-life ranged from 2.5 h to more than 30 h. Exercise caution; dosage adjustments may be necessary.

Special Populations: Elderly

In elderly hypertensive patients, the half-life is more variable, averaging 7 h.

Use: Labeled Indications

US labeling: Hypertension: Treatment of hypertension, alone or in combination with other agents

The 2014 guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults (Eighth Joint National Committee [JNC 8]) recommends initiation of pharmacologic treatment to lower blood pressure for the following patients:

• Patients ≥60 years of age with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥150 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg. Goal of therapy is SBP <150 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg.

• Patients <60 years of age with SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg. Goal of therapy is SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg.

• Patients ≥18 years of age with diabetes and SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg. Goal of therapy is SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg.

• Patients ≥18 years of age with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg. Goal of therapy is SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg.

In patients with CKD, regardless of race or diabetes status, the use of an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) as initial therapy is recommended to improve kidney outcomes. In the general nonblack population (without CKD) including those with diabetes, initial antihypertensive treatment should consist of a thiazide-type diuretic, calcium channel blocker, ACEI, or ARB. In the general black population (without CKD) including those with diabetes, initial antihypertensive treatment should consist of a thiazide-type diuretic or a calcium channel blocker instead of an ACEI or ARB.

Canadian labeling:

Angina pectoris: Prophylaxis of angina pectoris

Hypertension: Treatment of hypertension, alone or in combination with other agents

Use: Unlabeled

Potential augmenting agent for antidepressants

Contraindications

US labeling: Bronchial asthma; cardiogenic shock; heart block (second- or third-degree) except in patients with a functioning artificial ventricular pacemaker; overt cardiac failure; severe bradycardia

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Hypersensitivity to pindolol, any component of the formulation, or other beta blockers; severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; right ventricular failure secondary to pulmonary hypertension; anesthesia with agents which produce myocardial depression; Prinzmetal angina (variant angina); sick sinus syndrome; severe peripheral arterial circulatory disorders; untreated pheochromocytoma

Dosing: Adult

Angina pectoris: Canadian labeling: Oral: Initial: 5 mg 3 times daily; increase as necessary every 1 to 2 weeks. Usual maintenance dose: 15 to 40 mg daily in 3 or 4 divided doses (maximum daily dose: 40 mg).

Hypertension:

US labeling: Oral: Initial: 5 mg twice daily; increase as necessary by 10 mg daily every 3 to 4 weeks (maximum daily dose: 60 mg).

Canadian labeling: Oral: Initial: 5 mg twice daily; increase as necessary by 10 mg daily every 1 to 2 weeks. Usual maintenance dose: 15 to 45 mg daily (maximum daily dose: 45 mg). If daily maintenance dose is ≤20 mg daily, may give as single dose in the morning; if >30 mg daily, administer in 3 divided doses.

Antidepressant augmentation (off-label use): Oral: 2.5 to 5 mg 3 times daily (Ballesteros 2004; Geretsegger 2008; Portella 2011)

Atrial fibrillation (rate control) (off-label use): Initial: 5 mg twice daily; may increase at weekly intervals to 15 mg twice daily. May use in combination with digoxin (James 1989).

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing. Use with caution.

Dosing: Renal Impairment

US labeling: There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling. In uremic patients, use with caution due to significantly decreased clearance.

Canadian labeling: No dosage adjustment necessary in mild or moderate impairment; manufacturer suggests that a reduced dose may be necessary in severe impairment but does not provide specific dosing recommendations.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment

US labeling: There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling. In cirrhotic patients, use with caution due to significantly prolonged elimination half-life (may be 10 times as long compared to normal patients).

Canadian labeling: No dosage adjustment necessary in mild or moderate impairment; manufacturer suggests that a reduced dose may be necessary in severe impairment but does not provide specific dosing recommendations.

Administration

May be administered without regard to meals. Canadian labeling recommends administering with meals.

Dietary Considerations

Food does not significantly affect bioavailability.

Storage

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). Protect from light.

Drug Interactions

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy

Alfuzosin: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Alpha-/Beta-Agonists (Direct-Acting): Beta-Blockers may enhance the vasopressor effect of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists (Direct-Acting). Epinephrine used as a local anesthetic for dental procedures will not likely cause clinically relevant problems. Some beta-adrenoceptor mediated effects of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists (Direct-Acting), including anti-anaphylactic effects of epinephrine, may be diminished by Beta-Blockers. Management: Cardioselective beta-blockers and lower doses of epinephrine may confer a more limited risk. Patients who may require acute subcutaneous epinephrine (e.g., bee sting kits) should probably avoid beta blockers. Exceptions: Dipivefrin. Consider therapy modification

Alpha1-Blockers: Beta-Blockers may enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Alpha1-Blockers. The risk associated with ophthalmic products is probably less than systemic products. Monitor therapy

Alpha2-Agonists: May enhance the AV-blocking effect of Beta-Blockers. Sinus node dysfunction may also be enhanced. Beta-Blockers may enhance the rebound hypertensive effect of Alpha2-Agonists. This effect can occur when the Alpha2-Agonist is abruptly withdrawn. Management: Closely monitor heart rate during treatment with a beta blocker and clonidine. Withdraw beta blockers several days before clonidine withdrawal when possible, and monitor blood pressure closely. Recommendations for other alpha2-agonists are unavailable. Exceptions: Apraclonidine. Consider therapy modification

Amifostine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Amifostine. Management: When amifostine is used at chemotherapy doses, blood pressure lowering medications should be withheld for 24 hours prior to amifostine administration. If blood pressure lowering therapy cannot be withheld, amifostine should not be administered. Consider therapy modification

Aminoquinolines (Antimalarial): May decrease the metabolism of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy

Amiodarone: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Possibly to the point of cardiac arrest. Amiodarone may increase the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy

Amphetamines: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Anilidopiperidine Opioids: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Anilidopiperidine Opioids may enhance the hypotensive effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy

Antipsychotic Agents (Phenothiazines): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Beta-Blockers. Beta-Blockers may decrease the metabolism of Antipsychotic Agents (Phenothiazines). Antipsychotic Agents (Phenothiazines) may decrease the metabolism of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy

Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]): Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]). Monitor therapy

ARIPiprazole: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole. Management: Monitor for increased aripiprazole pharmacologic effects. Aripiprazole dose adjustments may or may not be required based on concomitant therapy and/or indication. Consult full interaction monograph for specific recommendations. Monitor therapy

Barbiturates: May decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy

Barbiturates: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Beta2-Agonists: Beta-Blockers (Nonselective) may diminish the bronchodilatory effect of Beta2-Agonists. Avoid combination

Bradycardia-Causing Agents: May enhance the bradycardic effect of other Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Monitor therapy

Bretylium: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Bretylium may also enhance atrioventricular (AV) blockade in patients receiving AV blocking agents. Monitor therapy

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Bupivacaine: Beta-Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Bupivacaine. Monitor therapy

BuPROPion: May increase the serum concentration of OCT2 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Beta-Blockers. Bradycardia and signs of heart failure have also been reported. Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine) may increase the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers. Exceptions: Bepridil. Monitor therapy

Cardiac Glycosides: Beta-Blockers may enhance the bradycardic effect of Cardiac Glycosides. Monitor therapy

Ceritinib: Bradycardia-Causing Agents may enhance the bradycardic effect of Ceritinib. Management: If this combination cannot be avoided, monitor patients for evidence of symptomatic bradycardia, and closely monitor blood pressure and heart rate during therapy. Avoid combination

Cholinergic Agonists: Beta-Blockers may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cholinergic Agonists. Of particular concern are the potential for cardiac conduction abnormalities and bronchoconstriction. Management: Administer these agents in combination with caution, and monitor for conduction disturbances. Avoid methacholine with any beta blocker due to the potential for additive bronchoconstriction. Monitor therapy

Diazoxide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Dipyridamole: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy

Disopyramide: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Beta-Blockers may enhance the negative inotropic effect of Disopyramide. Monitor therapy

Dronedarone: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers. This likely applies only to those agents that are metabolized by CYP2D6. Management: Use lower initial beta-blocker doses; adequate tolerance of the combination, based on ECG findings, should be confirmed prior to any increase in beta-blocker dose. Consider therapy modification

DULoxetine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of DULoxetine. Monitor therapy

Ergot Derivatives: Beta-Blockers may enhance the vasoconstricting effect of Ergot Derivatives. Consider therapy modification

Fingolimod: Beta-Blockers may enhance the bradycardic effect of Fingolimod. Monitor therapy

Floctafenine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Beta-Blockers. Avoid combination

Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract): Beta-Blockers may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract). More specifically, Beta-Blockers may inhibit the ability to effectively treat severe allergic reactions to Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract) with epinephrine. Some other effects of epinephrine may be unaffected or even enhanced (e.g., vasoconstriction) during treatment with Beta-Blockers. Consider therapy modification

Herbs (Hypertensive Properties): May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Herbs (Hypotensive Properties): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Hypotension-Associated Agents: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotension-Associated Agents. Monitor therapy

Insulin: Beta-Blockers may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulin. Monitor therapy

Ivabradine: Bradycardia-Causing Agents may enhance the bradycardic effect of Ivabradine. Monitor therapy

Lacosamide: Bradycardia-Causing Agents may enhance the AV-blocking effect of Lacosamide. Monitor therapy

Levodopa: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Levodopa. Monitor therapy

Lidocaine (Systemic): Beta-Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Lidocaine (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Lidocaine (Topical): Beta-Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Lidocaine (Topical). Monitor therapy

Mepivacaine: Beta-Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Mepivacaine. Monitor therapy

Methacholine: Beta-Blockers may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methacholine. Avoid combination

Methylphenidate: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Midodrine: Beta-Blockers may enhance the bradycardic effect of Midodrine. Monitor therapy

Molsidomine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Naftopidil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

NIFEdipine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Beta-Blockers. NIFEdipine may enhance the negative inotropic effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy

Obinutuzumab: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Management: Consider temporarily withholding blood pressure lowering medications beginning 12 hours prior to obinutuzumab infusion and continuing until 1 hour after the end of the infusion. Consider therapy modification

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Perhexiline: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Perhexiline. Monitor therapy

Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Propafenone: May increase the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers. Propafenone possesses some independent beta blocking activity. Monitor therapy

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Quinagolide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Regorafenib: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy

Reserpine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy

Rifamycin Derivatives: May decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers. Exceptions: Rifabutin. Monitor therapy

Rivastigmine: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Avoid combination

Ruxolitinib: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Management: Ruxolitinib Canadian product labeling recommends avoiding use with bradycardia-causing agents to the extent possible. Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May increase the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers. Exceptions: Citalopram; Escitalopram; FluvoxaMINE. Monitor therapy

Sulfonylureas: Beta-Blockers may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Sulfonylureas. Cardioselective beta-blockers (eg, acebutolol, atenolol, metoprolol, and penbutolol) may be safer than nonselective beta-blockers. All beta-blockers appear to mask tachycardia as an initial symptom of hypoglycemia. Ophthalmic beta-blockers are probably associated with lower risk than systemic agents. Monitor therapy

Theophylline Derivatives: Beta-Blockers (Nonselective) may diminish the bronchodilatory effect of Theophylline Derivatives. Consider therapy modification

Tofacitinib: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Monitor therapy

Yohimbine: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Adverse Reactions

>10%: Cardiovascular: Edema (6% to 16%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Bradycardia (≤2%), claudication (≤2%), cold extremities (≤2%), heart block (≤2%), hypotension (≤2%), syncope (≤2%), tachycardia (≤2%), palpitations (≤1%)

Central nervous system: Insomnia (10%), dizziness (9%), fatigue (8%), nervousness (7%), abnormal dreams (5%), anxiety (≤2%), lethargy (≤2%)

Dermatologic: Hyperhidrosis (≤2%), pruritus (1%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Weight gain (≤2%)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea (5%), diarrhea (≤2%), vomiting (≤2%)

Genitourinary: Impotence (≤2%), pollakiuria (≤2%)

Hepatic: Increased serum ALT (7%), increased serum AST (7%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Myalgia (10%), arthralgia (7%), weakness (4%), muscle cramps (3%)

Ophthalmic: Burning sensation of eyes (≤2%), eye discomfort (≤2%), visual disturbance (≤2%)

Renal: Polyuria (≤2%)

Respiratory: Dyspnea (5%), wheezing (≤2%)

<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Cardiac failure, hallucination, hyperuricemia, increased lactic acid dehydrogenase, increased serum alkaline phosphatase

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse events:

• Anaphylactic reactions: Use caution with history of severe anaphylaxis to allergens; patients taking beta-blockers may become more sensitive to repeated challenges. Treatment of anaphylaxis (eg, epinephrine) in patients taking beta-blockers may be ineffective or promote undesirable effects.

Disease-related concerns:

• Bronchospastic disease: In general, patients with bronchospastic disease should not receive beta-blockers; if used at all, should be used cautiously with close monitoring.

• Conduction abnormality: Consider preexisting conditions such as sick sinus syndrome before initiating.

• Diabetes: Use with caution in patients with diabetes mellitus; may potentiate hypoglycemia and/or mask signs and symptoms.

• Heart failure (HF): Use with caution in patients with compensated HF and monitor for a worsening of the condition. If condition worsens, consider temporary discontinuation or dosage reduction of pindolol. Patients should be stabilized on heart failure regimen prior to initiation of beta-blocker. Beta-blocker therapy should be initiated at very low doses with gradual and very careful titration. Adjustment of other medications (ACE inhibitors and/or diuretics) may be required. Beta-blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (eg, pindolol) have not been demonstrated to be of value in HF.

• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment; pindolol levels may increase significantly with hepatic impairment.

• Myasthenia gravis: Use with caution in patients with myasthenia gravis.

• Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and Raynaud's disease: Can precipitate or aggravate symptoms of arterial insufficiency in patients with PVD and Raynaud's disease. Use with caution and monitor for progression of arterial obstruction. Canadian labeling contraindicates use in severe peripheral arterial circulatory disorders.

• Pheochromocytoma (untreated): Adequate alpha-blockade is required prior to use of any beta-blocker. Canadian labeling contraindicates use in patients with untreated pheochromocytoma.

• Prinzmetal variant angina: Beta-blockers without alpha1-adrenergic receptor blocking activity should be avoided in patients with Prinzmetal variant angina since unopposed alpha1-adrenergic receptors mediate coronary vasoconstriction and can worsen anginal symptoms (Mayer, 1998).

• Psoriasis: Beta-blocker use has been associated with induction or exacerbation of psoriasis, but cause and effect have not been firmly established.

• Psychiatric disease: Use with caution in patients with a history of psychiatric illness; may cause or exacerbate CNS depression.

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment.

• Thyroid disease: May mask signs of hyperthyroidism (eg, tachycardia). If thyrotoxicosis is suspected, carefully manage and monitor; abrupt withdrawal may exacerbate symptoms of hyperthyroidism or precipitate thyroid storm.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Special populations:

• Elderly: Bradycardia may be observed more frequently in elderly patients (>65 years of age); dosage reductions may be necessary.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Abrupt withdrawal: Beta-blocker therapy should not be withdrawn abruptly (particularly in patients with CAD), but gradually tapered over 1 to 2 weeks to avoid acute tachycardia, hypertension, and/or ischemia. Severe exacerbation of angina, ventricular arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction (MI) have been reported following abrupt withdrawal of beta-blocker therapy. Temporary but prompt resumption of beta-blocker therapy may be indicated with worsening of angina or acute coronary insufficiency.

• Major surgery: Chronic beta-blocker therapy should not be routinely withdrawn prior to major surgery (Fleischmann 2009).

Monitoring Parameters

Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory function

Pregnancy Risk Factor

B

Pregnancy Considerations

Adverse effects were not observed in animal reproduction studies. Pindolol crosses the placenta and is measurable in the cord blood and amniotic fluid (Gonçalves 2007). The clearance and volume of distribution of pindolol are increased during pregnancy (Gonçalves 2002).

Adverse events, such as fetal/neonatal bradycardia, hypoglycemia, and reduced birth weight, have been observed following in utero exposure to beta-blockers as a class. Adequate facilities for monitoring infants at birth is generally recommended.

Untreated chronic maternal hypertension and preeclampsia are also associated with adverse events in the fetus, infant, and mother (ACOG 2015; Magee 2014). When treatment of hypertension in pregnancy is indicated, beta-blockers may be used. Specific recommendations vary by guideline. Although other agents are preferred (ACOG 2013), use of pindolol may be considered (Magee 2014).

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience insomnia, loss of strength and energy, muscle pain, joint pain, nausea, or anxiety. Have patient report immediately to prescriber severe dizziness, passing out, angina, bradycardia, arrhythmia, shortness of breath, excessive weight gain, or swelling of arms or legs (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.

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