Linagliptin and Metformin
(lin a GLIP tin & met FOR min)
- Linagliptin and Metformin Hydrochloride
- Linagliptin/Metformin HCl
- Metformin and Linagliptin
- Metformin Hydrochloride and Linagliptin
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
Jentadueto 2.5/500: Linagliptin 2.5 mg and metformin hydrochloride 500 mg
Jentadueto 2.5/850: Linagliptin 2.5 mg and metformin hydrochloride 850 mg
Jentadueto 2.5/1000: Linagliptin 2.5 mg and metformin hydrochloride 1000 mg
Tablet Extended Release, oral:
Jentadueto XR 2.5/1000: Linagliptin 2.5 mg and metformin hydrochloride 1000 mg
Jentadueto XR 5/1000: Linagliptin 5 mg and metformin hydrochloride 1000 mg
Brand Names: U.S.
- Jentadueto XR
- Antidiabetic Agent, Biguanide
- Antidiabetic Agent, Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP-4) Inhibitor
Linagliptin inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) enzymes resulting in prolonged active incretin levels. Incretin hormones [eg, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)] regulate glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin synthesis and release from pancreatic beta cells and decreasing glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells. Decreased glucagon secretion results in decreased hepatic glucose production. Under normal physiologic circumstances, incretin hormones are released by the intestine throughout the day and levels are increased in response to a meal; incretin hormones are rapidly inactivated by DPP-4 enzymes.
Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity (increases peripheral glucose uptake and utilization).
Use: Labeled Indications
Diabetes mellitus type 2: As an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (noninsulin dependent) when treatment with both linagliptin and metformin is appropriate.
US labeling: Hypersensitivity (eg, anaphylaxis, angioedema, exfoliative skin conditions, urticaria, bronchial hyperreactivity) to linagliptin, metformin, or any component of the formulation; severe renal impairment (eGFR <30 mL/minute/1.73 m2); acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis.
Canadian labeling: Hypersensitivity to linagliptin, metformin, or any component of the formulation; renal function unknown, renal disease or renal dysfunction (serum creatinine ≥136 micromole/L in males or ≥124 micromole/L in females), or abnormal creatinine clearance (<60 mL/minute) which may also result from conditions such as cardiovascular collapse, acute myocardial infarction, and septicemia; severe hepatic dysfunction; unstable and/or insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetes mellitus; acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, with or without coma, history of ketoacidosis with or without coma; history of lactic acidosis regardless of precipitating factors; excessive alcohol intake (acute or chronic); cardiovascular collapse and disease states associated with hypoxemia such as cardiorespiratory insufficiency that often are associated with hyperlactacidemia; stress conditions (eg, severe infection, trauma or surgery, and postoperative recovery phase); severe dehydration; pregnancy; breastfeeding
Diabetes mellitus, type 2: Oral: Initial doses should be based on current daily dose of linagliptin and metformin; range: Linagliptin 2.5 mg and metformin 500 to 1,000 mg twice daily (immediate release) or linagliptin 5 mg and metformin 1,000 to 2,000 mg once daily (extended release); maximum: linagliptin 5 mg/metformin 2,000 mg per day
Patients currently on metformin: Initial: Linagliptin 5 mg/day plus current daily dose of metformin
Patients not on metformin: Initial: Linagliptin 5 mg/metformin 1,000 mg per day
Conversion from immediate-release to extended-release product: May switch to extended-release product containing linagliptin 5 mg and current daily dose of metformin once daily.
Concomitant use with insulin and/or insulin secretagogues (eg, sulfonylureas): Reduced dose of insulin and/or insulin secretagogues may be needed.
Refer to adult dosing. The initial and maintenance dosing should be conservative, due to the potential for decreased renal function (monitor).
Dosing: Renal Impairment
eGFR >45 mL/minute/1.73 m2: No dosage adjustment necessary.
eGFR 30 to 45 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Use is not recommended for initiation of therapy; if eGFR falls to <45 mL/minute/1.73 m2 during therapy, consider benefits/risks of continuing therapy.
eGFR <30 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Use is contraindicated.
Dosing: Hepatic Impairment
The manufacturer recommends avoiding metformin since liver disease is considered a risk factor for the development of lactic acidosis during metformin therapy. However, continued use of metformin in diabetics with liver dysfunction, including cirrhosis, has been used successfully and may be associated with a survival benefit in carefully selected patients; use cautiously in patients at risk for lactic acidosis (eg, renal impairment, alcohol use) (Brackett 2010; Zhang 2014).
Oral: Administer with food at the same time(s) each day. Extended-release tablet: Swallow whole; do not split, crush, dissolve, or chew.
Individualized medical nutrition therapy (MNT) based on ADA recommendations is an integral part of therapy. Monitor for signs and symptoms of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid deficiency; supplementation may be required.
Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Protect from exposure to high humidity.
Abemaciclib: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy
Alcohol (Ethyl): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MetFORMIN. Specifically, alcohol may potentiate the risk of lactic acidosis Avoid combination
Alpha-Lipoic Acid: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy
Androgens: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Exceptions: Danazol. Monitor therapy
Bosentan: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy
BuPROPion: May increase the serum concentration of OCT2 Substrates. Monitor therapy
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MetFORMIN. Specifically, the risk of developing lactic acidosis may be increased. Exceptions: Brinzolamide; Dorzolamide. Monitor therapy
Cephalexin: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy
Cimetidine: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Management: Consider alternatives to cimetidine in patients receiving metformin due to a potential for increased metformin concentrations and toxicity (including lactic acidosis). Consider therapy modification
CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy
CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May decrease the serum concentration of Linagliptin. Management: Strongly consider using an alternative to any strong CYP3A4 inducer in patients who are being treated with linagliptin. If this combination is used, monitor patients closely for evidence of reduced linagliptin effectiveness. Consider therapy modification
Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Seek alternatives to the CYP3A4 substrate when possible. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor clinical effects of the substrate closely (particularly therapeutic effects). Consider therapy modification
Dalfampridine: MetFORMIN may increase the serum concentration of Dalfampridine. Dalfampridine may increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy
Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy
Dofetilide: MetFORMIN may increase the serum concentration of Dofetilide. Monitor therapy
Dolutegravir: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Management: Limit the daily metformin dose to 1,000 mg when used together with dolutegravir. Metformin dose adjustments may also be needed upon discontinuation of dolutegravir. Monitor patient response to metformin closely. Consider therapy modification
Enzalutamide: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Concurrent use of enzalutamide with CYP3A4 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Use of enzalutamide and any other CYP3A4 substrate should be performed with caution and close monitoring. Consider therapy modification
Glycopyrrolate (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy
Guanethidine: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy
Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy
Hypoglycemia-Associated Agents: Antidiabetic Agents may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemia-Associated Agents. Monitor therapy
Insulins: Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulins. Management: Consider a decrease in insulin dose when initiating therapy with a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor and monitor patients for hypoglycemia. Consider therapy modification
Iodinated Contrast Agents: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MetFORMIN. Renal dysfunction that may be caused by iodinated contrast agents may lead to metformin-associated lactic acidosis. Management: Management advice varies. Refer to the full drug interaction monograph content for details. Exceptions: Diatrizoate Meglumine; Diatrizoate Sodium; Ethiodized Oil. Consider therapy modification
Isavuconazonium Sulfate: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy
LamoTRIgine: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Management: The lamotrigine Canadian product monograph states that coadministration of these drugs is not recommended. Monitor therapy
Mitotane: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Doses of CYP3A4 substrates may need to be adjusted substantially when used in patients being treated with mitotane. Consider therapy modification
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, and Ritonavir: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MetFORMIN. Specifically, the risk for lactic acidosis may be increased. Monitor therapy
Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, Ritonavir, and Dasabuvir: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MetFORMIN. Specifically, the risk for lactic acidosis may be increased. Monitor therapy
Ondansetron: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy
Patiromer: May decrease the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Management: Administer metformin at least 3 hours before or 3 hours after patiromer. Consider therapy modification
Pegvisomant: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers: May decrease the serum concentration of Linagliptin. Management: Strongly consider using an alternative to any strong P-glycoprotein inducer in patients who are being treated with linagliptin. If this combination is used, monitor patients closely for evidence of reduced linagliptin effectiveness. Consider therapy modification
P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors: May increase the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. P-glycoprotein inhibitors may also enhance the distribution of p-glycoprotein substrates to specific cells/tissues/organs where p-glycoprotein is present in large amounts (e.g., brain, T-lymphocytes, testes, etc.). Monitor therapy
Pitolisant: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Combined use of pitolisant with a CYP3A4 substrate that has a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Other CYP3A4 substrates should be monitored more closely when used with pitolisant. Consider therapy modification
Prothionamide: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Quinolones: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Quinolones may diminish the therapeutic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Specifically, if an agent is being used to treat diabetes, loss of blood sugar control may occur with quinolone use. Monitor therapy
Ranolazine: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Management: Limit the metformin dose to a maximum of 1700 mg/day when used together with ranolazine 1000 mg twice daily. Consider therapy modification
Ritonavir: May increase the serum concentration of Linagliptin. Monitor therapy
Salicylates: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Sarilumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy
St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification
Sulfonylureas: Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Sulfonylureas. Management: Consider a decrease in sulfonylurea dose when initiating therapy with a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor and monitor patients for hypoglycemia. Consider therapy modification
Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy
Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy
Topiramate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy
Trimethoprim: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy
Trospium: MetFORMIN may decrease the serum concentration of Trospium. Monitor therapy
Vandetanib: May increase the serum concentration of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy
Verapamil: May diminish the therapeutic effect of MetFORMIN. Monitor therapy
Reactions/percentages reported with combination product; also see individual agents. Frequency not always defined.
Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (6%), decreased appetite, nausea, pancreatitis, vomiting
Hypersensitivity: Hypersensitivity reaction
Respiratory: Nasopharyngitis (6%), cough
<1% (limited to important or life-threatening): Severe arthralgia (FDA Safety Alert, Aug 28, 2015)
Concerns related to adverse effects:
• Arthralgia: Severe and disabling arthralgia has been reported with DPP-4 inhibitor use; onset may occur within one day to years after treatment initiation and may resolve with discontinuation of therapy. Some patients may experience a recurrence of symptoms if DPP-4 inhibitor therapy resumed. Discontinue use if severe joint pain results from DPP-4 inhibitor therapy.
• Bullous pemphigoid: DPP-4 inhibitor use has been associated with development of bullous pemphigoid; cases have typically resolved with topical or systemic immunosuppressive therapy and discontinuation of DPP-4 inhibitor therapy. Advise patients to report development of blisters or erosions. Discontinue therapy if bullous pemphigoid is suspected and consider referral to a dermatologist.
• Hypersensitivity reactions: Rare hypersensitivity reactions (including anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions) have been reported in patients treated with linagliptin; discontinue if signs/symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions occur. Events have generally been noted within the first 3 months of therapy, and may occur with the initial dose. Use with caution if patient has experienced angioedema with other DPP-4 inhibitor use.
• Lactic acidosis: [US Boxed Warning]: Postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. The onset is often subtle, accompanied by nonspecific symptoms (eg, malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, abdominal pain); elevated blood lactate levels (>5 mmol/L); anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia); increased lactate:pyruvate ratio; metformin plasma levels generally >5 mcg/mL. Risk factors for lactic acidosis include patients with renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (eg, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as topiramate), ≥65 years, having a radiologic study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (eg, acute heart failure), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment. Discontinue immediately if lactic acidosis is suspected; prompt hemodialysis is recommended. Lactic acidosis should be suspected in any patient with diabetes receiving metformin with evidence of acidosis but without evidence of ketoacidosis. Discontinue use in patients with conditions associated with dehydration, hypoperfusion, sepsis, or hypoxemia. Temporarily discontinue therapy in patients with restricted food and fluid intake. The risk of accumulation and lactic acidosis increases with the degree of impairment of renal function.
• Pancreatitis: Cases of acute pancreatitis, including fatalities, have been reported with linagliptin. Monitor for signs/symptoms of pancreatitis; discontinue use immediately if pancreatitis is suspected and initiate appropriate management. Use with caution in patients with a history of pancreatitis as it is not known if this population is at greater risk.
• Vitamin B12 concentrations: Long-term metformin use is associated with vitamin B12 deficiency; monitor vitamin B12 serum concentrations periodically with long-term therapy. Monitoring of B12 serum concentrations should be considered in all patients receiving metformin and in particular those with peripheral neuropathy or anemia (ADA 2017c).
• Heart failure: Use with caution in patients with congestive heart failure requiring pharmacologic management, particularly in patients with unstable or acute heart failure; risk of lactic acidosis may be increased secondary to hypoperfusion. In a scientific statement from the American Heart Association, metformin has been determined to be an agent that may exacerbate underlying myocardial dysfunction (magnitude: major) (AHA [Page 2016]). In cardiovascular outcome trials of patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, treatment with other DPP-4 inhibitors has been associated with heart failure. Use linagliptin with caution in patients at risk for heart failure (eg, history of heart failure or renal impairment) and monitor for signs and symptoms of heart failure during therapy; consider discontinuation if heart failure develops.
• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment due to potential for lactic acidosis.
• Renal impairment: Metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney and use is contraindicated in patients with eGFR <30 mL/minute/1.73 m2. Use of concomitant medications that may affect renal function (ie, affect tubular secretion) may also affect metformin disposition. Metformin should be withheld in patients with dehydration and/or prerenal azotemia.
• Stress-related states: It may be necessary to discontinue metformin and administer insulin if the patient is exposed to stress (eg, fever, trauma, infection, surgery).
Concurrent drug therapy issues:
• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.
• Elderly: Use with caution; risk of metformin associated lactic acidosis increases with age.
• Appropriate use: Not for use in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent, IDDM).
• Ethanol use: Instruct patients to avoid excessive acute or chronic ethanol use; ethanol may potentiate metformin's effect on lactate metabolism.
• Iodinated contrast: Temporarily discontinue metformin at the time of or before iodinated contrast imaging procedures in patients with an eGFR 30 to 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2; or with a history of hepatic disease, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will receive intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Reevaluate eGFR 48 hours after imaging procedure; restart if renal function is stable. Alternatively, the American College of Radiology (ACR) guidelines recommend that metformin may be used prior to or following administration of iodinated contrast media in patients with no evidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and with an eGFR ≥30 mL/minute/1.73 m2; ACR guidelines recommend temporary discontinuation of metformin in patients with known AKI or severe chronic kidney disease ([stage IV or V [ie, eGFR <30 mL/minute/1.73 m2]) or who are undergoing arterial catheter studies (ACR 2015).
• Patient education: Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is essential to maximize the effectiveness of therapy.
• Surgical procedures: Metformin should be withheld 24 hours before surgery (all other oral hypoglycemic agents should be withheld the morning of surgery or procedure) (ADA 2017d). Restart only after normal intake resumed and normal renal function is verified.
HbA1c (at least twice yearly in patients who have stable glycemic control and are meeting treatment goals; quarterly in patients not meeting treatment goals or with therapy change [ADA 2017a]); serum glucose; hematologic parameters (eg, hemoglobin/hematocrit, red blood cell indices) annually; hepatic function, renal function (prior to initiation of therapy then at least annually or more frequently if necessary); vitamin B12 (periodically with long-term treatment) and folate (if megaloblastic anemia is suspected); signs/symptoms of pancreatitis; signs/symptoms of heart failure
Metformin crosses the placenta (ADA 2017c). Refer to individual agents.
• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)
• Patient may experience abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, flatulence, loss of strength and energy, headache, pharyngitis, rhinitis, or rhinorrhea. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of lactic acidosis (fast breathing, tachycardia, abnormal heartbeat, vomiting, fatigue, shortness of breath, severe loss of strength and energy, severe dizziness, feeling cold, or muscle pain or cramps), signs of low blood sugar (dizziness, headache, fatigue, feeling weak, shaking, a fast heartbeat, confusion, hunger, or sweating), signs of a pancreas problem (pancreatitis; severe abdominal pain, severe back pain, severe nausea, vomiting), signs of heart problems (cough or shortness of breath that is new or worse, swelling of the ankles or legs, abnormal heartbeat, weight gain of more than five pounds in 24 hours, dizziness, or passing out), eczema, difficulty swallowing, skin blisters, skin breakdown, severe joint pain, persistent joint pain, or tablet shell in stool (HCAHPS).
• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.
Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.
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