(foe SIN oh pril)
- Fosinopril Sodium
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
Tablet, Oral, as sodium:
Generic: 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg
- Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor
Competitive inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE); prevents conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor; results in lower levels of angiotensin II which causes an increase in plasma renin activity and a reduction in aldosterone secretion; a CNS mechanism may also be involved in hypotensive effect as angiotensin II increases adrenergic outflow from CNS; vasoactive kallikreins may be decreased in conversion to active hormones by ACE inhibitors, thus reducing blood pressure
Prodrug, hydrolyzed to its active metabolite fosinoprilat by intestinal wall and hepatic esterases; fosinopril is also metabolized to a glucuronide conjugate and a p-hydroxy metabolite of fosinoprilat
Urine and feces (as fosinoprilat and other metabolites in roughly equal proportions)
Onset of Action
Time to Peak
Serum: ~3 hours
Duration of Action
Children and Adolescents 6-16 years: 11-13 hours
Adults: 12 hours
Adults with CHF: 14 hours
Special Populations: Renal Function Impairment
In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (creatinine clearance <10 mL/minute/1.73 m2), fosinoprilat total body clearance is decreased ~50%.
Special Populations: Hepatic Function Impairment
In patients with alcoholic or biliary cirrhosis, the rate of fosinoprilat formation is slowed, its total body clearance decreased, and its AUC approximately doubled.
Use: Labeled Indications
Heart failure: Adjunctive treatment of heart failure (HF)
Hypertension: Treatment of hypertension, either alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents
Heart failure: The ACCF/AHA 2013 heart failure guidelines recommend the use of ACE inhibitors, along with other guideline directed medical therapies, to prevent heart failure in patients with a reduced ejection fraction who have a history of MI (Stage B HF), to prevent HF in any patient with a reduced ejection fraction (Stage B HF), or to treat those with HF and reduced ejection fraction (Stage C HFrEF) (ACCF/AHA [Yancy 2013]).
Hypertension: The 2014 guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults (Eighth Joint National Committee [JNC 8]) recommends initiation of pharmacologic treatment to lower blood pressure for the following patients:
• Patients ≥60 years with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥150 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg.
• Patients <60 years with SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP is ≥90 mm Hg.
• Patients ≥18 years with diabetes and SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg.
• Patients ≥18 years with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg.
Diabetes and hypertension: The American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines recommend an ACE inhibitor (or an ARB) for patients with HTN and diabetes with albuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio [UACR] ≥30 mg/g). For patients with hypertension and diabetes without albuminuria, any of the 4 classes of blood pressure medications (eg, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, thiazide-like diuretics, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers) may be used and have shown beneficial cardiovascular outcomes (ADA 2017a).
Off Label Uses
Data from a small cohort study using fosinopril in HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) demonstrated significant improvements in renal survival and reductions in mortality rates. No randomized controlled trials of renin-angiotensin system inhibitor use in patients with HIVAN have been conducted, but the efficacy and safety of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been extrapolated from controlled studies in other glomerular diseases in the general population.
Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines for the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in HIV patients recommend the use of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) to prevent kidney disease progression in patients with confirmed or suspected HIVAN or clinically significant albuminuria (300 mg/day or higher in nondiabetic patients; 30 mg/day or higher in diabetic patients).
Improve kidney outcomes in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) (diabetic and nondiabetic population)
Based on the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) guidelines for the management of high blood pressure in adults, an ACE inhibitor (eg, fosinopril) or an ARB is effective and recommended to improve kidney outcomes in adult patients with CKD and hypertension. This recommendation applies to hypertensive CKD patients, with and without proteinuria, and regardless of race and diabetes status.
Based on the American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, in CKD patients with diabetes and hypertension, an ACE inhibitor (eg, fosinopril) or an ARB is effective and strongly recommended in patients with an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or a UACR ≥300 mg/g for the prevention of CKD progression. In patients with modestly elevated UACR (30 to 299 mg/g), ACE inhibitors or ARBs are also recommended to reduce the progression to more advanced albuminuria.
Non–ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome
Based on the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) guidelines for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), an ACE inhibitor (eg, fosinopril) should be initiated and continued indefinitely after NSTE-ACS in patients with an LVEF ≤0.4 and in those with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or stable CKD unless contraindicated. Use of an ACE inhibitor may also be useful in all other patients with cardiac or other vascular disease. In patients with stress (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy, the use of ACE inhibitors (in combination with beta blockers, aspirin and diuretics) is recommended.
Hypersensitivity to fosinopril, any other ACE inhibitor, or any component of the formulation; angioedema related to previous treatment with an ACE inhibitor; concomitant use with aliskiren in patients with diabetes mellitus
Heart failure: Oral: Per the manufacturer: Initial: 10 mg once daily (5 mg once daily if moderate to severe renal dysfunction is present or if aggressively diuresed); increase dose as needed and as tolerated over several weeks. Usual dosage range: 20 to 40 mg once daily (maximum dose: 40 mg once daily). If hypotension, orthostasis, or azotemia occurs during titration, consider decreasing concomitant diuretic dose, if any.
ACCF/AHA 2013 heart failure guidelines: Initial: 5 to 10 mg once daily. Target dose: 40 mg once daily (Yancy 2013).
Hypertension: Oral: Initial: 10 mg once daily; maximum dose: 80 mg once daily. May need to divide the dose into two if trough effect is inadequate. If patient is receiving a diuretic prior to initiation, consider discontinuation of the diuretic to reduce likelihood of hypotension, if possible 2 to 3 days before initiation of therapy. If blood pressure response is inadequate, resume diuretic therapy carefully. Usual dose range (ASH/ISH [Weber 2014]): 10 to 40 mg daily.
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) (off-label use): Oral: 10 mg once daily (Wei 2003).
Refer to adult dosing.
Hypertension: Children ≥6 years and Adolescents >50 kg: Oral: Initial: 5 to 10 mg once daily (maximum: 40 mg once daily)
Dosing: Renal Impairment
Moderate-severe impairment: Initial dose reduction to 5 mg once daily recommended for heart failure patients. No other dose adjustments are required; hepatobiliary elimination partially compensates for diminished renal elimination.
Hemodialysis: Poorly dialyzed; supplemental dose not required (Gehr, 1993)
Peritoneal dialysis: Poorly dialyzed; supplemental dose not required (Gehr, 1991)
Dosing: Hepatic Impairment
There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling.
Should not take a potassium salt supplement without the advice of healthcare provider.
Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Protect from moisture.
Alfuzosin: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Aliskiren: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Aliskiren may enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Aliskiren may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Management: Aliskiren use with ACEIs or ARBs in patients with diabetes is contraindicated. Combined use in other patients should be avoided, particularly when CrCl is less than 60 mL/min. If combined, monitor potassium, creatinine, and blood pressure closely. Consider therapy modification
Allopurinol: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the potential for allergic or hypersensitivity reactions to Allopurinol. Consider therapy modification
Amifostine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Amifostine. Management: When amifostine is used at chemotherapy doses, blood pressure lowering medications should be withheld for 24 hours prior to amifostine administration. If blood pressure lowering therapy cannot be withheld, amifostine should not be administered. Consider therapy modification
Amphetamines: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may increase the serum concentration of ACE Inhibitors. Management: In US labeling, use of telmisartan and ramipril is not recommended. It is not clear if any other combination of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB would be any safer. Consider alternatives to the combination when possible. Consider therapy modification
Antacids: May decrease the serum concentration of Fosinopril. Management: The US and Canadian fosinopril manufacturer labels recommend separating the doses of antacids and fosinopril by 2 hours. Consider therapy modification
Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]): Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]). Monitor therapy
Aprotinin: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
AzaTHIOprine: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the myelosuppressive effect of AzaTHIOprine. Monitor therapy
Barbiturates: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Benperidol: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Brigatinib: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Brigatinib may enhance the bradycardic effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy
Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Canagliflozin: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Canagliflozin may enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Ciprofloxacin (Systemic): ACE Inhibitors may enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Ciprofloxacin (Systemic). Monitor therapy
Dapoxetine: May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Diazoxide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
DPP-IV Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Monitor therapy
Drospirenone: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Drospirenone. Monitor therapy
DULoxetine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of DULoxetine. Monitor therapy
Eplerenone: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Everolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Monitor therapy
Ferric Gluconate: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ferric Gluconate. Monitor therapy
Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex. Specifically, the risk for angioedema or allergic reactions may be increased. Monitor therapy
Gold Sodium Thiomalate: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Gold Sodium Thiomalate. An increased risk of nitritoid reactions has been appreciated. Monitor therapy
Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract): ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract). Specifically, ACE inhibitors may increase the risk of severe allergic reaction to Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract). Consider therapy modification
Heparin: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Heparin (Low Molecular Weight): May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Herbs (Hypertensive Properties): May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy
Herbs (Hypotensive Properties): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Hypotension-Associated Agents: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotension-Associated Agents. Monitor therapy
Icatibant: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Iron Dextran Complex: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Iron Dextran Complex. Specifically, patients receiving an ACE inhibitor may be at an increased risk for anaphylactic-type reactions. Management: Follow iron dextran recommendations closely regarding both having resuscitation equipment and trained personnel on-hand prior to iron dextran administration and the use of a test dose prior to the first therapeutic dose. Consider therapy modification
Lanthanum: May decrease the serum concentration of ACE Inhibitors. Management: Administer angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors at least two hours before or after lanthanum. Consider therapy modification
Levodopa: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Levodopa. Monitor therapy
Lithium: ACE Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Lithium. Management: Lithium dosage reductions will likely be needed following the addition of an ACE inhibitor. Monitor patient response to lithium closely following addition or discontinuation of concurrent ACE inhibitor treatment. Consider therapy modification
Loop Diuretics: May enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Loop Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Lormetazepam: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Methylphenidate: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy
Molsidomine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Naftopidil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Nicergoline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Nicorandil: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Nicorandil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Nitroprusside: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Nitroprusside. Monitor therapy
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the combination may result in a significant decrease in renal function. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Obinutuzumab: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Management: Consider temporarily withholding blood pressure lowering medications beginning 12 hours prior to obinutuzumab infusion and continuing until 1 hour after the end of the infusion. Consider therapy modification
Pentoxifylline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Pholcodine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Pholcodine. Monitor therapy
Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Potassium Salts: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Pregabalin: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Pregabalin. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Monitor therapy
Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Quinagolide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Sacubitril: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sacubitril. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased with this combination. Avoid combination
Salicylates: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Sirolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Sodium Phosphates: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Sodium Phosphates. Specifically, the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy may be enhanced. Management: Consider avoiding this combination by temporarily suspending treatment with ACEIs, or seeking alternatives to oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. If the combination cannot be avoided, maintain adequate hydration and monitor renal function closely. Consider therapy modification
Temsirolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: May enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
TiZANidine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Tolvaptan: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Trimethoprim: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy
Yohimbine: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy
May cause false low serum digoxin levels with the Digi-Tab RIA kit for digoxin; may lead to false-negative aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) (Funder 2016)
Frequency not always defined. Frequency ranges include data from hypertension and heart failure trials. Higher rates of adverse reactions have generally been noted in patients with CHF. However, the frequency of adverse effects associated with placebo is also increased in this population.
>10%: Central nervous system: Dizziness (1% to 2%; cardiac failure patients: ≤12%)
1% to 10%:
Cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension (1% to 2%), palpitations (1%)
Central nervous system: Headache (3%), noncardiac chest pain (≤2%), fatigue (1% to 2%)
Endocrine & metabolic: Hyperkalemia (3%)
Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (2%), nausea and vomiting (1% to 2%)
Hepatic: Increased serum transaminases
Neuromuscular & skeletal: Musculoskeletal pain (≤3%), weakness (1%)
Renal: Increased serum creatinine, renal function decompensation (patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis or hypovolemia)
Respiratory: Cough (2% to 10%), upper respiratory infection (2%)
<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Anaphylactoid reaction, angina pectoris, angioedema, arthralgia, bradycardia, bronchospasm, cerebral infarction, cerebrovascular accident, claudication, edema, eosinophilia, gout, hepatitis, hepatomegaly, hypertension, hypertensive crisis, hypotension, lower extremity edema, lymphadenopathy, myalgia, myocardial infarction, pancreatitis, paresthesia, pleuritic chest pain, pruritus, renal insufficiency, shock, skin photosensitivity, skin rash, syncope, tachycardia, tinnitus, tracheobronchitis, transient ischemic attacks, urinary frequency, urticaria, vertigo, weight gain
Concerns related to adverse effects:
• Angioedema: At any time during treatment (especially following first dose), angioedema may occur rarely with ACE inhibitors; it may involve the head and neck (potentially compromising airway) or the intestine (presenting with abdominal pain). African-Americans and patients with idiopathic or hereditary angioedema may be at an increased risk. Risk may also be increased with concomitant use of mTOR inhibitor (eg, everolimus) therapy. Prolonged frequent monitoring may be required especially if tongue, glottis, or larynx are involved as they are associated with airway obstruction. Patients with a history of airway surgery may have a higher risk of airway obstruction. Aggressive early and appropriate management is critical. Use in patients with previous angioedema associated with ACE inhibitor therapy is contraindicated.
• Cholestatic jaundice: A rare toxicity associated with ACE inhibitors includes cholestatic jaundice, which may progress to fulminant hepatic necrosis; discontinue if marked elevation of hepatic transaminases or jaundice occurs.
• Cough: An ACE inhibitor cough is a dry, hacking, nonproductive one that usually occurs within the first few months of treatment and should generally resolve within 1 to 4 weeks after discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor. Other causes of cough should be considered (eg, pulmonary congestion in patients with heart failure) and excluded prior to discontinuation.
• Hyperkalemia: May occur with ACE inhibitors; risk factors include renal dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and/or potassium-containing salts. Use cautiously, if at all, with these agents and monitor potassium closely.
• Hypersensitivity reactions: Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions can occur with ACE inhibitors. Severe anaphylactoid reactions may be seen during hemodialysis (eg, CVVHD) with high-flux dialysis membranes (eg, AN69), and rarely, during low density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate cellulose. Rare cases of anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients undergoing sensitization treatment with hymenoptera (bee, wasp) venom while receiving ACE inhibitors.
• Hypotension/syncope: Symptomatic hypotension with or without syncope can occur with ACE inhibitors (usually with the first several doses); effects are most often observed in volume-depleted patients; correct volume depletion prior to initiation; close monitoring of patient is required especially with initial dosing and dosing increases; blood pressure must be lowered at a rate appropriate for the patient's clinical condition. Although dose reduction may be necessary, hypotension is not a reason for discontinuation of future ACE inhibitor use especially in patients with heart failure where a reduction in systolic blood pressure is a desirable observation.
• Neutropenia/agranulocytosis: Another ACE Inhibitor, captopril, has been associated with rare cases of agranulocytosis, neutropenia, or leukopenia with myeloid hypoplasia. Patients with renal impairment are at high risk of developing neutropenia. Patients with both renal impairment and collagen vascular disease (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus) are at an even higher risk of developing neutropenia. Periodically monitor CBC with differential in these patients.
• Renal function deterioration: May be associated with deterioration of renal function and/or increases in serum creatinine, particularly in patients with low renal blood flow (eg, renal artery stenosis, heart failure) whose glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is dependent on efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction by angiotensin II; deterioration may result in oliguria, acute renal failure, and progressive azotemia. Small increases in serum creatinine may occur following initiation; consider discontinuation only in patients with progressive and/or significant deterioration in renal function.
• Aortic stenosis: Use with caution in patients with severe aortic stenosis; may reduce coronary perfusion resulting in ischemia.
• Cardiovascular disease: Initiation of therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease or cerebrovascular disease warrants close observation due to the potential consequences posed by falling blood pressure (eg, MI, stroke). Fluid replacement, if needed, may restore blood pressure; therapy may then be resumed. Discontinue therapy in patients whose hypotension recurs.
• Collagen vascular disease: Use with caution in patients with collagen vascular disease especially with concomitant renal impairment; may be at increased risk for hematologic toxicity.
• Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with outflow tract obstruction: Use with caution in patients with HCM and outflow tract obstruction since reduction in afterload may worsen symptoms associated with this condition.
• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution; fosinopril undergoes hepatic and gut wall metabolism to its active form (fosinoprilat) and may accumulate in hepatic impairment. In patients with alcoholic or biliary cirrhosis, the rate of fosinoprilat formation was slowed, its total body clearance decreased, and its AUC approximately doubled.
• Renal artery stenosis: Use with caution in patients with unstented unilateral/bilateral renal artery stenosis. When unstented bilateral renal artery stenosis is present, use is generally avoided due to the elevated risk of deterioration in renal function unless possible benefits outweigh risks.
• Renal impairment: Use with caution in preexisting renal insufficiency; dosage adjustment may be needed. Avoid rapid dosage escalation which may lead to further renal impairment.
Concurrent drug therapy issues:
• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.
• Pregnancy: [U.S. Boxed Warning]: Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. Discontinue as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected.
• Surgery: In patients on chronic ACE inhibitor therapy, intraoperative hypotension may occur with induction and maintenance of general anesthesia; use with caution before, during, or immediately after major surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass, intraoperative blood loss, or vasodilating anesthesia increases endogenous renin release. Use of ACE inhibitors perioperatively will blunt angiotensin II formation and may result in hypotension. However, discontinuation of therapy prior to surgery is controversial. If continued preoperatively, avoidance of hypotensive agents during surgery is prudent (Hillis 2011).
Blood pressure; BUN, serum creatinine and potassium; if patient has collagen vascular disease and/or renal impairment, periodically monitor CBC with differential
2013 ACCF/AHA Heart Failure guideline recommendations: Within 1 to 2 weeks after initiation and periodically thereafter, reassess renal function and serum potassium especially in patients with preexisting hypotension, hyponatremia, diabetes mellitus, azotemia, or those taking potassium supplements (ACCF/AHA [Yancy 2013]).
Pregnancy Risk Factor
[US Boxed Warning]: Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. Discontinue as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected. Fosinopril crosses the placenta. Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system are associated with oligohydramnios. Oligohydramnios, due to decreased fetal renal function, may lead to fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal malformations. The use of these drugs in pregnancy is also associated with anuria, hypotension, renal failure, skull hypoplasia, and death in the fetus/neonate. Teratogenic effects may occur following maternal use of an ACE inhibitor during the first trimester, although this finding may be confounded by maternal disease. Because adverse fetal events are well documented with exposure later in pregnancy, ACE inhibitor use in pregnant women is not recommended (Seely 2014; Weber 2014). Infants exposed to an ACE inhibitor in utero should be monitored for hyperkalemia, hypotension, and oliguria. Oligohydramnios may not appear until after irreversible fetal injury has occurred. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required to reverse hypotension or improve renal function, although data related to the effectiveness in neonates is limited.
Chronic maternal hypertension itself is also associated with adverse events in the fetus/infant and mother. ACE inhibitors are not recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated hypertension in pregnancy (ACOG 2013) and they are specifically contraindicated for the treatment of hypertension and chronic heart failure during pregnancy by some guidelines (Regitz-Zagrosek 2011). In addition, ACE inhibitors should generally be avoided in women of reproductive age (ACOG 2013). If treatment for hypertension or chronic heart failure in pregnancy is needed, other agents should be used (ACOG 2013; Regitz-Zagrosek 2011).
• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)
• Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of infection, signs of kidney problems (urinary retention, blood in urine, change in amount of urine passed, weight gain), signs of high potassium (abnormal heartbeat, confusion, dizziness, passing out, weak, shortness of breath, numbness or tingling feeling), signs of liver problems (dark urine, feeling tired, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or yellow skin or eyes), severe dizziness, passing out, cough that will not go away, angina, severe abdominal pain, severe nausea, or vomiting (HCAHPS).
• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.
Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for healthcare professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience and judgment in diagnosing, treating and advising patients.
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- Drug class: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors
Other brands: Monopril