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Eszopiclone

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Sep 7, 2020.

Pronunciation

(es zoe PIK lone)

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral:

Lunesta: 1 mg [contains fd&c blue #2 (indigotine)]

Lunesta: 2 mg

Lunesta: 3 mg [contains fd&c blue #2 (indigotine)]

Generic: 1 mg, 2 mg, 3 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Lunesta

Pharmacologic Category

  • Hypnotic, Miscellaneous

Pharmacology

May interact with GABA-receptor complexes at binding domains located close to or allosterically coupled to benzodiazepine receptors.

Absorption

Rapid; high-fat/heavy meal may delay absorption

Metabolism

Hepatic via oxidation and demethylation (CYP2E1, 3A4); (S)-N-desmethyl zopiclone metabolite has less activity than parent compound

Excretion

Urine (up to 75%, primarily as metabolites; <10% as parent drug)

Time to Peak

~1 hour

Half-Life Elimination

~6 hours; Elderly (≥65 years): ~9 hours

Protein Binding

52% to 59%

Special Populations: Hepatic Function Impairment

Systemic exposure is doubled in severe hepatic impairment with no change in Cmax or Tmax.

Special Populations: Elderly

Subjects ≥65 years of age had a 41% increase in total exposure (AUC) and a 50% increase in elimination half-life.

Use: Labeled Indications

Insomnia: Treatment of insomnia

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to eszopiclone or any component of the formulation; patients who have experienced complex sleep behaviors after taking eszopiclone.

Dosing: Adult

Insomnia: Oral: Note: The lowest effective dose should be used.

Initial: 1 mg immediately before bedtime; dosing may be increased to 2 mg or 3 mg if clinically necessary (maximum dose: 3 mg daily)

Debilitated patients: Initial: 1 mg immediately before bedtime (maximum dose: 2 mg)

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Geriatric

Avoid use (Beers Criteria [AGS 2019]).

Administration

Because of the rapid onset of action, eszopiclone should be administered immediately prior to bedtime or after the patient has gone to bed and is having difficulty falling asleep. Do not take with, or immediately following, a high-fat meal (may delay onset).

Dietary Considerations

Avoid taking after a heavy meal; may delay onset.

Storage

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F).

Drug Interactions

Abametapir: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Alcohol (Ethyl): CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Alcohol (Ethyl). Monitor therapy

Alizapride: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Aprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Azelastine (Nasal): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Avoid combination

Blonanserin: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Blonanserin. Management: Use caution if coadministering blonanserin and CNS depressants; dose reduction of the other CNS depressant may be required. Strong CNS depressants should not be coadministered with blonanserin. Consider therapy modification

Brexanolone: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Brexanolone. Monitor therapy

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Bromopride: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Bromperidol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Avoid combination

Buprenorphine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Buprenorphine. Management: Consider reduced doses of other CNS depressants, and avoiding such drugs in patients at high risk of buprenorphine overuse/self-injection. Initiate buprenorphine at lower doses in patients already receiving CNS depressants. Consider therapy modification

Cannabidiol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Cannabis: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Chlormethiazole: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Monitor closely for evidence of excessive CNS depression. The chlormethiazole labeling states that an appropriately reduced dose should be used if such a combination must be used. Consider therapy modification

Chlorphenesin Carbamate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Clofazimine: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

CNS Depressants: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Conivaptan: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May increase the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Eszopiclone. Management: Limit the eszopiclone dose to 2 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and monitor for increased eszopiclone effects and toxicities (eg, somnolence, drowsiness, CNS depression). Consider therapy modification

Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Seek alternatives to concomitant therapy when possible. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor for reduced clinical effects of the CYP3A4 substrate. Consider therapy modification

Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Dimethindene (Topical): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Doxylamine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: The manufacturer of Diclegis (doxylamine/pyridoxine), intended for use in pregnancy, specifically states that use with other CNS depressants is not recommended. Monitor therapy

Dronabinol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Droperidol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Consider dose reductions of droperidol or of other CNS agents (eg, opioids, barbiturates) with concomitant use. Consider therapy modification

Duvelisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Enzalutamide: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Concurrent use of enzalutamide with CYP3A4 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Use of enzalutamide and any other CYP3A4 substrate should be performed with caution and close monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Erdafitinib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Erdafitinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Esketamine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Flunitrazepam: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Flunitrazepam. Management: Reduce the dose of CNS depressants when combined with flunitrazepam and monitor patients for evidence of CNS depression (eg, sedation, respiratory depression). Use non-CNS depressant alternatives when available. Consider therapy modification

Fosaprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Fosnetupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Fusidic Acid (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

HydrOXYzine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Idelalisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Ivosidenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Kava Kava: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Larotrectinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Lemborexant: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Dosage adjustments of lemborexant and of concomitant CNS depressants may be necessary when administered together because of potentially additive CNS depressant effects. Close monitoring for CNS depressant effects is necessary. Consider therapy modification

Lisuride: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Lofexidine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Magnesium Sulfate: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Melatonin: May enhance the sedative effect of Hypnotics (Nonbenzodiazepine). Monitor therapy

Methotrimeprazine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Methotrimeprazine. Methotrimeprazine may enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Reduce the usual dose of CNS depressants by 50% if starting methotrimeprazine until the dose of methotrimeprazine is stable. Monitor patient closely for evidence of CNS depression. Consider therapy modification

Metoclopramide: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

MetyroSINE: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of MetyroSINE. Monitor therapy

MiFEPRIStone: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Minimize doses of CYP3A4 substrates, and monitor for increased concentrations/toxicity, during and 2 weeks following treatment with mifepristone. Avoid cyclosporine, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, fentanyl, pimozide, quinidine, sirolimus, and tacrolimus. Consider therapy modification

Minocycline (Systemic): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Mitotane: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Doses of CYP3A4 substrates may need to be adjusted substantially when used in patients being treated with mitotane. Consider therapy modification

Nabilone: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Netupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Opioid Agonists: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Opioid Agonists. Management: Avoid concomitant use of opioid agonists and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Consider therapy modification

Orphenadrine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Orphenadrine. Avoid combination

Oxomemazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Avoid combination

Oxybate Salt Products: Hypnotics (Nonbenzodiazepine) may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Oxybate Salt Products. Avoid combination

OxyCODONE: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of OxyCODONE. Management: Avoid concomitant use of oxycodone and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Consider therapy modification

Palbociclib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Paraldehyde: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Paraldehyde. Avoid combination

Perampanel: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Patients taking perampanel with any other drug that has CNS depressant activities should avoid complex and high-risk activities, particularly those such as driving that require alertness and coordination, until they have experience using the combination. Consider therapy modification

Piribedil: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Piribedil. Monitor therapy

Pramipexole: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Pramipexole. Monitor therapy

ROPINIRole: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of ROPINIRole. Monitor therapy

Rotigotine: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Rotigotine. Monitor therapy

Rufinamide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Specifically, sleepiness and dizziness may be enhanced. Monitor therapy

Sarilumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Stiripentol: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Use of stiripentol with CYP3A4 substrates that are considered to have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided due to the increased risk for adverse effects and toxicity. Any CYP3A4 substrate used with stiripentol requires closer monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Suvorexant: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Suvorexant. Management: Dose reduction of suvorexant and/or any other CNS depressant may be necessary. Use of suvorexant with alcohol is not recommended, and the use of suvorexant with any other drug to treat insomnia is not recommended. Consider therapy modification

Tetrahydrocannabinol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Thalidomide: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Thalidomide. Avoid combination

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Trimeprazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Zolpidem: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Zolpidem. Management: Reduce the Intermezzo brand sublingual zolpidem adult dose to 1.75 mg for men who are also receiving other CNS depressants. No such dose change is recommended for women. Avoid use with other CNS depressants at bedtime; avoid use with alcohol. Consider therapy modification

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse drug reactions and incidences are derived from product labeling unless otherwise specified.

>10%:

Central nervous system: Headache (15% to 21%)

Gastrointestinal: Dysgeusia (8% to 34%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Chest pain (≥1%), peripheral edema (≥1%)

Central nervous system: Drowsiness (8% to 10%), dizziness (5% to 7%), pain (4% to 5%), nervousness (≤5%), depression (1% to 4%), confusion (≤3%), neuralgia (≤3%), abnormal dreams (1% to 3%), anxiety (1% to 3%), hallucination (1% to 3%), migraine

Dermatologic: Skin rash (3% to 4%), pruritus (1% to 4%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Decreased libido (≤3%), gynecomastia (≤3%)

Gastrointestinal: Xerostomia (3% to 7%), dyspepsia (2% to 6%), nausea (4% to 5%), diarrhea (2% to 4%), vomiting (≤3%)

Genitourinary: Dysmenorrhea (≤3%), urinary tract infection (≤3%)

Infection: Infection (5% to 10%), viral infection (3%)

Miscellaneous: Accidental injury (≤3%)

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Abnormal gait, abnormality in thinking, agitation, alopecia, altered sense of smell, amenorrhea, anaphylaxis, anemia, angioedema, anorexia, apathy, aphthous stomatitis, arthritis, asthma, ataxia, blepharoptosis, breast hypertrophy, breast neoplasm, bronchitis, bursitis, cholelithiasis, colitis, complex sleep-related disorder, conjunctivitis, contact dermatitis, cystitis, dehydration, diaphoresis, dry eye syndrome, dysphagia, dyspnea, dysuria, eczema, emotional lability, epistaxis, erythema multiforme, euphoria, facial edema, fever, gastric ulcer, gastritis, gout, halitosis, heatstroke, heavy menstrual bleeding, hematuria, hepatic disease, hepatitis, hepatomegaly, herpes zoster infection, hirsutism, hostility, hypercholesterolemia, hypersensitivity reaction, hypertension, hypokalemia, hyporeflexia, increased appetite, increased thirst, insomnia, laryngitis, lymphadenopathy, maculopapular rash, malaise, mastalgia, mastitis, melena, memory impairment, myasthenia, mydriasis, myopathy, neck stiffness, nephrolithiasis, neuritis, neuropathy, neurosis, nystagmus disorder, oliguria, paresthesia, photophobia, pyelonephritis, rectal hemorrhage, renal pain, skin discoloration, skin photosensitivity, swelling, thrombophlebitis, tinnitus, tongue edema, tremor, twitching, urethritis, urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, urticaria, uterine hemorrhage, vaginal hemorrhage, vaginitis, vertigo, vesiculobullous dermatitis, vestibular disturbance

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Complex sleep behaviors:

Complex sleep behaviors, including sleep-walking, sleep-driving, and engaging in other activities while not fully awake, may occur following use of eszopiclone. Some of these events may result in serious injuries, including death. Discontinue eszopiclone immediately if a patient experiences a complex sleep behavior.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Abnormal thinking/behavioral changes: Hypnotics/sedatives have been associated with abnormal thinking and behavior changes, including decreased inhibition, aggression, bizarre behavior, agitation, hallucinations, and depersonalization. Amnesia and other neuropsychiatric symptoms may occur unpredictably and may indicate previously unrecognized psychiatric disorders; evaluate appropriately.

• CNS depression: Daytime function may be impaired in patients taking higher doses (2 or 3 mg), even if used as prescribed; caution patients taking 3 mg about performing tasks that require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery, driving) the day after use. The risk of next-day psychomotor impairment is increased if taken with less than a full night of sleep (7 to 8 hours); if a higher than recommended dose is taken; or if coadministered with other CNS depressants or other drugs that increase blood concentrations of eszopiclone. Dose adjustment may be necessary if taking concomitant CNS depressants; the use of concomitant sedative-hypnotics at bedtime or in the middle of the night is not recommended.

• Complex sleep behaviors: [US Boxed Warning]: Complex sleep behaviors, including sleep-walking, sleep-driving, and engaging in other activities while not fully awake, may occur following the use of eszopiclone. Some of these events may result in serious injuries, including death. Other complex sleep behaviors (eg, preparing and eating food, making phone calls, having sex) while asleep have also been reported. Patients usually do not remember these events. May occur with first use and at recommended dosages with or without the use of alcohol or other CNS depressants. Discontinue immediately if a patient experiences a complex sleep behavior; use is contraindicated in patients who have experienced these events.

• Hypersensitivity reactions: Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis as well as angioedema have been reported, in some cases following initial dosing. Patients who develop severe reactions should not be rechallenged.

Disease-related concerns:

• Depression: Use with caution in patients with depression; worsening of depression, including suicidal ideation has been reported with the use of hypnotics. Intentional overdose may be an issue in this population. The minimum dose that will effectively treat the individual patient should be used. Prescriptions should be written for the smallest quantity consistent with good patient care.

• Drug abuse: Use with caution in patients with a history of drug dependence.

• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment; dosage adjustment required with severe impairment.

• Respiratory disease: Use with caution in patients with respiratory compromise, COPD or sleep apnea.

Special populations:

• Debilitated: Use with caution in debilitated patients; increased risk of impaired cognitive and/or motor performance. Dose adjustment recommended; monitor closely.

• Elderly: Increased risk of impaired cognitive and/or motor performance and falls; monitor closely.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Appropriate use: Symptomatic treatment of insomnia should be initiated only after careful evaluation of potential causes of sleep disturbance. Failure of sleep disturbance to resolve after 7-10 days may indicate psychiatric and/or medical illness.

• Duration of therapy: Tolerance, as assessed by sleep measurement, did not develop over 6 months of use.

• Rapid onset: Because of the rapid onset of action, administer immediately prior to bedtime or after the patient has gone to bed and is having difficulty falling asleep.

• Withdrawal: A longer sleep-onset latency and increased awakenings during sleep may occur for 1 to 2 days following the discontinuation of GABA-mediated (GABAergic) medications. A more severe withdrawal syndrome may rarely occur following abrupt discontinuation or large decreases in dose after sustained use, and is characterized by abdominal pain, anxiety, confusion, delirium, disorientation, euphoria, hypertension, insomnia, irritability, restlessness, speech difficulties, seizures, and tremor. This withdrawal syndrome is generally mild and infrequent and resolves within weeks or upon re-initiation of the GABAergic medication. Intermittent dosing may reduce the risk of withdrawal symptoms (BAP [Wilson 2019]; Schifano 2019).

Pregnancy Considerations

Eszopiclone is the S-isomer of the racemic derivative zopiclone. Available data related to zopiclone (not available in the United States) and similar medications note the potential for preterm birth, low birth weight, and/or small for gestational age infants following maternal use.

Long-term use of medications in this class is not recommended during pregnancy and a planned discontinuation should be done to prevent rebound insomnia (Okun 2015).

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to treat sleep problems.

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Bad taste

• Dry mouth

• Headache

• Anxiety

• Dizziness

• Common cold symptoms

• Day fatigue

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Depression like thoughts of suicide, anxiety, emotional instability, or confusion.

• Behavioral changes

• Sensing things that seem real but are not

• Trouble with memory

• Change in balance

• Confusion

• Severe loss of strength and energy

• Chills

• Sore throat

• Vomiting

• Severe nausea

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Frequently Asked Questions