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Estradiol and Norethindrone

Pronunciation

(es tra DYE ole & nor eth IN drone)

Index Terms

  • Estradiol/Norethindrone Acet
  • Norethindrone and Estradiol

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Patch, transdermal:

CombiPatch:

0.05/0.14: Estradiol 0.05 mg and norethindrone acetate 0.14 mg per day (8s) [9 sq cm]

0.05/0.25: Estradiol 0.05 mg and norethindrone acetate 0.25 mg per day (8s) [16 sq cm]

Tablet, oral: 0.5/0.1: Estradiol 0.5 mg and norethindrone acetate 0.1 mg (28s); 1/0.5: Estradiol 1 mg and norethindrone acetate 0.5 mg (28s)

Activella: 0.5/0.1: Estradiol 0.5 mg and norethindrone acetate 0.1 mg (28s)

Activella: 1/0.5: Estradiol 1 mg and norethindrone acetate 0.5 mg (28s)

Amabelz: 0.5/0.1: Estradiol 0.5 mg and norethindrone acetate 0.1 mg (28s)

Amabelz: 1/0.5: Estradiol 1 mg and norethindrone acetate 0.5 mg (28s)

Lopreeza: 0.5/0.1: Estradiol 0.5 mg and norethindrone acetate 0.1 mg (28s [DSC])

Lopreeza: 1/0.5: Estradiol 1 mg and norethindrone acetate 0.5 mg (28s [DSC])

Mimvey: 1/0.5: Estradiol 1 mg and norethindrone acetate 0.5 mg (28s)

Mimvey Lo: Estradiol 0.5 mg and norethindrone acetate 0.1 mg (28s)

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Activella
  • Amabelz
  • CombiPatch
  • Lopreeza [DSC]
  • Mimvey
  • Mimvey Lo

Pharmacologic Category

  • Estrogen and Progestin Combination

Absorption

Patch: Average serum estradiol concentrations (Cavg): 45 to 50 pg/mL

Time to Peak

Oral tablet: Estradiol: 5 to 8 hours; Norethindrone: 0.5 to 1.5 hours

Half-Life Elimination

Oral tablet: Estradiol: 12 to 14 hours; Norethindrone: 8 to 11 hours

Use: Labeled Indications

Hypoestrogenism (female): (patch): Treatment of hypoestrogenism due to hypogonadism, castration, or primary ovarian failure

Osteoporosis prevention (females): (tablet): Prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis

Vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause: (patch, tablet): Treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause

Vulvar and vaginal atrophy associated with menopause: (patch, tablet): Treatment of moderate to severe vulvar and vaginal atrophy associated with menopause

Limitations of use: These combination products are indicated for women with a uterus. When used for osteoporosis, use only in women at significant risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis; consider use of nonestrogen medications. When used solely for the treatment of vulvar and vaginal atrophy, topical vaginal products should be considered.

Contraindications

Angioedema, anaphylactic reaction, or hypersensitivity to estradiol or any component of the formulation; undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding; DVT or PE (current or history of); active or history of arterial thromboembolic disease (eg, stroke, MI); breast cancer (known, suspected or history of); estrogen-dependent tumor (known or suspected); hepatic impairment or disease; known protein C, protein S, antithrombin deficiency or other known thrombophilic disorders; pregnancy

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Known, suspected, or history of estrogen-dependent or progestin-dependent malignant neoplasm (eg, endometrial cancer); endometrial hyperplasia; porphyria; partial or complete loss of vision associated with ophthalmic vascular disease; active thrombophlebitis; classical migraine; breast-feeding

Dosing: Adult

General dosing guidelines: Females: These combination products are indicated for women with a uterus. When treating postmenopausal women, use for the shortest duration possible at the lowest effective dose consistent with treatment goals. Reevaluate patients as clinically appropriate to determine if treatment is still necessary. Consider use of an estrogen with a progestin in postmenopausal women with a uterus. Women who have had a hysterectomy generally do not need a progestin; however, one may be needed if there is a history of endometriosis. Dosage needs to be adjusted based upon the patient's response.

Hypoestrogenism: Transdermal:

CombiPatch: Estradiol 0.05 mg/norethindrone acetate 0.14 mg per day or estradiol 0.05 mg/norethindrone acetate 0.25 mg per day

Continuous combined regimen: Apply 1 patch twice weekly

Continuous sequential regimen: Apply estradiol-only patch for first 14 days of cycle, followed by 1 CombiPatch applied twice weekly for the remaining 14 days of a 28-day cycle.

Osteoporosis prevention: Oral

Activella, Lopreeza: Estradiol 1 mg/norethindrone 0.5 mg or estradiol 0.5 mg/norethindrone 0.1 mg: One tablet daily

Mimvey: Estradiol 1 mg/norethindrone 0.5 mg: One tablet daily

Mimvey Lo: Estradiol 0.5 mg/norethindrone 0.1 mg: One tablet daily

Vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause:

Oral:

Activella, Lopreeza: Estradiol 1 mg/norethindrone 0.5 mg or estradiol 0.5 mg/norethindrone 0.1 mg: One tablet daily

Activelle [Canadian product]: Estradiol 1 mg/norethindrone 0.5 mg: One tablet daily

Activelle LD [Canadian product]: Estradiol 0.5 mg/norethindrone 0.1 mg: One tablet daily

Mimvey: Estradiol 1 mg/norethindrone 0.5 mg: One tablet daily

Mimvey Lo: Estradiol 0.5 mg/norethindrone 0.1 mg: One tablet daily

Transdermal: Estradiol 0.05 mg/norethindrone acetate 0.14 mg per day or estradiol 0.05 mg/norethindrone acetate 0.25 mg per day

CombiPatch:

Continuous combined regimen: Apply 1 patch twice weekly

Continuous sequential regimen: Apply estradiol-only patch for first 14 days of cycle, followed by 1 CombiPatch applied twice weekly for the remaining 14 days of a 28-day cycle.

Estalis [Canadian product]: Continuous combined regimen: Apply a new patch twice weekly during a 28-day cycle

Vulvar and vaginal atrophy associated with menopause:

Oral: Activella, Activelle [Canadian product], Lopreeza, Mimvey: Estradiol 1 mg/norethindrone 0.5 mg: One tablet daily

Transdermal: Estradiol 0.05 mg/norethindrone acetate 0.14 mg per day or estradiol 0.05 mg/norethindrone acetate 0.25 mg per day

CombiPatch:

Continuous combined regimen: Apply 1 patch twice weekly

Continuous sequential regimen: Apply estradiol-only patch for first 14 days of cycle, followed by 1 CombiPatch applied twice weekly for the remaining 14 days of a 28-day cycle.

Estalis [Canadian product]: Continuous combined regimen: Apply a new patch twice weekly during a 28-day cycle

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Renal Impairment

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling (has not been studied); use with caution.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment

Use is contraindicated with hepatic dysfunction or disease.

Administration

Oral: Take at the same time each day.

Transdermal patch: Apply to smooth (fold free), clean, dry skin. Do not apply transdermal patch to breasts; apply to lower abdomen, avoiding waistline (Estalis [Canadian product] may be applied to lower abdomen or buttocks). Do not apply to oily, damaged or irritated skin. Rotate application sites; allow at least a 1-week interval before applying to the same site. Hold system firmly in place for ≥10 seconds. If system falls off, the same system may be applied to another area of the lower abdomen or a new system may be applied if necessary (continue with original treatment schedule). Only 1 system should be worn during the dosing interval. Do not expose the applied transdermal system to the sun for long periods of time. Following removal of the system, allow area to dry for 15 minutes, then gently rub with an oil-based cream or lotion if needed to remove any remaining adhesive. Women not previously using oral estrogen or estrogen/progestin therapy may initially start the patch at any time. Women on oral therapy should complete the current cycle of therapy prior to starting the patch. If bleeding occurs when the oral cycle is completed, the first day of bleeding is an appropriate time to start the patch.

Hazardous agent; use appropriate precautions for handling and disposal (NIOSH 2014 [group 2]).

Dietary Considerations

Ensure adequate calcium and vitamin D intake when used for the prevention of osteoporosis.

Storage

Transdermal patch: CombiPatch, Estalis [Canadian product]: Prior to dispensing, store refrigerated, at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F). After dispensing, can be stored at room temperature between 20°C and 25°C (66°F and 77°F) for up to 6 months or until the expiration date, whichever comes first. Store the system in the sealed foil pouch. Do not store the system in areas where extreme temperatures can occur.

Tablets: Store at 20°C to 25°C (66°F to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F).

Drug Interactions

Acitretin: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Given the potential for progestin-only preparations to fail to prevent pregnancy during acitretin therapy, such products should not be relied upon. Alternative, nonhormonal forms of contraception must be employed during acitretin therapy. Consider therapy modification

Ajmaline: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ajmaline. Specifically, the risk for cholestasis may be increased. Monitor therapy

Amodiaquine: CYP2C8 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Amodiaquine. Avoid combination

Anastrozole: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Anastrozole. Avoid combination

Anthrax Immune Globulin (Human): Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Anthrax Immune Globulin (Human). Monitor therapy

Anticoagulants: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects. Management: Carefully weigh the prospective benefits of estrogens against the potential increased risk of procoagulant effects and thromboembolism. Use is considered contraindicated under some circumstances. Refer to related guidelines for specific recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Anticoagulants: Progestins may diminish the therapeutic effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some progestins and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects. Management: Carefully weigh the prospective benefits of progestins against the potential increased risk of procoagulant effects and thromboembolism. Use is considered contraindicated under some circumstances. Refer to related guidelines for specific recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Antidiabetic Agents: Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Aprepitant: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Alternative or additional methods of contraception should be used both during treatment with aprepitant or fosaprepitant and for at least one month following the last aprepitant/fosaprepitant dose. Consider therapy modification

Artemether: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Consider the use of an alternative (i.e., non-hormonal) means of contraception in all women of childbearing potential who are using artemether. Consider therapy modification

Ascorbic Acid: May increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Atazanavir: May increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). However, atazanavir may lead to decreased ethinyl estradiol concentrations and decreased effectiveness of oral contraceptive products. Management: Consider an alternative or additional method of contraception, particularly with combined estrogen/progestin products. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate may be used without a need for additional contraception. Consider therapy modification

Barbiturates: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Use of alternative, nonhormonal contraceptives is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Bexarotene (Systemic): May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Women of childbearing potential receiving bexarotene should use two reliable forms of contraception (including at least one nonhormonal form). Consider therapy modification

Bile Acid Sequestrants: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Administer oral progestin-containing contraceptives at least 1-4 hours prior to or 4-6 hours after administration of a bile acid sequestrant. Consider therapy modification

Boceprevir: May increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). This has been seen specifically with drospirenone. Boceprevir may increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). This has been seen specifically with norethindrone. Management: Patients receiving boceprevir, ribavirin, and peginterferon alfa should use two reliable forms of contraception. Norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol may be used for one of these when norethindrone dose is at least 1 mg/day. Avoid drospirenone. Consider therapy modification

Bosentan: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Use an alternative (i.e., non-hormonal) means of contraception for all women of childbearing potential who are using bosentan, and do not rely on hormonal contraceptives alone. Consider therapy modification

C1 inhibitors: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the thrombogenic effect of C1 inhibitors. Monitor therapy

C1 inhibitors: Progestins may enhance the thrombogenic effect of C1 inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Cannabis: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP1A2 Substrates. Monitor therapy

CarBAMazepine: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Use of alternative, nonhormonal contraceptives is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Carfilzomib: May enhance the thrombogenic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Consider alternative, non-hormonal methods of contraception in patients requiring therapy with carfilzomib. Consider therapy modification

Chenodiol: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Chenodiol. Management: Monitor clinical response to chenodiol closely when used together with any estrogen derivative. Monitor therapy

CloBAZam: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Consider therapy modification

CloZAPine: CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Monitor therapy

Cobicistat: May increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Consider an alternative, non-hormone-based contraceptive in patients receiving cobicistat-containing products. Consider therapy modification

Colesevelam: May decrease the serum concentration of Norethindrone. Consider therapy modification

Corticosteroids (Systemic): Estrogen Derivatives may increase the serum concentration of Corticosteroids (Systemic). Monitor therapy

CYP1A2 Inducers (Strong): May increase the metabolism of CYP1A2 Substrates. Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May increase the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

Cyproterone: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP1A2 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Seek alternatives to the CYP3A4 substrate when possible. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor clinical effects of the substrate closely (particularly therapeutic effects). Consider therapy modification

Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Females of reproductive potential should use an alternative, highly effective, non-hormonal means of contraception during and at least 2 weeks (dabrafenib alone) or 4 months (dabrafenib + trametinib) after discontinuation of dabrafenib treatment. Consider therapy modification

Dantrolene: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the hepatotoxic effect of Dantrolene. Monitor therapy

Darunavir: May decrease the serum concentration of Norethindrone. Consider therapy modification

Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Dehydroepiandrosterone: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Estrogen Derivatives. Avoid combination

Efavirenz: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Use an alternative or additional method of contraception due to possibly decreased contraceptive effectiveness. Injected depot medroxyprogesterone acetate does not appear to participate in this interaction. Consider therapy modification

Enzalutamide: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Concurrent use of enzalutamide with CYP3A4 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Use of enzalutamide and any other CYP3A4 substrate should be performed with caution and close monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Eslicarbazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Alternative, non-hormonal means of birth control should be considered for women of child-bearing potential. Consider therapy modification

Exemestane: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Exemestane. Avoid combination

Exenatide: May decrease the serum concentration of Oral Contraceptive (Progestins). Management: Administer oral contraceptives at least one hour prior to exenatide. Consider therapy modification

Felbamate: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Contraceptive failure is possible. Use of an alternative, nonhormonal method of contraception is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Flibanserin: Contraceptives (Progestins) may increase the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Monitor therapy

Fosamprenavir: Contraceptives (Progestins) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fosamprenavir. Fosamprenavir may decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Consider using an alternative or additional means of contraception. Injected depot medroxyprogesterone acetate may be used without a need for additional contraception. Consider therapy modification

Fosaprepitant: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). The active metabolite aprepitant is likely responsible for this effect. Management: Alternative or additional methods of contraception should be used both during treatment with aprepitant or fosaprepitant and for at least one month following the last aprepitant/fosaprepitant dose. Consider therapy modification

Fosphenytoin: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Contraceptive failure is possible. Use of an alternative, nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Griseofulvin: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Avoid combination

Hemin: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Hemin. Avoid combination

Herbs (Estrogenic Properties): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Estrogen Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Herbs (Progestogenic Properties) (eg, Bloodroot, Yucca): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Progestins. Monitor therapy

Hyaluronidase: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Hyaluronidase. Management: Patients receiving estrogens (particularly at larger doses) may not experience the desired clinical response to standard doses of hyaluronidase. Larger doses of hyaluronidase may be required. Consider therapy modification

Immune Globulin: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Immune Globulin. Monitor therapy

Indium 111 Capromab Pendetide: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the diagnostic effect of Indium 111 Capromab Pendetide. Avoid combination

LamoTRIgine: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Monitor therapy

Lenalidomide: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Lenalidomide. Monitor therapy

Lesinurad: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Use of an additional, nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended in patients being treated with lesinurad who desire effective contraception. Consider therapy modification

Lixisenatide: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Administer oral contraceptives 1 hour before or at least 11 hours after administration of lixisenatide. Consider therapy modification

Lopinavir: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Lopinavir may increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Consider using an alternative or additional means of contraception. Injected depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and etonogestrel implants may be used without a need for additional contraception. Consider therapy modification

Lumacaftor: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Do not rely on hormone-based contraceptives with concurrent use of lumacaftor/ivacaftor; an alternative, non-hormonal, method of contraception should be used if this combination is required. Consider therapy modification

Metreleptin: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Metreleptin may increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Monitor therapy

MiFEPRIStone: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). MiFEPRIStone may increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Women of childbearing potential should use an effective, nonhormonal means of contraception during and 4 weeks following mifepristone treatment. Consider therapy modification

Mitotane: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Doses of CYP3A4 substrates may need to be adjusted substantially when used in patients being treated with mitotane. Consider therapy modification

Mycophenolate: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Use of an additional or alternative (nonhormonal) method of contraception should be considered. Consider therapy modification

Nelfinavir: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Use an alternative or additional method of contraception due to possibly decreased contraceptive effectiveness. Injected depot medroxyprogesterone acetate does not appear to participate in this interaction. Consider therapy modification

Nevirapine: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Instruct patients receiving nevirapine to use an alternative or additional nonhormonal contraceptive. Nevirapine product labeling however suggests that depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate may be used as a sole method of contraception. Consider therapy modification

NSAID (COX-2 Inhibitor): May enhance the thrombogenic effect of Estrogen Derivatives. NSAID (COX-2 Inhibitor) may increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Ospemifene: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ospemifene. Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Ospemifene. Avoid combination

OXcarbazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Contraceptive failure is possible. Use of an additional or alternative, nonhormonal method of contraception is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Perampanel: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Patients should use an alternative, non-hormonal based form of contraception for the duration of concurrent perampanel. Both oral and non-oral progestin-based contraceptives are likely to be impacted by this interaction. Consider therapy modification

P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers: May decrease the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. P-glycoprotein inducers may also further limit the distribution of p-glycoprotein substrates to specific cells/tissues/organs where p-glycoprotein is present in large amounts (e.g., brain, T-lymphocytes, testes, etc.). Monitor therapy

P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors: May increase the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. P-glycoprotein inhibitors may also enhance the distribution of p-glycoprotein substrates to specific cells/tissues/organs where p-glycoprotein is present in large amounts (e.g., brain, T-lymphocytes, testes, etc.). Monitor therapy

Phenytoin: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Contraceptive failure is possible. Use of an alternative, nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Pomalidomide: May enhance the thrombogenic effect of Estrogen Derivatives. Management: Canadian pomalidomide labeling recommends caution with use of hormone replacement therapy and states that hormonal contraceptives are not recommended. US pomalidomide labeling does not contain these specific recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Pomalidomide: Progestins may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Pomalidomide. Management: Canadian pomalidomide labeling recommends caution with use of hormone replacement therapy and states that hormonal contraceptives are not recommended. US pomalidomide labeling does not contain these specific recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Primidone: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Use of alternative, nonhormonal contraceptives is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Prucalopride: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Consider therapy modification

Ranolazine: May increase the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Retinoic Acid Derivatives: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Retinoic Acid Derivatives may decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Two forms of effective contraception should be used in patients receiving retinoic acid derivatives. Particularly, microdosed progesterone-only preparations may be inadequately effective. Exceptions: Adapalene; Bexarotene (Topical); Tretinoin (Topical). Consider therapy modification

Rifamycin Derivatives: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Contraceptive failure is possible. Use of an alternative, nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. Consider therapy modification

ROPINIRole: Estrogen Derivatives may increase the serum concentration of ROPINIRole. Monitor therapy

Rufinamide: May decrease the serum concentration of Norethindrone. Consider therapy modification

Saquinavir: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Use an alternative or additional method of contraception due to possibly decreased contraceptive effectiveness. Injected depot medroxyprogesterone acetate does not appear to participate in this interaction. Consider therapy modification

Selegiline: Contraceptives (Progestins) may increase the serum concentration of Selegiline. Monitor therapy

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Somatropin: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Somatropin. Shown to be a concern with oral hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. Management: Monitor for reduced growth hormone efficacy. A larger somatropin dose may be required to reach treatment goal. This interaction does not appear to apply to non-orally administered estrogens (e.g., transdermal, vaginal ring). Consider therapy modification

St John's Wort: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Consider using a product other than St John's wort. Contraceptive failure is possible. Use of an alternative, nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. Consider therapy modification

St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

Sugammadex: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Patients receiving any hormonal contraceptive (oral or non-oral) should use an additional, nonhormonal contraceptive method during and for 7 days following sugammadex treatment. Consider therapy modification

Telaprevir: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Two different nonhormonal forms of contraception are required for women of childbearing potential taking telaprevir. Hormonal contraceptives may be less effective during concurrent telaprevir and for up to 2 weeks after telaprevir discontinuation. Consider therapy modification

Teriflunomide: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP1A2 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Thalidomide: Contraceptives (Progestins) may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Thalidomide. Monitor therapy

Thalidomide: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Thalidomide. Monitor therapy

Theophylline Derivatives: Estrogen Derivatives may increase the serum concentration of Theophylline Derivatives. Exceptions: Dyphylline. Monitor therapy

Thyroid Products: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Thyroid Products. Monitor therapy

Tipranavir: Estrogen Derivatives may enhance the dermatologic adverse effect of Tipranavir. The combination of tipranavir/ritonavir and ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone was associated with a high incidence of skin rash. Tipranavir may decrease the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Management: Women using hormonal contraceptives should consider alternative, non-hormonal forms of contraception. Consider therapy modification

Tipranavir: May increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Use an alternative or additional method of contraception due to possibly decreased contraceptive effectiveness. Injected depot medroxyprogesterone acetate does not appear to participate in this interaction. Consider therapy modification

TiZANidine: CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of TiZANidine. Management: Avoid these combinations when possible. If combined use cannot be avoided, initiate tizanidine at an adult dose of 2 mg and increase in 2-4 mg increments based on patient response. Monitor for increased effects of tizanidine, including adverse reactions. Consider therapy modification

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Topiramate: May decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Management: Caution patients that this combination may be associated with reduced contraceptive effectiveness. Consider adding an additional (non-hormonal) contraceptive method. Consider therapy modification

Tranexamic Acid: Contraceptives (Progestins) may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Tranexamic Acid. Avoid combination

Ulipristal: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Progestins. Progestins may diminish the therapeutic effect of Ulipristal. Management: Ulipristal for uterine fibroids (Canadian indication): avoid progestins within 12 days of stopping ulipristal; as emergency contraceptive (U.S. indication): avoid progestins within 5 days of stopping ulipristal. Avoid combination

Ursodiol: Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Ursodiol. Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Contraceptives (Progestins) may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. In contrast, enhanced anticoagulant effects have also been noted with some products. Management: When possible, concomitant hormonal contraceptives and coumarin derivatives should be avoided in order to eliminate the risk of thromboembolic disorders. Consider using an alternative, nonhormonal contraceptive. Consider therapy modification

Voriconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptives (Progestins) may increase the serum concentration of Voriconazole. Monitor therapy

Test Interactions

Reduced response to metyrapone test

Adverse Reactions

Frequency not always defined.

Cardiovascular: Peripheral edema (transdermal: 6%)

Central nervous system: Headache (11% to 25%), pain (transdermal: 15% to 19%), depression (transdermal: 8% to 9%), insomnia (6% to 8%), dizziness (transdermal: 6% to 7%), nervousness (transdermal: 3% to 6%), emotional lability (oral: 1% to 6%)

Dermatologic: Skin rash (transdermal: 5% to 6%), acne vulgaris (transdermal: 4% to 5%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Menstrual disease (transdermal: 6% to 19%), weight gain (oral: ≤9%), ovarian cyst (oral: 3% to 7%), breast hypertrophy (transdermal: 2% to 7%), hypermenorrhea (transdermal: 2% to 5%)

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (transdermal: 9% to 14%), abdominal pain (transdermal: 6% to 14%), nausea (3% to 12%), dyspepsia (transdermal: 6% to 8%), flatulence (transdermal: 5% to 7%), gastroenteritis (oral: 2% to 6%), constipation (transdermal: 2% to 5%)

Genitourinary: Mastalgia (transdermal: 25% to 48%; oral: 17% to 24%), dysmenorrhea (transdermal: 20% to 31%), vaginal hemorrhage (oral: 26%; transdermal: 3% to 6%), vaginitis (transdermal: 6% to 13%), postmenopausal bleeding (oral: 5% to 11%), leukorrhea (transdermal: 5% to 10%), endometrial hyperplasia (oral: ≤1% to 10%), abnormal pap smear (transdermal: 8%), vulvovaginal candidiasis (oral: 4% to 6%)

Hematologic & oncologic: Uterine fibroids (oral: 5%)

Infection: Infection (transdermal: 3% to 5%), viral infection (oral: 4%)

Local: Application site reaction (transdermal: 6% to 23%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Back pain (6% to 15%), weakness (transdermal: 8% to 13%), arthralgia (transdermal: 6%), limb pain (oral: 5%)

Respiratory: Rhinitis (transdermal: 13% to 22%), nasopharyngitis (oral: 21%), upper respiratory tract infection (oral: 10% to 18%), sinusitis (7% to 15%), flu-like symptoms (transdermal: 9% to 14%), respiratory tract disease (transdermal: 9% to 13%), pharyngitis (transdermal: 4% to 10%), bronchitis (transdermal: 3% to 5%)

Miscellaneous: Accidental injury (3% to 17%)

<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Alopecia, altered blood pressure, bloating, breast tenderness, carbohydrate intolerance, cerebrovascular accident, cervical polyp, change in appetite, change in cervical secretions, change in corneal curvature, change in libido, chloasma, cholelithiasis, cholestatic jaundice, chorea, contact lens intolerance, cystitis-like syndrome, dementia, edema, endometrial carcinoma, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, exacerbation of asthma, exacerbation of endometriosis, exacerbation of porphyria, fallopian tube disease (cyst), fatigue, fibrocystic breast changes, galactorrhea, gallbladder disease, hemorrhagic eruption, hirsutism, hypersensitivity, hypertension, increased serum transaminases, increased serum triglycerides, irregular menses, irritability, leg cramps, malignant neoplasm of breast, migraine, mood changes, myalgia, myocardial infarction, nipple discharge, ovarian carcinoma, pancreatitis, paresthesia, premenstrual-like syndrome, pulmonary thromboembolism, retinal thrombosis, seborrhea, skin discoloration, thrombophlebitis, uterine fibroids (size increased), uterine spasm, varicose veins, venous thromboembolism, weight loss

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Endometrial cancer:

There is an increased risk of endometrial cancer in a woman with a uterus who uses unopposed estrogens. Adding a progestin to estrogen therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, which may be a precursor to endometrial cancer. Adequate diagnostic measures, including directed or random endometrial sampling when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in postmenopausal women with undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal genital bleeding.

Cardiovascular disease:

Estrogen-alone therapy should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) estrogen-alone substudy reported increased risks of stroke and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 7.1 years of treatment with daily oral conjugated estrogens (0.625 mg) alone, relative to placebo.

Estrogen plus progestin therapy should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy reported increased risks of DVT, pulmonary embolism (PE), stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI) in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 5.6 years of treatment with daily oral conjugated estrogens (0.625 mg) combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate (2.5 mg), relative to placebo.

Breast cancer:

The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) estrogen plus progestin substudy demonstrated an increased risk of invasive breast cancer.

Dementia:

Estrogen-alone therapy should not be used for the prevention of dementia. The WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) estrogen-alone ancillary study of the WHI reported an increased risk of developing probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years and older during 5.2 years of treatment with daily conjugated estrogens (0.625 mg) alone, relative to placebo. It is unknown whether this finding applies to younger postmenopausal women.

Estrogen plus progestin therapy should not be used for the prevention of dementia. The WHIMS estrogen plus progestin ancillary study of the WHI reported an increased risk of developing probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years or older during 4 years of treatment with daily conjugated estrogens (0.625 mg) combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate (2.5 mg), relative to placebo. It is unknown whether this finding applies to younger postmenopausal women.

Risk vs benefit:

In the absence of comparable data, these risks should be assumed to be similar for other doses of conjugated estrogens (with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate) and other dosage forms of estrogens (with or without progestins). Estrogens with or without progestins should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis requiring emergency medical management has been reported and may develop at any time during therapy. Angioedema involving the face, feet, hands, larynx, and tongue has also been reported.

• Breast cancer: [US Boxed Warning]: Based on data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) studies, an increased risk of invasive breast cancer was observed in postmenopausal women using conjugated estrogens (CE) in combination with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). This risk may be associated with duration of use and declines once combined therapy is discontinued (Chlebowski 2009). The risk of invasive breast cancer was decreased in postmenopausal women with a hysterectomy using CE only, regardless of weight. However, the risk was not significantly decreased in women at high risk for breast cancer (family history of breast cancer, personal history of benign breast disease) (Anderson 2012).An increase in abnormal mammogram findings has also been reported with estrogen alone or in combination with progestin therapy. Estrogen use may also lead to severe hypercalcemia in patients with breast cancer and bone metastases; discontinue estrogen if hypercalcemia occurs. Use is contraindicated in patients with known or suspected breast cancer.

• Dementia: [US Boxed Warning]: Estrogens with or without progestin should not be used to prevent dementia. In the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), an increased incidence of probable dementia was observed in women ≥65 years of age taking CE alone or in combination with MPA.

• Endometrial cancer: [US Boxed Warning]: The use of unopposed estrogen in women with a uterus is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. The addition of a progestin to estrogen therapy may decrease the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, a precursor to endometrial cancer. Adequate diagnostic measures, including endometrial sampling if indicated, should be performed to rule out malignancy in postmenopausal women with undiagnosed abnormal vaginal bleeding. There is no evidence that the use of natural estrogens results in a different endometrial risk profile than synthetic estrogens at equivalent estrogen doses. The risk of endometrial cancer appears to be dose and duration dependent; risk appears to be greatest with use ≥5 years and may persist following discontinuation of therapy.

• Endometriosis: Estrogens may exacerbate endometriosis. Malignant transformation of residual endometrial implants has been reported posthysterectomy with unopposed estrogen therapy. Consider adding a progestin in women with residual endometriosis posthysterectomy.

• Inherited thrombophilia: Women with inherited thrombophilias (eg, protein C or S deficiency) may have increased risk of venous thromboembolism (DeSancho 2010; van Vlijmen 2011). Use is contraindicated in women with protein C, protein S, antithrombin deficiency, or other known thrombophilic disorders.

• Lipid effects: Estrogen compounds are generally associated with lipid effects such as increased HDL-cholesterol and decreased LDL-cholesterol. Triglycerides may also be increased in women with preexisting hypertriglyceridemia; discontinue if pancreatitis occurs.

• Ovarian cancer: Postmenopausal estrogens with or without progestins may increase the risk of ovarian cancer; however, the absolute risk to an individual woman is small. Although results from various studies are not consistent, risk does not appear to be significantly associated with the duration, route, or dose of therapy. In one study, the risk decreased after 2 years following discontinuation of therapy (Mørch 2009). Although the risk of ovarian cancer is rare, women who are at an increased risk (eg, family history) should be counseled about the association (NAMS 2012).

• Retinal vascular thrombosis: Estrogens may cause retinal vascular thrombosis; discontinue pending examination if migraine, loss of vision, proptosis, diplopia, or other visual disturbances occur; discontinue permanently if papilledema or retinal vascular lesions are observed on examination.

Disease-related concerns:

• Asthma: Use caution in patients with asthma; may exacerbate disease.

• Carbohydrate intolerance: May have adverse effects on glucose tolerance; use caution in women with diabetes.

• Cardiovascular disease: [US Boxed Warning]: Estrogens with or without progestin should not be used to prevent cardiovascular disease. Using data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) studies, an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and stroke has been reported with CE and an increased risk of DVT, stroke, pulmonary emboli (PE) and myocardial infarction (MI) has been reported with CE with MPA in postmenopausal women 50 to 79 years of age. Additional risk factors include diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, SLE, obesity, tobacco use, and/or history of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors should be managed appropriately; discontinue use immediately if adverse cardiovascular events occur or are suspected. Use is contraindicated in women with active DVT or PE (or a history of these conditions) or in women with active or recent arterial thromboembolic disease (stroke and MI), or a history of these conditions.

• Diseases exacerbated by fluid retention: Use with caution in patients with diseases which may be exacerbated by fluid retention, including cardiac or renal dysfunction.

• Epilepsy: Use caution with epilepsy; may exacerbate disease.

• Fibroids: Discontinue use with the onset of enlargement, pain, or tenderness of preexisting uterine fibroids (leiomyomata).

• Gallbladder disease: Use of postmenopausal estrogen may be associated with an increased risk of gallbladder disease requiring surgery.

• Hepatic dysfunction: Estrogens are poorly metabolized in patients with hepatic dysfunction. Use caution with a history of cholestatic jaundice associated with prior estrogen use or pregnancy. Discontinue if jaundice develops or if acute or chronic hepatic disturbances occur. Use is contraindicated with hepatic impairment or disease.

• Hepatic hemangiomas: Use with caution in patients with hepatic hemangiomas; may exacerbate disease.

• Hereditary angioedema: Exogenous estrogens may exacerbate angioedema symptoms in women with hereditary angioedema.

• Hypoparathyroidism: Use caution in patients with hypoparathyroidism; estrogen-induced hypocalcemia may occur.

• Migraine: Use caution with migraine; may exacerbate disease. Some Canadian labeling contraindicates use in patients with classical migraine.

• Otosclerosis: Use caution in patients with otosclerosis.

• Porphyria: Use with caution in patients with porphyria; may exacerbate disease. Canadian labeling contraindicates use in patients with porphyria.

• SLE: Use with caution in patients with SLE; may exacerbate disease.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

• Thyroid replacement therapy: Estrogens may increase thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) levels leading to increased circulating total thyroid hormone levels. Women on thyroid replacement therapy may require higher doses of thyroid hormone while receiving estrogens.

Special populations:

• Elderly: Although hormone therapy is recommended to be initiated in healthy symptomatic women within 10 years of menopause or <60 years of age who do not have contraindications for use, symptoms may continue in women >60 years of age. The continuation of hormone therapy in women >65 years of age should consider the risks and benefits for the individual woman and should not be discontinued only because of the woman’s age (NAMS 2015).

• Surgical patients: Whenever possible, should be discontinued at least 4-6 weeks prior to elective surgery associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism or during periods of prolonged immobilization.

Dosage forms specific issues:

• Lactose: Tablets may contain lactose; use caution in patients with galactose intolerance, lactase deficiency, or glucose-galactose metabolism.

Special handling:

• Hazardous agent: Use appropriate precautions for handling and disposal (NIOSH 2014 [group 2]).

Other warnings/precautions:

• Laboratory changes: The use of estrogens and/or progestins may change the results of some laboratory tests (eg, coagulation factors, lipids, glucose tolerance, binding proteins). The dose, route, and the specific estrogen/progestin influences these changes. In addition, personal risk factors (eg, cardiovascular disease, smoking, diabetes, age) also contribute to adverse events; use of specific products may be contraindicated in women with certain risk factors.

• Osteoporosis use: For use only in women at significant risk of osteoporosis and for whom other nonestrogen medications are not considered appropriate.

• Risks vs benefits: [US Boxed Warning]: Estrogens with or without progestin should be used for the shortest duration possible at the lowest effective dose consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman. Hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms is generally initiated in healthy symptomatic women within 10 years of menopause or <60 years of age who do not have contraindications for use (Stuenkel 2015). Patients should be reevaluated as clinically appropriate to determine if treatment is still necessary. Available data related to treatment risks are from Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) studies, which evaluated oral CE 0.625 mg with or without MPA 2.5 mg relative to placebo in postmenopausal women. Other combinations and dosage forms of estrogens and progestins were not studied. Outcomes reported from clinical trials using CE with or without MPA should be assumed to be similar for other doses and other dosage forms of estrogens and progestins until comparable data becomes available. Women who are early in menopause, who are in good cardiovascular health, and who are at low risk for adverse cardiovascular events can be considered candidates for estrogen with or without progestin therapy for the relief of menopausal symptoms (ACOG 565 2013). Women at high risk of cardiovascular disease or intermediate to high risk of breast cancer should use nonhormonal therapy to treat vasomotor symptoms of menopause (Stuenkel 2015). Use of a transdermal product should be considered over an oral agent in women requiring systemic therapy who have moderate risk factors for coronary heart disease (ACOG 556 2013; Schenck-Gustafsson 2011; Stuenkel 2015). Nonoral routes of therapy are recommended for women at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (Stuenkel 2015; Tremollieres 2011).

• Vulvar and vaginal atrophy use: Moderate to severe symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy include vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and atrophic vaginitis. The combined conditions of vulvovaginal atrophy and urinary tract dysfunction are also referred to as genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) (Portman 2014; Stuenkel 2015). When used solely for the treatment of vulvar and vaginal atrophy, topical vaginal products should be considered (NAMS 2012; NAMS 2013; Stuenkel 2015).

Monitoring Parameters

Routine physical examination that includes blood pressure and Papanicolaou smear, breast exam, mammogram. Monitor for signs of endometrial cancer. Adequate diagnostic measures, including endometrial sampling, if indicated, should be performed to rule out malignancy in all cases of undiagnosed abnormal vaginal bleeding. Monitor for loss of vision, sudden onset of proptosis, diplopia, migraine; signs and symptoms of thromboembolic disorders; glycemic control in patients with diabetes; lipid profiles in patients being treated for hyperlipidemias; thyroid function in patients on thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

Menopausal symptoms: Assess need for therapy at 3- to 6-month intervals

Prevention of osteoporosis: Bone density measurement

Note: Monitoring of FSH and serum estradiol is not useful when managing vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause or vulvar and vaginal atrophy.

Pregnancy Considerations

Use during pregnancy is contraindicated. Not for use prior to menopause. Refer to individual monographs

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience hair loss, cramps, bloating, enlarged breasts, tender breasts, or dark patches on face. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of liver problems (dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or jaundice), signs of severe cerebrovascular disease (change in strength on one side is greater than the other, difficulty speaking or thinking, change in balance, or vision changes), signs of DVT (edema, warmth, numbness, change in color, or pain in the extremities), angina, shortness of breath, coughing up blood, severe headache, severe nausea, vomiting, severe abdominal pain, severe dizziness, passing out, vision changes, bulging eyes, contact lens discomfort, lump in breast, breast soreness or pain, nipple discharge, vaginitis, vaginal bleeding, depression, memory impairment, edema, or severe skin irritation (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.

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