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Eslicarbazepine

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Aug 7, 2020.

Pronunciation

(es li kar BAZ e peen)

Index Terms

  • Eslicarbazepine Acetate

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral:

Aptiom: 200 mg [scored]

Aptiom: 400 mg

Aptiom: 600 mg, 800 mg [scored]

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Aptiom

Pharmacologic Category

  • Anticonvulsant, Miscellaneous

Pharmacology

Eslicarbazepine acetate is extensively converted to eslicarbazepine, which is considered responsible for therapeutic effects. A precise mechanism has not been defined, but is thought to involve inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels.

Distribution

Vd: 0.87 L/kg

Metabolism

Rapidly and extensively metabolized by hydrolytic first-pass metabolism to the major active metabolite eslicarbazepine and minor active metabolites (R)-licarbazepine and oxcarbazepine; active metabolites are further metabolized to inactive glucuronides.

Excretion

Urine (90%; ~66% eslicarbazepine, ~33% glucuronide conjugate forms, ~10% other minor metabolites)

Time to Peak

Eslicarbazepine: Pediatric patients 4 to 17 years: 1 to 3 hours; Adults: 1 to 4 hours

Half-Life Elimination

Pediatric patients 4 to 17 years: 10 to 16 hours; Adults: 13 to 20 hours

Protein Binding

<40%

Special Populations: Renal Function Impairment

Following a single 800 mg dose, systemic exposure was increased by 62% with mild renal impairment (CrCl 50 to 80 mL/minute), 2-fold with moderate renal impairment (CrCl 30 to 49 mL/minute), and 2.5-fold with severe renal impairment (CrCl <30 mL/minute).

Use: Labeled Indications

Partial-onset seizures (epilepsy): Monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults and pediatric patients ≥4 years of age

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to eslicarbazepine, oxcarbazepine, or any component of the formulation

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Hypersensitivity to carbamazepine; history of, or presence of, second- or third-degree atrioventricular block

Dosing: Adult

Partial-onset seizures (epilepsy):

Monotherapy: Oral: Initial: 400 mg once daily; may initiate treatment at 800 mg once daily if seizure reduction outweighs risk of adverse reactions during initiation. Increase in weekly increments of 400 mg to 600 mg based on clinical response and tolerability. Maintenance: 800 mg to 1,600 mg once daily. Note: Consider 800 mg once daily for maintenance therapy in patients not tolerating 1,200 mg once daily.

Adjunctive therapy: Oral: Initial: 400 mg once daily; may initiate treatment at 800 mg once daily if seizure reduction outweighs risk of adverse reactions during initiation. Increase in weekly increments of 400 mg to 600 mg, based on clinical response and tolerability. Maintenance: 800 mg to 1,600 mg once daily. Note: Consider 1,600 mg once daily for maintenance therapy in patients not achieving response on 1,200 mg daily dosage.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Pediatric

Seizures, partial-onset (monotherapy or adjunctive):

Children ≥4 years and Adolescents ≤17 years: Oral:

11 to 21 kg: Initial: 200 mg once daily; may increase in weekly increments of no more than 200 mg/day, titrate based on clinical response and tolerability; maintenance dose: 400 to 600 mg once daily; maximum daily dose: 600 mg/day.

22 to 31 kg: Initial: 300 mg once daily; may increase in weekly increments of no more than 300 mg/day, titrate based on clinical response and tolerability; maintenance dose: 500 to 800 mg once daily; maximum daily dose: 800 mg/day.

32 to 38 kg: Initial: 300 mg once daily; may increase in weekly increments of no more than 300 mg/day, titrate based on clinical response and tolerability; maintenance dose: 600 to 900 mg once daily; maximum daily dose: 900 mg/day.

>38 kg: Initial: 400 mg once daily; may increase in weekly increments of no more than 400 mg/day, titrate based on clinical response and tolerability; maintenance dose: 800 to 1,200 mg once daily; maximum daily dose: 1,200 mg/day.

Adolescents ≥18 years: Oral: Initial: 400 mg once daily, may initiate at 800 mg once daily if seizure reduction outweighs risk of adverse reactions during initiation. May increase in weekly increments of 400 to 600 mg/day, titrate dose based on clinical response and tolerability; maintenance dose: 800 to 1,600 mg once daily; maximum dose: 1,600 mg/day.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Administration

Administer with or without food; tablets may be swallowed whole or crushed.

Storage

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions are permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F).

Drug Interactions

Abemaciclib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Abemaciclib. Avoid combination

Abiraterone Acetate: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Abiraterone Acetate. Monitor therapy

Acalabrutinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Acalabrutinib. Monitor therapy

Alfentanil: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Alfentanil. Management: If concomitant use of alfentanil and moderate CYP3A4 inducers is necessary, consider dosage increase of alfentanil until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor patients for signs of opioid withdrawal. Consider therapy modification

Antihepaciviral Combination Products: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Antihepaciviral Combination Products. Avoid combination

Apremilast: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Apremilast. Monitor therapy

Aprepitant: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Aprepitant. Monitor therapy

ARIPiprazole: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole. Monitor therapy

ARIPiprazole Lauroxil: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole Lauroxil. Monitor therapy

Asunaprevir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Asunaprevir. Avoid combination

Avanafil: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Avanafil. Avoid combination

Avapritinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Avapritinib. Avoid combination

Axitinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Axitinib. Avoid combination

Bedaquiline: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Bedaquiline. Avoid combination

Benzhydrocodone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Benzhydrocodone. Specifically, the serum concentrations of hydrocodone may be reduced. Monitor therapy

Bortezomib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Bortezomib. Monitor therapy

Bosutinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Bosutinib. Avoid combination

Brexpiprazole: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Brexpiprazole. Monitor therapy

Brigatinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Brigatinib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of brigatinib with moderate CYP3A4 inducers when possible. If combined, increase the daily dose of brigatinib in 30 mg increments after 7 days of treatment with the current brigatinib dose, up to maximum of twice the dose. Consider therapy modification

Cabozantinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Cabozantinib. Monitor therapy

Capmatinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Capmatinib. Avoid combination

CarBAMazepine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Eslicarbazepine. CarBAMazepine may decrease the serum concentration of Eslicarbazepine. Monitor therapy

Cladribine: BCRP/ABCG2 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of Cladribine. Monitor therapy

Clarithromycin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clarithromycin. CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Management: Consider alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients receiving a CYP3A inducer. Drugs that enhance the metabolism of clarithromycin into 14-hydroxyclarithromycin may alter the clinical activity of clarithromycin and impair its efficacy. Consider therapy modification

CloBAZam: CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of CloBAZam. CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of CloBAZam. Monitor therapy

CloZAPine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Monitor therapy

Cobimetinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Cobimetinib. Avoid combination

Codeine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Codeine. Monitor therapy

Copanlisib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Copanlisib. Monitor therapy

Crizotinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Crizotinib. Monitor therapy

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers): CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Exceptions: Apixaban; Bromperidol; Rivaroxaban. Monitor therapy

Daclatasvir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Daclatasvir. Management: Increase the daclatasvir dose to 90 mg once daily if used with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Consider therapy modification

Dapsone (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Dapsone (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Dasabuvir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Dasabuvir. Avoid combination

Deflazacort: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Deflazacort. Avoid combination

Doravirine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Doravirine. Monitor therapy

Elbasvir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Elbasvir. Avoid combination

Elexacaftor, Tezacaftor, and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Elexacaftor, Tezacaftor, and Ivacaftor. Monitor therapy

Encorafenib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Encorafenib. Avoid combination

Entrectinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Entrectinib. Avoid combination

Erdafitinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Erdafitinib. Management: Dose modifications of erdafitinib may be required. See full monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Estriol (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Estriol (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Estriol (Topical): CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Estriol (Topical). Monitor therapy

Estrogen Derivatives (Contraceptive): Eslicarbazepine may decrease the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives (Contraceptive). Management: Alternative non-hormonal means of birth control should be considered for women of child-bearing potential. Consider therapy modification

Etoposide: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Etoposide. Monitor therapy

Etoposide Phosphate: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Etoposide Phosphate. Monitor therapy

Etravirine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Etravirine. Monitor therapy

Everolimus: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Everolimus. Monitor therapy

Fedratinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Fedratinib. Avoid combination

FentaNYL: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of FentaNYL. Monitor therapy

Flibanserin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Avoid combination

Fosaprepitant: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Fosaprepitant. Specifically, CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite aprepitant. Monitor therapy

Fosphenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of Eslicarbazepine. (based on studies with phenytoin) Eslicarbazepine may increase the serum concentration of Fosphenytoin. (based on studies with phenytoin) Monitor therapy

Glasdegib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Glasdegib. Management: Avoid use of glasdegib and moderate CYP3A4 inducers whenever possible. If combined, increase glasdegib dose from 100 mg daily to 200 mg daily or from 50 mg daily to 100 mg daily. Resume previous glasdegib dose 7 days after discontinuation of the inducer. Consider therapy modification

Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir. Monitor therapy

Grazoprevir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Grazoprevir. Avoid combination

GuanFACINE: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of GuanFACINE. Management: Increase extended-release guanfacine dose by up to double when initiating guanfacine in patients taking CYP3A4 inducers or if initiating a CYP3A4 inducer in a patient already taking extended-release guanfacine. Monitor for reduced guanfacine efficacy. Consider therapy modification

HYDROcodone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of HYDROcodone. Monitor therapy

Ibrutinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Ibrutinib. Monitor therapy

Ifosfamide: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ifosfamide. CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ifosfamide. Monitor therapy

Istradefylline: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Istradefylline. Monitor therapy

Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Ivacaftor. Monitor therapy

Lacosamide: Antiepileptic Agents (Sodium Channel Blockers) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Lacosamide. Specifically the risk for bradycardia, ventricular tachyarrhythmias, or a prolonged PR interval may be increased. Monitor therapy

Lapatinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Lapatinib. Monitor therapy

Larotrectinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Larotrectinib. Monitor therapy

Lefamulin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Lefamulin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of lefamulin with moderate CYP3A4 inducers unless the benefits outweigh the risks. Consider therapy modification

Lefamulin (Intravenous): CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Lefamulin (Intravenous). Management: Avoid concomitant use of lefamulin (intravenous) with moderate CYP3A4 inducers unless the benefits outweigh the risks. Consider therapy modification

Lemborexant: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Lemborexant. Avoid combination

Lercanidipine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Lercanidipine. Monitor therapy

Lorlatinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may enhance the hepatotoxic effect of Lorlatinib. CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Lorlatinib. Management: Avoid use of lorlatinib with moderate CYP3A4 inducers. If such a combination must be used, monitor AST, ALT, and bilirubin within 48 hours of starting the combination and at least three times within the first week of combined use. Consider therapy modification

Lumacaftor and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Lumacaftor and Ivacaftor. Monitor therapy

Lumateperone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Lumateperone. Avoid combination

Lurasidone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Lurasidone. Management: Monitor for decreased lurasidone effects if combined with moderate CYP3A4 inducers and consider increasing the lurasidone dose if coadministered with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer for 7 or more days. Consider therapy modification

Lurbinectedin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Lurbinectedin. Avoid combination

Macitentan: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Macitentan. Monitor therapy

Mefloquine: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Anticonvulsants. Mefloquine may decrease the serum concentration of Anticonvulsants. Management: Mefloquine is contraindicated for malaria prophylaxis in persons with a history of convulsions. If anticonvulsants are being used for another indication, monitor anticonvulsant concentrations and treatment response closely with concurrent use. Consider therapy modification

Meperidine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Meperidine. Monitor therapy

Mianserin: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Anticonvulsants. Monitor therapy

Mirodenafil: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Mirodenafil. Monitor therapy

Naldemedine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Naldemedine. Monitor therapy

Naloxegol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Naloxegol. Monitor therapy

Neratinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Neratinib. Avoid combination

NiMODipine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of NiMODipine. Monitor therapy

Nisoldipine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Nisoldipine. Avoid combination

Olaparib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Olaparib. Avoid combination

Oliceridine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Oliceridine. Monitor therapy

Orlistat: May decrease the serum concentration of Anticonvulsants. Monitor therapy

OXcarbazepine: Eslicarbazepine may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of OXcarbazepine. Avoid combination

Palbociclib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Palbociclib. Management: The US label does not provide specific recommendations concerning use with moderate CYP3A4 inducers, but the Canadian label recommends avoiding use of moderate CYP3A4 inducers. Consider therapy modification

PAZOPanib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Monitor therapy

Pemigatinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Pemigatinib. Avoid combination

Perampanel: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Perampanel. Management: Increase the perampanel starting dose to 4 mg/day when perampanel is used concurrently with moderate and strong CYP3A4 inducers. Monitor perampanel response closely, particularly with changes to CYP3A4 inducer therapy. Consider therapy modification

Pexidartinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Pexidartinib. Monitor therapy

PHENobarbital: May decrease the serum concentration of Eslicarbazepine. Monitor therapy

Phenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of Eslicarbazepine. Eslicarbazepine may increase the serum concentration of Phenytoin. Monitor therapy

Pimavanserin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Pimavanserin. Avoid combination

Pitolisant: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Pitolisant. Monitor therapy

Pralsetinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Pralsetinib. Monitor therapy

Pretomanid: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Pretomanid. Avoid combination

Primidone: May decrease the serum concentration of Eslicarbazepine. (based on studies with phenobarbital) Monitor therapy

Progestins (Contraceptive): Eslicarbazepine may decrease the serum concentration of Progestins (Contraceptive). Management: Alternative, non-hormonal means of birth control should be considered for women of child-bearing potential. Consider therapy modification

Ranolazine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Ranolazine. Avoid combination

Rimegepant: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Rimegepant. Avoid combination

Rolapitant: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Rolapitant. Monitor therapy

Rosuvastatin: Eslicarbazepine may decrease the serum concentration of Rosuvastatin. Monitor therapy

Selpercatinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Selpercatinib. Avoid combination

Selumetinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Selumetinib. Avoid combination

Simeprevir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Simeprevir. Avoid combination

Simvastatin: Eslicarbazepine may decrease the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Monitor therapy

Sirolimus: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Sirolimus. Monitor therapy

Sonidegib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Sonidegib. Avoid combination

SUNItinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of SUNItinib. Monitor therapy

Tacrolimus (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Tazemetostat: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Tazemetostat. Avoid combination

Tezacaftor and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Tezacaftor and Ivacaftor. Monitor therapy

Ubrogepant: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Ubrogepant. Management: Use an initial ubrogepant dose of 100 mg and second dose (if needed) of 100 mg when used with a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Consider therapy modification

Upadacitinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Upadacitinib. Monitor therapy

Velpatasvir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Velpatasvir. Avoid combination

Vemurafenib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Vemurafenib. Monitor therapy

Venetoclax: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Venetoclax. Avoid combination

Voriconazole: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Voriconazole. Monitor therapy

Vortioxetine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Vortioxetine. Monitor therapy

Voxelotor: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Voxelotor. Management: Avoid concomitant use of voxelotor and moderate CYP3A4 inducers. If concomitant use is unavoidable, increase the voxelotor dose to 2,500 mg once daily. Consider therapy modification

Warfarin: Eslicarbazepine may decrease the serum concentration of Warfarin. Specifically, S-warfarin serum concentrations may be decreased. Monitor therapy

Zanubrutinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Zanubrutinib. Avoid combination

Zolpidem: CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Zolpidem. Monitor therapy

Adverse Reactions

>10%:

Central nervous system: Dizziness (20% to 28%), drowsiness (11% to 28%), headache (13% to 15%)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea (10% to 16%)

Ophthalmic: Diplopia (9% to 11%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Hypertension (2%), peripheral edema (2%)

Central nervous system: Fatigue (7%), cognitive dysfunction (4% to 7%), ataxia (4% to 6%), vertigo (2% to 6%), depression (3%), equilibrium disturbance (3%), falling (3%), abnormal gait (2%), insomnia (2%), dysarthria (1% to 2%), memory impairment (1% to 2%)

Dermatologic: Skin rash (3%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Hyponatremia (serum sodium <125 mEq/L: 1% to 2%)

Gastrointestinal: Vomiting (6% to 10%), diarrhea (4%), abdominal pain (2%), constipation (2%), gastritis (2%)

Genitourinary: Urinary tract infection (2%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Tremor (2% to 4%), weakness (3%)

Ophthalmic: Blurred vision (5% to 6%), decreased visual acuity (2%), nystagmus (1% to 2%)

Respiratory: Cough (2%)

Frequency not defined:

Endocrine & metabolic: Hypercholesterolemia, hypochloremia (concurrent with hyponatremia), increased LDL cholesterol, increased serum triglycerides

Hematologic & oncologic: Decreased hematocrit, decreased hemoglobin

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Increased creatine phosphokinase

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Agranulocytosis, anaphylaxis, angioedema, decreased T3 level, decreased T4 (free and total), DRESS syndrome, increased serum bilirubin (>2 x ULN), increased serum transaminases (>3 x ULN), leukopenia, megaloblastic anemia, pancytopenia, prolongation P-R interval on ECG (mild [Vas-Da-Silva 2012]), severe dermatological reaction, SIADH, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, thrombocytopenia, toxic epidermal necrolysis

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• CNS effects: Use has been associated with dose-dependent CNS-related adverse events, most significant of these were cognitive symptoms (eg, memory impairment, disturbance in attention, amnesia, confusional state, aphasia, speech disorder, slowness of thought, disorientation, psychomotor retardation), somnolence or fatigue, dizziness and coordination abnormalities (eg, ataxia, vertigo, balance disorder, gait disturbance, nystagmus, abnormal coordination), and visual changes (eg, diplopia, blurred vision, impaired vision). There was an increased risk of visual changes and dizziness and coordination abnormalities during the titration period, in patients >60 years of age, and with concomitant carbamazepine use; consider dosage modifications in patients using eslicarbazepine and carbamazepine concomitantly. Caution patients about performing tasks which require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery or driving).

• Dermatologic reactions: Potentially serious, sometimes fatal, dermatologic reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) have been reported; monitor for signs and symptoms of skin reactions; discontinuation and conversion to alternate therapy may be required. Avoid use in patients with prior dermatologic reaction with carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, or eslicarbazepine.

• Hematologic effects: Cases of pancytopenia, agranulocytosis, and leukopenia have been reported; consider discontinuing eslicarbazepine if these hematologic abnormalities develop.

• Hepatic effects: Hepatic effects ranging from mild to moderate elevations in transaminases (>3 times the upper limit of normal) to rare cases of concomitant elevations of total bilirubin (>2 times the upper limit of normal) have been reported. Perform baseline liver laboratory tests. Discontinue in patients with jaundice or other evidence of significant liver injury.

• Hypersensitivity reactions: Rare cases of anaphylaxis and angioedema have been reported. Permanently discontinue should symptoms occur. Avoid use in patients with a prior anaphylactic-type reaction with either oxcarbazepine or eslicarbazepine.

• Hyponatremia: Clinically significant hyponatremia (serum sodium <125 mmol/L) and concurrent hypochloremia may develop during use. In controlled trials, effects were dose-related, appeared within the first 8 weeks of treatment (as early as after 3 days), and resolved without additional treatment within a few days of eslicarbazepine discontinuation. Consider monitoring serum sodium and chloride levels during maintenance treatment, especially in patients at risk for hyponatremia and if symptoms of hyponatremia develop. Depending on the severity of hyponatremia, the dose of eslicarbazepine may need to be reduced or discontinued.

• Multiorgan hypersensitivity reactions: Potentially serious, sometimes fatal drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), also known as multiorgan hypersensitivity reactions, have been reported. Monitor for signs and symptoms (eg, fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, eosinophilia) in association with other organ system involvement (eg, hepatitis, nephritis, hematological abnormalities, myocarditis, myositis). Evaluate immediately if signs or symptoms are present. Discontinuation and conversion to alternate therapy may be required. Avoid use in patients with a prior DRESS reaction with carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, or eslicarbazepine.

• Suicidal ideation: Pooled analysis of trials involving various antiepileptics (regardless of indication) showed an increased risk of suicidal thoughts/behavior (incidence rate: 0.43% treated patients compared to 0.24% of patients receiving placebo); risk observed as early as 1 week after initiation and continued through duration of trials (most trials ≤24 weeks). Monitor all patients for notable changes in behavior that might indicate suicidal thoughts or depression; patients should be instructed to notify healthcare provider immediately if symptoms occur.

• Thyroid function: Dose-dependent decreases in serum T3 and T4 (free and total) values have been observed; changes were not associated with other abnormal thyroid function tests suggesting hypothyroidism.

Disease-related concerns:

• Renal impairment: Clearance is decreased in patients with impaired renal function; dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with CrCl <50 mL/minute.

• Hepatic impairment: Avoid use in patients with severe hepatic impairment.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Withdrawal: Anticonvulsants should not be discontinued abruptly because of the possibility of increasing seizure frequency; therapy should be withdrawn gradually to minimize the potential of increased seizure frequency, unless safety concerns require a more rapid withdrawal.

Monitoring Parameters

Seizure frequency; liver enzymes (baseline); serum sodium and chloride as deemed necessary during maintenance treatment, particularly in patients receiving other medications known to decrease sodium levels or if symptoms of hyponatremia develop; symptoms of CNS depression (dizziness, disturbance in gait and coordination, somnolence); visual changes; hypersensitivity reactions. Monitor for suicidality (eg, suicidal thoughts, depression, behavioral changes). For adjunctive therapy, serum levels of concomitant antiepileptic drugs during titration as necessary.

Reproductive Considerations

Eslicarbazepine may decrease plasma concentrations of hormonal contraceptives; additional or alternative nonhormonal contraceptives are recommended in women of reproductive potential.

Pregnancy Considerations

Adverse events have been observed in animal reproduction studies.

Patients exposed to eslicarbazepine during pregnancy are encouraged to enroll themselves into the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry by calling 1-888-233-2334. Additional information is available at http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org.

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to help control certain kinds of seizures.

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Headache

• Nausea

• Vomiting

• Fatigue

• Tremors

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Infection

• Depression like thoughts of suicide, anxiety, emotional instability, or confusion.

• Low sodium like headache, trouble focusing, trouble with memory, confusion, weakness, seizures, or change in balance.

• Liver problems like dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or yellow skin.

• Kidney problems like unable to pass urine, blood in the urine, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain.

• Swollen glands

• Shortness of breath

• Excessive weight gain

• Swelling of arms or legs

• Chest pain

• Severe dizziness

• Passing out

• Severe muscle pain

• Severe muscle weakness

• Severe loss of strength and energy

• Vision changes

• Seizures

• Bruising

• Bleeding

• Chills

• Involuntary eye movements

• Trouble walking

• Agitation

• Irritability

• Panic attacks

• Mood changes

• Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis like red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin (with or without fever); red or irritated eyes; or sores in mouth, throat, nose, or eyes.

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.