Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Apr 20, 2020.
(kan a bi DYE ol)
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
Epidiolex: 100 mg/mL (100 mL) [contains alcohol, usp, sesame oil; strawberry flavor]
Brand Names: U.S.
The exact antiepileptic mechanism of action of cannabidiol is unknown; however, it does not appear to involve its effects on cannabinoid receptors.
High-fat/high-calorie meals increase extent of absorption
Vd: 20,963 L to 42,849 L
Hepatic (primarily) and gut by CYP2C19, CYP3A4, UGT1A7, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 to active metabolite 7-OH-CBD and then to inactive metabolite 7-COOH-CBD
Feces; urine (minor)
Onset of Action
Within 4 weeks
Time to Peak
2.5 to 5 hours at steady state
56 to 61 hours
Special Populations: Hepatic Function Impairment
Patients with moderate (Child-Pugh class B) or severe (Child-Pugh class C) hepatic impairment had a higher AUC
Use: Labeled Indications
Seizure disorders: Treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, Dravet syndrome, or tuberous sclerosis complex in patients ≥1 year of age.
Hypersensitivity to cannabidiol or any component of the formulation.
Note: Assess ALT, AST, and total bilirubin prior to initiating treatment, with dose changes or the addition of or changes in hepatotoxic medications.
Seizure associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome:
Oral: Initial: 2.5 mg/kg twice daily; may increase after 1 week to a maintenance dose of 5 mg/kg twice daily; if needed and tolerated, may increase in weekly increments of 2.5 mg/kg twice daily to a maximum dosage of 10 mg/kg twice daily. In patients needing a more rapid titration from 5 mg/kg twice daily to 10 mg/kg twice daily, may increase dose as quickly as every other day in increments of 2.5 mg/kg twice daily.
Note: The 20 mg/kg/day dosage resulted in somewhat greater reductions in seizure rates, but with an increase in adverse reactions. When discontinuing, the dose should be decreased gradually; avoid abrupt discontinuation.
Seizure associated with tuberous sclerosis complex:
Oral: Initial: 2.5 mg/kg twice daily; may increase dose in weekly increments of 2.5 mg/kg twice daily to a maintenance dose of 12.5 mg/kg twice daily. In patients needing a more rapid titration from 2.5 mg/kg twice daily to 12.5 mg/kg twice daily, may increase dose as quickly as every other day in increments of 2.5 mg/kg twice daily.
Note: The effectiveness of doses <12.5 mg/kg twice daily has not been studied. When discontinuing, the dose should be decreased gradually; avoid abrupt discontinuation.
Refer to adult dosing; use with caution.
Note: Assess baseline serum transaminases (ALT and AST) and total bilirubin levels.
Dravet syndrome (DS) or Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS): Children and Adolescents: Oral: Initial: 2.5 mg/kg/dose twice daily, may increase in 1 week to a maintenance dose of 5 mg/kg/dose twice daily. If additional seizure control is needed, may further increase at weekly intervals by 2.5 mg/kg/dose twice daily increments; maximum daily dose: 20 mg/kg/day. For rapid titration, may increase no more frequently than every other day.
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC): Children and Adolescents: Oral: Initial: 2.5 mg/kg/dose twice daily, increase at weekly intervals by 2.5 mg/kg/dose twice daily increments to the recommended maintenance dose of 12.5 mg/kg/dose twice daily. Maximum daily dose: 25 mg/kg/day. For rapid titration, may increase no more frequently than every other day. Note: Effectiveness of doses below 25 mg/kg/day have not been studied in patients with TSC.
Discontinuation of therapy: Children and Adolescents: Oral: Withdraw gradually by decreasing the total daily dosage; abrupt discontinuation should be avoided to minimize the risk of increased seizures.
Oral: High-fat/high-calorie meals significantly increase absorption; consistent administration in the fasted or fed state will minimize variability in drug levels. Administer using the provided calibrated measuring device (1 or 5 mL oral syringe). May be administered enterally via an NG or gastrostomy tube; avoid tubes made of PVC.
Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Do not freeze. Use within 12 weeks of first opening the bottle; discard any unused solution.
Brivaracetam: CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Brivaracetam. Monitor therapy
Carisoprodol: CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Carisoprodol. CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Carisoprodol. Monitor therapy
Cilostazol: CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Cilostazol. CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Cilostazol. Management: Reduce the cilostazol dose to 50 mg twice daily in patients who are also receiving moderate inhibitors of CYP2C19. Monitor clinical response to cilostazol closely. Consider therapy modification
Citalopram: CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Citalopram. Management: Limit citalopram dose to a maximum of 20 mg/day if used with a moderate CYP2C19 inhibitor. Patients using this combination should be monitored closely for evidence of citalopram toxicity (eg, serotonin syndrome, QT prolongation). Consider therapy modification
CloBAZam: CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of CloBAZam. CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of CloBAZam. Monitor therapy
Clopidogrel: CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clopidogrel. Monitor therapy
CloZAPine: CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Monitor therapy
CNS Depressants: Cannabidiol may enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy
CYP2C19 Inducers (Strong): May decrease the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy
CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate): May increase the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy
CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy
CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May decrease the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy
CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May increase the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy
CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy
Dexlansoprazole: CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Dexlansoprazole. Monitor therapy
DiazePAM: CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of DiazePAM. Monitor therapy
Escitalopram: CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Escitalopram. Monitor therapy
Etravirine: CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Etravirine. Monitor therapy
Everolimus: Cannabidiol may increase the serum concentration of Everolimus. Monitor therapy
Flibanserin: CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Monitor therapy
Fosphenytoin-Phenytoin: Cannabidiol may increase the serum concentration of Fosphenytoin-Phenytoin. Fosphenytoin-Phenytoin may decrease the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy
Lansoprazole: CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Lansoprazole. Monitor therapy
Methadone: Cannabidiol may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Methadone. Cannabidiol may increase the serum concentration of Methadone. Monitor therapy
Moclobemide: CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Moclobemide. Monitor therapy
Omeprazole: CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Omeprazole. Monitor therapy
Proguanil: CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Proguanil. CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Proguanil. Monitor therapy
Sirolimus: Cannabidiol may increase the serum concentration of Sirolimus. Monitor therapy
Stiripentol: May increase the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Cannabidiol may increase the serum concentration of Stiripentol. Monitor therapy
Tacrolimus (Systemic): Cannabidiol may increase the serum concentration of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Monitor therapy
Theophylline Derivatives: CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Theophylline Derivatives. Monitor therapy
TiZANidine: CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of TiZANidine. Management: Avoid these combinations when possible. If combined use is necessary, initiate tizanidine at an adult dose of 2 mg and increase in 2 to 4 mg increments based on patient response. Monitor for increased effects of tizanidine, including adverse reactions. Consider therapy modification
Valproate Products: May enhance the hepatotoxic effect of Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy
Voriconazole: CYP2C19 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Voriconazole. Monitor therapy
Warfarin: Cannabinoid-Containing Products may increase the serum concentration of Warfarin. Monitor therapy
May cause a false-positive cannabis screening.
The following adverse drug reactions and incidences are derived from product labeling unless otherwise specified.
Dermatologic: Skin rash (7% to 13%)
Endocrine & metabolic: Weight loss (3% to 31%)
Gastrointestinal: Decreased appetite (16% to 31%), diarrhea (20% to 31%), vomiting (17%)
Hematologic & oncologic: Anemia (7% to 38%)
Hepatic: Increased serum alanine aminotransferase (>3x ULN: 1% to 17%; >20x ULN: <1%), increased serum transaminases (8% to 25%; dose related)
Infection: Infection (40% to 41%), viral infection (7% to 11%)
Nervous system: Drowsiness (≤32%), fatigue (≤12%), insomnia (≤11%), lethargy (≤32%), malaise (≤12%), sedated state (≤32%), sleep disorder (≤11%), sleep disturbance (≤11%)
Neuromuscular & skeletal: Asthenia (≤12%)
Miscellaneous: Fever (19%)
1% to 10%:
Gastrointestinal: Abdominal distress (≤3%), abdominal pain (≤3%), gastroenteritis (4% to 8%), nausea (9%), sialorrhea (≤4%)
Genitourinary: Urinary tract infection (5%)
Hematologic & oncologic: Eosinophilia (5%), thrombocytopenia (5%)
Infection: Fungal infection (1% to 3%)
Nervous system: Abnormal gait (2% to 9%), aggressive behavior (≤5%), agitation (≤9%), drooling (≤4%), irritability (≤9%), outbursts of anger (≤5%)
Otic: Otic infection (8%)
Respiratory: Hypoxia (≤3%), pneumonia (4% to 8%), respiratory failure (≤3%), rhinorrhea (4%)
<1%: Hepatic: Increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (>20% ULN)
Frequency not defined:
Hypersensitivity: Hypersensitivity reaction
Renal: Increased serum creatinine
Dermatologic: Erythema of skin, pruritus
Nervous system: Suicidal behaviors, suicidal thoughts
Concerns related to adverse effects:
• CNS depression: May cause CNS depression, which may impair physical or mental abilities; patients must be cautioned about performing tasks that require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery or driving). Sedation and somnolence are dose-related, most common early in treatment, have a higher incidence in combination with clobazam, and may resolve with continued use.
• Hepatic effects: Dose-related elevations of liver transaminases (ALT and/or AST) have been reported, some resulting in hospitalization. Elevations typically occur within the first 2 months of treatment, but have occurred as late as 18 months after treatment initiation. Risk factors include high cannabidiol dose, concomitant hepatotoxic drugs (especially clobazam and valproate), and elevated baseline transaminases. Identifying elevated transaminases early may decrease the risk of serious hepatocellular injury. Although in clinical trials, transaminase levels normalized after continuing cannabidiol in some patients, others required discontinuation or lowering the dose of cannabidiol and/or concomitant hepatotoxic drugs. Interrupt and/or discontinue treatment (as appropriate) and check liver transaminases and bilirubin if clinical signs or symptoms of hepatic dysfunction develop (eg, unexplained anorexia, dark urine, fatigue, jaundice, nausea, right upper quadrant pain, vomiting). Discontinue treatment if transaminase levels >3 x ULN, bilirubin levels >2 x ULN, or sustained transaminase elevations >5 x ULN. In patients with elevated transaminases and bilirubin at baseline or prolonged elevations during cannabidiol treatment, assess for other possible causes of hepatotoxicity.
• Hypersensitivity: Hypersensitivity reactions (including angioedema, erythema, and pruritus requiring antihistamines and corticosteroids) have been reported. Discontinue cannabidiol if hypersensitivity reactions occur.
• Suicidal ideation: Pooled analysis of trials involving various antiepileptics (regardless of indication) showed an increased risk of suicidal thoughts/behavior (incidence rate: 0.43% treated patients compared to 0.24% of patients receiving placebo); risk observed as early as 1 week after initiation and continued through duration of trials (most trials ≤24 weeks). Monitor all patients for notable changes in behavior that might indicate suicidal thoughts or depression; notify health care provider immediately if symptoms occur.
• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment; dosage adjustment required in moderate or severe hepatic impairment.
• Withdrawal: Antiepileptics should not be discontinued abruptly because of the possibility of increasing seizure frequency; therapy should be withdrawn gradually to minimize the potential of increased seizure frequency and status epilepticus, unless safety concerns require a more rapid withdrawal.
ALT, AST, and total bilirubin (baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months after initiation, followed by periodic monitoring as clinically indicated [eg, within 1 month of dose change or initiation of concomitant hepatotoxic drug or clinical signs or symptoms of hepatic dysfunction]).
Cannabidiol can be detected in the umbilical cord serum and meconium following maternal use of inhaled, non-medicinal cannabis during pregnancy (Kim 2018).
Patients exposed to cannabidiol during pregnancy are encouraged to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry by calling 1-888-233-2334. Additional information is available at www.aedpregnancyregistry.org.
What is this drug used for?
• It is used to help control certain kinds of seizures.
All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:
• Feeling sleepy
• Not hungry
• Weight loss
• Diarrhea, upset stomach, or throwing up
• Feeling tired or weak
• Trouble sleeping
WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:
• Liver problems like dark urine, feeling tired, not hungry, upset stomach or stomach pain, light-colored stools, throwing up, or yellow skin or eyes
• Infection like fever, chills, very bad sore throat, ear or sinus pain, cough, more sputum or change in color of sputum, pain with passing urine, mouth sores, or wound that will not heal
• Any unexplained bruising or bleeding
• Trouble walking
• Depression like feeling nervous, restless, or grouchy; panic attacks; suicidal thoughts or actions; or other changes in mood or behavior
• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.
Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine’s uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.
Frequently asked questions
- What are CBD gummies? Are there any health benefits?
- CBD Oil: What are 9 Proven or Possible Health Benefits?
- Does CBD show up on a drug test?
- Does CBD Oil work for pain relief?
- CBD vs THC vs Cannabis: What's the difference between them?
- What are the side effects of marijuana?
- Does CBD Oil help with anxiety or depression?
More about cannabidiol
- Side Effects
- During Pregnancy or Breastfeeding
- Dosage Information
- Drug Interactions
- En Español
- Drug class: miscellaneous anticonvulsants
- Other brands
Related treatment guides
Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.