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Butalbital, Aspirin, Caffeine, and Codeine

Pronunciation

(byoo TAL bi tal, AS pir in, KAF een, & KOE deen)

Index Terms

  • Aspirin, Caffeine, Codeine, and Butalbital
  • Butalbital Compound and Codeine
  • Codeine and Butalbital Compound
  • Codeine, Butalbital, Aspirin, and Caffeine
  • Codeine/Butalbital/Asa/Caffeine

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Capsule: Butalbital 50 mg, aspirin 325 mg, caffeine 40 mg, and codeine phosphate 30 mg

Ascomp® with Codeine, Fiorinal® with Codeine: Butalbital 50 mg, aspirin 325 mg, caffeine 40 mg, and codeine phosphate 30 mg [may contain benzyl alcohol]

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Ascomp with Codeine
  • Fiorinal with Codeine

Pharmacologic Category

  • Analgesic Combination (Opioid)
  • Analgesic, Opioid
  • Barbiturate

Pharmacology

Butalbital is a short-to-intermediate acting barbiturate; aspirin inhibits prostaglandin synthesis and has analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions; caffeine is a CNS stimulant; codeine is an opioid analgesic and antitussive which produced generalized CNS depression. The combination product is for the treatment of tension headache; however, the role of each component in the relief of symptoms is not completely understood.

Use: Labeled Indications

Relief of symptoms of complex tension (muscle contraction) headache

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to butalbital, codeine, aspirin, caffeine, or any component of the formulation; opium derivatives; hemorrhagic diathesis (eg, hemophilia, hypoprothrombinemia, von Willebrand disease, the thrombocytopenias, thrombasthenia, and other ill-defined hereditary platelet dysfunctions, severe vitamin K deficiency, and severe liver damage); nasal polyp syndrome, angioedema, and bronchospastic reactivity to aspirin or other NSAIDs; peptic ulcer or other serious GI lesions; porphyria; postoperative pain management in children who have undergone tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy

Dosing: Adult

Tension headache: Oral: 1-2 capsules every 4 hours as needed (maximum: 6 capsules per day)

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Renal Impairment

No dosage adjustments recommended. Use with caution due to increased risk of adverse effects.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment

No dosage adjustments provided in manufacturer’s labeling; use with caution.

Storage

Store below 25°C (77°F). Protect from moisture.

Drug Interactions

Abiraterone Acetate: May increase the serum concentration of CYP1A2 Substrates. Monitor therapy

ACE Inhibitors: Salicylates may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Acebrophylline: May enhance the stimulatory effect of CNS Stimulants. Avoid combination

Adenosine: Caffeine and Caffeine Containing Products may diminish the therapeutic effect of Adenosine. Management: Monitor for decreased effect of adenosine if patient is receiving caffeine. Discontinue caffeine in advance of scheduled diagnostic use of adenosine whenever possible. Consider therapy modification

Agents with Antiplatelet Properties (e.g., P2Y12 inhibitors, NSAIDs, SSRIs, etc.): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Increased risk of bleeding may result. Monitor therapy

Agents with Antiplatelet Properties (e.g., P2Y12 inhibitors, NSAIDs, SSRIs, etc.): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of other Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Ajmaline: Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ajmaline. Specifically, the risk for cholestasis may be increased. Monitor therapy

Alcohol (Ethyl): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aspirin. Specifically, alcohol may increase the bleeding risk of aspirin. Alcohol (Ethyl) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Aspirin. Specifically, alcohol may interfere with the controlled release mechanism of extended release aspirin. Management: Monitor patients who drink 3 or more alcoholic drinks a day for increased bleeding while taking aspirin. Counsel patients about the risk of bleeding and discourage such consumption. Give extended release aspirin 2 hours before, or 1 hour after, alcohol. Consider therapy modification

Alendronate: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Alendronate. Specifically, the incidence of upper gastrointestinal adverse events may be increased Monitor therapy

Alvimopan: Analgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Alvimopan. This is most notable for patients receiving long-term (i.e., more than 7 days) opiates prior to alvimopan initiation. Management: Alvimopan is contraindicated in patients receiving therapeutic doses of opioids for more than 7 consecutive days immediately prior to alvimopan initiation. Consider therapy modification

Ammonium Chloride: May increase the serum concentration of Salicylates. Monitor therapy

Amphetamines: May enhance the analgesic effect of Analgesics (Opioid). Monitor therapy

Anticholinergic Agents: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Analgesics (Opioid). Specifically, the risk for constipation and urinary retention may be increased with this combination. Monitor therapy

Anticoagulants: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. Monitor therapy

Anticoagulants: Salicylates may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. Monitor therapy

Antipsychotic Agents (Phenothiazines): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Analgesics (Opioid). Monitor therapy

Apixaban: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Apixaban. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely. Consider therapy modification

AtoMOXetine: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. AtoMOXetine may enhance the tachycardic effect of Sympathomimetics. Monitor therapy

Azelastine (Nasal): CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Azelastine (Nasal). Avoid combination

Benzbromarone: Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of Benzbromarone. Monitor therapy

Beta-Blockers: Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers. Exceptions: Atenolol; Levobunolol; Metipranolol; Nadolol. Monitor therapy

Blonanserin: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Blonanserin. Consider therapy modification

Blood Glucose Lowering Agents: Salicylates may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Blood Pressure Lowering Agents: Barbiturates may enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Calcium Channel Blockers: Barbiturates may increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Management: Monitor for decreased therapeutic effects of calcium channel blockers with concomitant barbiturate therapy. Calcium channel blocker dose adjustments may be necessary. Nimodipine Canadian labeling contraindicates concomitant use with phenobarbital. Exceptions: Clevidipine. Monitor therapy

Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Monitor therapy

Cannabis: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Salicylate toxicity might be enhanced by this same combination. Management: Avoid these combinations when possible.Dichlorphenamide use with high-dose aspirin as contraindicated. If another combination is used, monitor patients closely for adverse effects. Tachypnea, anorexia, lethargy, and coma have been reported. Exceptions: Brinzolamide; Dorzolamide. Consider therapy modification

Carisoprodol: Aspirin may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Carisoprodol. Specifically, Meprobamate concentrations may be increased. Aspirin may decrease the serum concentration of Carisoprodol. Monitor therapy

Cephalothin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cephalothin. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Chloramphenicol: May decrease the metabolism of Barbiturates. Barbiturates may increase the metabolism of Chloramphenicol. Consider therapy modification

Ciprofloxacin (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of Caffeine. Monitor therapy

CNS Depressants: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Collagenase (Systemic): Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Collagenase (Systemic). Specifically, the risk of injection site bruising and/or bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Contraceptives (Estrogens): Barbiturates may diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Use of a non-hormonal contraceptive is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Contraceptives (Progestins): Barbiturates may diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible. Management: Use of alternative, nonhormonal contraceptives is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Corticosteroids (Systemic): Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Corticosteroids (Systemic). These specifically include gastrointestinal ulceration and bleeding. Corticosteroids (Systemic) may decrease the serum concentration of Salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids may result in salicylate toxicity. Monitor therapy

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): Barbiturates may increase the metabolism of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). Consider therapy modification

CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Moderate): May decrease the metabolism of CYP1A2 Substrates. Monitor therapy

CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Strong): May decrease the metabolism of CYP1A2 Substrates. Consider therapy modification

CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Moderate): May diminish the therapeutic effect of Codeine. These CYP2D6 inhibitors may prevent the metabolic conversion of codeine to its active metabolite morphine. Monitor therapy

CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong): May diminish the therapeutic effect of Codeine. These CYP2D6 inhibitors may prevent the metabolic conversion of codeine to its active metabolite morphine. Consider therapy modification

Dabigatran Etexilate: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Dabigatran Etexilate. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely; Canadian labeling states that low dose aspirin could be considered, but the use of antiplatelets are not recommended for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. Consider therapy modification

Dasatinib: May enhance the anticoagulant effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Deferasirox: May increase the serum concentration of CYP1A2 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Deoxycholic Acid: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Deoxycholic Acid. Specifically, the risk for bleeding or bruising in the treatment area may be increased. Monitor therapy

Desmopressin: Analgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Desmopressin. Monitor therapy

Dexketoprofen: Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Dexketoprofen. Dexketoprofen may diminish the therapeutic effect of Salicylates. Salicylates may decrease the serum concentration of Dexketoprofen. Management: The use of high-dose salicylates (3 g/day or more in adults) together with dexketoprofen is inadvisable. Consider administering dexketoprofen 30-120 min after or at least 8 hrs before cardioprotective doses of aspirin to minimize any possible interaction. Avoid combination

Dimethindene: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Diuretics: Analgesics (Opioid) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics. Analgesics (Opioid) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Doxofylline: Caffeine and Caffeine Containing Products may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Doxofylline. Avoid combination

Doxycycline: Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Doxycycline. Consider therapy modification

Doxylamine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: The manufacturer of Diclegis (doxylamine/pyridoxine), intended for use in pregnancy, specifically states that use with other CNS depressants is not recommended. Monitor therapy

Dronabinol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Droperidol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Consider dose reductions of droperidol or of other CNS agents (e.g., opioids, barbiturates) with concomitant use. Consider therapy modification

Edoxaban: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Edoxaban. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Aspirin may increase the serum concentration of Edoxaban. Management: Carefully consider the anticipated risks and benefits of this combination. If combined, increased monitoring for bleeding is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Eluxadoline: Analgesics (Opioid) may enhance the constipating effect of Eluxadoline. Avoid combination

Felbamate: May increase the serum concentration of Barbiturates. Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Felbamate. Management: Monitor for elevated barbiturate concentrations/toxicity if felbamate is initiated/dose increased, or reduced concentrations/effects if felbamate is discontinued/dose decreased. Refer to phenobarbital dosing guidelines for patients receiving that agent. Monitor therapy

Floctafenine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aspirin. An increased risk of bleeding may be associated with use of this combination. Floctafenine may diminish the cardioprotective effect of Aspirin. Avoid combination

Flunitrazepam: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Flunitrazepam. Consider therapy modification

Formoterol: Caffeine and Caffeine Containing Products may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Formoterol. Caffeine and Caffeine Containing Products may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Formoterol. Monitor therapy

Ginkgo Biloba: May enhance the anticoagulant effect of Salicylates. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination of agents. Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding (especially intracranial bleeding) if salicylates are used in combination with ginkgo biloba. Consider therapy modification

Glucosamine: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Griseofulvin: Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Griseofulvin. Monitor therapy

Hemin: Barbiturates may diminish the therapeutic effect of Hemin. Avoid combination

Heparin: Aspirin may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Heparin. Monitor therapy

Herbs (Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Properties) (eg, Alfalfa, Anise, Bilberry): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Bleeding may occur. Consider therapy modification

Herbs (Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Properties) (eg, Alfalfa, Anise, Bilberry): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Bleeding may occur. Consider therapy modification

Hyaluronidase: Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of Hyaluronidase. Management: Patients receiving salicylates (particularly at larger doses) may not experience the desired clinical response to standard doses of hyaluronidase. Larger doses of hyaluronidase may be required. Consider therapy modification

HYDROcodone: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of HYDROcodone. Management: Consider starting with a 20% to 30% lower hydrocodone dose when using together with any other CNS depressant. Dose reductions in the other CNS depressant may also be warranted. Consider therapy modification

HydrOXYzine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of Barbiturates. Management: Consider a decrease in the barbiturate dose, as appropriate, when used together with hydroxyzine. With concurrent use, monitor patients closely for excessive response to the combination. Consider therapy modification

Ibritumomab: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ibritumomab. Both agents may contribute to impaired platelet function and an increased risk of bleeding. Monitor therapy

Ibrutinib: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Indacaterol: Caffeine and Caffeine Containing Products may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Indacaterol. Caffeine and Caffeine Containing Products may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Indacaterol. Monitor therapy

Influenza Virus Vaccine (Live/Attenuated): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Specifically, Reye's syndrome may develop. Avoid combination

Iobenguane I 123: Sympathomimetics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Iobenguane I 123. Avoid combination

Kava Kava: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Ketorolac (Nasal): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aspirin. An increased risk of bleeding may be associated with use of this combination. Ketorolac (Nasal) may diminish the cardioprotective effect of Aspirin. Avoid combination

Ketorolac (Systemic): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aspirin. An increased risk of bleeding may be associated with use of this combination. Ketorolac (Systemic) may diminish the cardioprotective effect of Aspirin. Avoid combination

LamoTRIgine: Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of LamoTRIgine. Management: See lamotrigine prescribing information for specific age-dependent dosing guidelines regarding concurrent use with a barbiturate, as well as for adjusting lamotrigine dosing if concurrent barbiturate therapy is discontinued. Consider therapy modification

Lesinurad: Aspirin may diminish the therapeutic effect of Lesinurad. Monitor therapy

Limaprost: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Linezolid: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. Management: Reduce initial doses of sympathomimetic agents, and closely monitor for enhanced pressor response, in patients receiving linezolid. Specific dose adjustment recommendations are not presently available. Consider therapy modification

Lithium: Caffeine and Caffeine Containing Products may decrease the serum concentration of Lithium. Monitor therapy

Loop Diuretics: Salicylates may diminish the diuretic effect of Loop Diuretics. Loop Diuretics may increase the serum concentration of Salicylates. Monitor therapy

Magnesium Sulfate: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

MAO Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Codeine. Monitor therapy

Meperidine: Barbiturates may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Meperidine. Barbiturates may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Meperidine. Monitor therapy

Methotrexate: Salicylates may increase the serum concentration of Methotrexate. Salicylate doses used for prophylaxis of cardiovascular events are not likely to be of concern. Consider therapy modification

Methotrimeprazine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Methotrimeprazine. Methotrimeprazine may enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Reduce adult dose of CNS depressant agents by 50% with initiation of concomitant methotrimeprazine therapy. Further CNS depressant dosage adjustments should be initiated only after clinically effective methotrimeprazine dose is established. Consider therapy modification

MetyroSINE: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of MetyroSINE. Monitor therapy

Mianserin: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of Barbiturates. Mianserin may diminish the therapeutic effect of Barbiturates. Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Mianserin. Avoid combination

Minocycline: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Mirtazapine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Mirtazapine. Monitor therapy

Mixed Agonist / Antagonist Opioids: May diminish the analgesic effect of Analgesics (Opioid). Management: Seek alternatives to mixed agonist/antagonist opioids in patients receiving pure opioid agonists, and monitor for symptoms of therapeutic failure/high dose requirements (or withdrawal in opioid-dependent patients) if patients receive these combinations. Avoid combination

Multivitamins/Fluoride (with ADE): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Aspirin may decrease the serum concentration of Multivitamins/Fluoride (with ADE). Specifically, aspirin may decrease the absorption of ascorbic acid. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Aspirin may decrease the serum concentration of Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron). Specifically, aspirin may decrease absorption of ascorbic acid. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Aspirin may decrease the serum concentration of Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron). Specifically, aspirin may decrease the absorption of ascorbic acid. Monitor therapy

Nabilone: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Nalmefene: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Analgesics (Opioid). Management: Avoid the concomitant use of nalmefene and opioid analgesics. Discontinue nalmefene 1 week prior to any anticipated use of opioid analgesics. If combined, larger doses of opioid analgesics will likely be required. Consider therapy modification

Naltrexone: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Analgesics (Opioid). Management: Seek therapeutic alternatives to opioids. See full drug interaction monograph for detailed recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Nicorandil: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nicorandil. Specifically, the risk of gastrointestinal ulceration and hemorrhage may be increased. Monitor therapy

Norfloxacin: May increase the serum concentration of Caffeine and Caffeine Containing Products. Monitor therapy

NSAID (COX-2 Inhibitor): Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of NSAID (COX-2 Inhibitor). Management: Concurrent use of aspirin at doses beyond cardioprotective levels is not recommended. While concurrent use of low-dose aspirin with a COX-2 inhibitor is permissable, patients should be monitored closely for signs/symptoms of GI ulceration/bleeding. Consider therapy modification

NSAID (Nonselective): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. An increased risk of bleeding may be associated with use of this combination. NSAID (Nonselective) may diminish the cardioprotective effect of Salicylates. Salicylates may decrease the serum concentration of NSAID (Nonselective). Consider therapy modification

Obeticholic Acid: May increase the serum concentration of CYP1A2 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Obinutuzumab: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Obinutuzumab. Specifically, the risk of serious bleeding-related events may be increased. Monitor therapy

Olodaterol: Caffeine and Caffeine Containing Products may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Olodaterol. Caffeine and Caffeine Containing Products may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Olodaterol. Monitor therapy

Omacetaxine: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Omacetaxine. Specifically, the risk for bleeding-related events may be increased. Management: Avoid concurrent use of aspirin with omacetaxine in patients with a platelet count of less than 50,000/uL. Avoid combination

Omega-3 Fatty Acids: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Orphenadrine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Orphenadrine. Avoid combination

OxyCODONE: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of OxyCODONE. Management: When oxycodone is combined with another CNS depressant, a dose reduction of one or both agents should be considered. The extended release oxycodone starting dose should be reduced 50% to 67% when initiated in patients already receiving CNS depressants. Consider therapy modification

Paraldehyde: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Paraldehyde. Avoid combination

Peginterferon Alfa-2b: May increase the serum concentration of CYP1A2 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Pegvisomant: Analgesics (Opioid) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Pegvisomant. Monitor therapy

Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased by concurrent use of these agents. Monitor therapy

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Perampanel: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Patients taking perampanel with any other drug that has CNS depressant activities should avoid complex and high-risk activities, particularly those such as driving that require alertness and coordination, until they have experience using the combination. Consider therapy modification

Piribedil [INT]: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Piribedil [INT]. Monitor therapy

Potassium Acid Phosphate: May increase the serum concentration of Salicylates. Monitor therapy

PRALAtrexate: Salicylates may increase the serum concentration of PRALAtrexate. Salicylate doses used for prophylaxis of cardiovascular events are unlikely to be of concern. Consider therapy modification

Pramipexole: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Pramipexole. Monitor therapy

Primidone: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Barbiturates. Primidone is converted to phenobarbital, and thus becomes additive with existing barbiturate therapy. Monitor therapy

Probenecid: Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of Probenecid. Monitor therapy

Propacetamol: Barbiturates may increase the metabolism of Propacetamol. This may 1) diminish the desired effects of propacetamol; and 2) increase the risk of liver damage. Monitor therapy

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Pyridoxine: May increase the metabolism of Barbiturates. Apparent in high pyridoxine doses (eg, 200 mg/day) Monitor therapy

Ramosetron: Analgesics (Opioid) may enhance the constipating effect of Ramosetron. Monitor therapy

Regadenoson: Caffeine and Caffeine Containing Products may diminish the vasodilatory effect of Regadenoson. Management: Avoiding using caffeine or other methylxanthine containing products (e.g., theophylline) for at least 12 hours prior to the administration of regadenoson. Consider therapy modification

Rifamycin Derivatives: May increase the metabolism of Barbiturates. Monitor therapy

Rivaroxaban: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Rivaroxaban. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely. Consider therapy modification

ROPINIRole: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of ROPINIRole. Monitor therapy

Rotigotine: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Rotigotine. Monitor therapy

Rufinamide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Specifically, sleepiness and dizziness may be enhanced. Monitor therapy

Salicylates: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Increased risk of bleeding may result. Monitor therapy

Salicylates: May enhance the anticoagulant effect of other Salicylates. Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Monitor therapy

Serotonin Modulators: Analgesics (Opioid) may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Exceptions: Nicergoline. Monitor therapy

Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Monitor therapy

Sodium Oxybate: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Consider alternatives to combined use. When combined use is needed, consider minimizing doses of one or more drugs. Use of sodium oxybate with alcohol or sedative hypnotics is contraindicated. Consider therapy modification

Somatostatin Acetate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Barbiturates. Specifically, Somatostatin Acetate may enhance or prolong Barbiturate effects, including sedative effects. Avoid combination

Somatostatin Analogs: May decrease the metabolism of Codeine. The formation of two major codeine metabolites (morphine and norcodeine) may be impaired by somatostatin analogs. Monitor therapy

Stiripentol: May increase the serum concentration of Caffeine and Caffeine Containing Products. Avoid combination

Succinylcholine: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Analgesics (Opioid). Monitor therapy

Sulfinpyrazone: Salicylates may decrease the serum concentration of Sulfinpyrazone. Avoid combination

Suvorexant: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Suvorexant. Management: Dose reduction of suvorexant and/or any other CNS depressant may be necessary. Use of suvorexant with alcohol is not recommended, and the use of suvorexant with any other drug to treat insomnia is not recommended. Consider therapy modification

Sympathomimetics: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics. Monitor therapy

Talniflumate: Aspirin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Talniflumate. Management: When possible, consider alternatives to this combination. Concurrent use is generally not recommended. Consider therapy modification

Tapentadol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Start tapentadol at a dose of one-third to one-half of the normal dose if being initiated in a patient who is taking another drug with CNS depressant effects. Monitor closely for evidence of excessive CNS depression. Consider therapy modification

Tedizolid: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. Tedizolid may enhance the tachycardic effect of Sympathomimetics. Monitor therapy

Teniposide: Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Teniposide. Management: Consider alternatives to combined treatment with barbiturates and teniposide due to the potential for decreased teniposide concentrations. If the combination cannot be avoided, monitor teniposide response closely. Consider therapy modification

Teriflunomide: May decrease the serum concentration of Caffeine and Caffeine Containing Products. Monitor therapy

Tetrahydrocannabinol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Thalidomide: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Thalidomide. Avoid combination

Theophylline Derivatives: Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Theophylline Derivatives. Exceptions: Dyphylline. Monitor therapy

Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: Barbiturates may enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Thrombolytic Agents: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Thrombolytic Agents. Monitor therapy

Thrombolytic Agents: Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Thrombolytic Agents. An increased risk of bleeding may occur. Monitor therapy

Ticagrelor: Aspirin may enhance the antiplatelet effect of Ticagrelor. Aspirin may diminish the therapeutic effect of Ticagrelor. More specifically, the benefits of ticagrelor relative to clopidogrel may be diminished in adult patients receiving daily aspirin doses greater than 100-150 mg daily. Management: Avoid daily aspirin doses greater than 100 mg in adults receiving ticagrelor. Canadian recommendations are to avoid adult daily aspirin doses greater than 150 mg. Daily low-dose aspirin (U.S.: 75-100 mg; Canada: 75-150 mg) is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Tiludronate: Aspirin may decrease the serum concentration of Tiludronate. Monitor therapy

TiZANidine: CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of TiZANidine. Management: Avoid these combinations when possible. If combined use cannot be avoided, initiate tizanidine at an adult dose of 2 mg and increase in 2-4 mg increments based on patient response. Monitor for increased effects of tizanidine, including adverse reactions. Consider therapy modification

Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab. Specifically, the risk of bleeding-related adverse events may be increased. Monitor therapy

Treprostinil: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Bleeding may occur. Monitor therapy

Tricyclic Antidepressants: Barbiturates may increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Consider therapy modification

Trimeprazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Ulipristal: Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Ulipristal. Avoid combination

Urokinase: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Urokinase. Avoid combination

Valproate Products: May increase the serum concentration of Barbiturates. Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Valproate Products. Monitor therapy

Valproate Products: Salicylates may increase the serum concentration of Valproate Products. Monitor therapy

Varicella Virus-Containing Vaccines: Salicylates may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Varicella Virus-Containing Vaccines. Reye's Syndrome may develop. Consider therapy modification

Vemurafenib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP1A2 Substrates. Management: Consider alternatives to such combinations whenever possible, particularly if the CYP1A2 substrate has a relatively narrow therapeutic index. Consider therapy modification

Vitamin E (Systemic): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Salicylates may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. Consider therapy modification

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Barbiturates may increase the metabolism of Vitamin K Antagonists. Management: Monitor INR more closely. An anticoagulant dose increase may be needed after a barbiturate is initiated or given at an increased dose. Anticoagulant dose decreases may be needed following barbiturate discontinuation or dose reduction. Consider therapy modification

Voriconazole: Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Voriconazole. Avoid combination

Zolpidem: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Zolpidem. Management: Reduce the Intermezzo brand sublingual zolpidem adult dose to 1.75 mg for men who are also receiving other CNS depressants. No such dose change is recommended for women. Avoid use with other CNS depressants at bedtime; avoid use with alcohol. Consider therapy modification

Test Interactions

Aspirin may interfere with amylase (S), fasting blood glucose (S), cholesterol (S), protein (S), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminases (SGOT) (S), uric acid (S, U), prothrombin time (S), bleeding time (S), glucose, 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (U), Gerhardt ketone (U), vanillylmandelic acid (U), diacetic acid (U), and spectrophotometric detection of barbiturates; codeine may increase amylase levels (S)

Adverse Reactions

1% to 10%:

Central nervous system: Dizziness (3%), drowsiness (2%), intoxicated feeling (1%)

Gastrointestinal: Gastrointestinal distress (4%; abdominal pain, nausea)

<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Adenocarcinoma (cholangiocarcinoma), agitation, anaphylactic shock, anorexia, chest pain, depression, disorientation, diuresis, dysphagia, dysuria, edema, epistaxis, erythema multiforme, esophagitis, exfoliative dermatitis, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal spasm, gastrointestinal ulcer due to Helicobacter pylori, hallucination, hypersensitivity reaction, hypogonadism (Brennan, 2013; Debono, 2011), hypotension, loss of consciousness, nervousness, neuropathy, numbness, palpitations, psychosis, renal insufficiency, skin rash, slurred speech, syncope, tachycardia, tinnitus, toxic epidermal necrolysis, urticaria, vertigo, vomiting

Note: Potential reactions associated with components of Fiorinal® with Codeine include acute airway obstruction, anemia, bleeding time prolonged, cardiac stimulation, dependence, hemolytic anemia, hepatitis, hyperglycemia, irritability, nephrotoxicity, occult blood loss, peptic ulcer, pruritus, renal toxicity (high doses, prolonged therapy) thrombocytopenia, tremor, urate excretion impaired

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Ultra-rapid metabolism of codeine to morphine:

Respiratory depression and death have occurred in children who received codeine following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy and had evidence of being ultra-rapid metabolizers of codeine due to a cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) polymorphism.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• CNS depression: May cause CNS depression, which may impair physical or mental abilities; patients must be cautioned about performing tasks which require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery or driving).

• Phenanthrene hypersensitivity: Use with caution in patients with hypersensitivity reactions to other phenanthrene-derivative opioid agonists (hydrocodone, hydromorphone, levorphanol, oxycodone, oxymorphone).

• Salicylate sensitivity: Patients with sensitivity to tartrazine dyes, nasal polyps, and asthma may have an increased risk of salicylate sensitivity.

Disease-related concerns:

• Abdominal conditions: May obscure diagnosis or clinical course of patients with acute abdominal conditions.

• Adrenal insufficiency: Use with caution in patients with adrenal insufficiency, including Addison disease. Long-term opioid use may cause secondary hypogonadism, which may lead to sexual dysfunction, infertility, mood disorders, and osteoporosis (Brennan, 2013).

• Biliary tract impairment: Use codeine with caution in patients with biliary tract dysfunction, including acute pancreatitis; may cause constriction of sphincter of Oddi.

• Bleeding disorders: Use with caution in patients with platelet and bleeding disorders.

• Drug abuse: Use with caution in patients with a history of drug abuse or acute alcoholism; potential for drug dependency exists. Tolerance, psychological and physical dependence may occur with prolonged use.

• Gastrointestinal disease: Use with caution in patients with erosive gastritis or peptic ulcer disease.

• Head trauma: Use with extreme caution in patients with head injury, intracranial lesions, or elevated intracranial pressure; exaggerated elevation of ICP may occur.

• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with severe hepatic impairment.

• Prostatic hyperplasia/urinary stricture: Use with caution in patients with prostatic hyperplasia and/or urinary stricture.

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with severe renal impairment.

• Respiratory disease: Use with caution in patients with preexisting respiratory compromise (hypoxia and/or hypercapnia), COPD or other obstructive pulmonary disease, and kyphoscoliosis or other skeletal disorder which may alter respiratory function; critical respiratory depression may occur, even at therapeutic dosages.

• Thyroid dysfunction: Use with caution in patients with thyroid dysfunction.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Anticoagulant therapy: Use with caution in patients on anticoagulant therapy.

• Sedatives: Effects may be potentiated when used with other sedative drugs or ethanol.

Special populations:

• CYP2D6 “ultrarapid metabolizers”: Use caution in patients with two or more copies of the variant CYP2D6*2 allele; may have extensive conversion from codeine to morphine and thus increased opioid-mediated effects. Avoid the use of codeine in these patients; consider alternative analgesics such as morphine or a nonopioid agent (Crews, 2012). The occurrence of this phenotype is seen in 0.5% to 1% of Chinese and Japanese, 0.5% to 1% of Hispanics, 1% to 10% of Caucasians, 3% of African-Americans, and 16% to 28% of North Africans, Ethiopians, and Arabs.

• Debilitated patients: Use with caution in debilitated patients; there is a greater potential for critical respiratory depression, even at therapeutic dosages.

• Elderly: Use with caution in the elderly; may be more sensitive to adverse effects. Decrease initial dose.

• Pediatric:

- [U.S. Boxed Warning]: Respiratory depression and death have occurred in children who received codeine following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy and were found to have evidence of being ultra-rapid metabolizers of codeine due to a CYP2D6 polymorphism. Deaths have also occurred in nursing infants after being exposed to high concentrations of morphine because the mothers were ultra-rapid metabolizers. Use of codeine is contraindicated in the postoperative pain management of children who have undergone tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy.

- Children and teenagers who have or are recovering from chickenpox or flu-like symptoms should not use this product. Changes in behavior (along with nausea and vomiting) may be an early sign of Reye's syndrome; patients should be instructed to contact their healthcare provider if these occur.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Caffeine: May cause CNS and cardiovascular stimulation, as well as GI irritation in high doses. Use with caution in patients with a history of peptic ulcer or GERD; avoid in patients with symptomatic cardiac arrhythmias.

Monitoring Parameters

Serial hepatic and renal function tests (in patients with impairment); signs or symptoms of hypogonadism or hypoadrenalism (Brennan, 2013)

Pregnancy Risk Factor

C

Pregnancy Considerations

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with this combination. Lissencephaly, pachygyria, and heterotopic gray matter were noted in a premature infant whose mother took this combination throughout pregnancy; mild developmental delay and seizures were also observed at 1 year of age. Withdrawal seizures were reported in an infant 2 days after birth following maternal use of a butalbital product during the last 2 months of pregnancy; butalbital was detected in the newborn's serum. Also refer to the individual monographs for aspirin, caffeine, and codeine for additional information.

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience dizziness, nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain. Have patient report immediately to prescriber difficulty breathing, slow breathing, shallow breathing, noisy breathing, severe fatigue, confusion, severe anxiety, bruising, bleeding, tinnitus, or signs of abdominal ulcers (severe abdominal or back pain; black, tarry, or bloody stools; vomiting blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds; or weight gain or abnormal swelling) (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.

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