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Zosyn

Generic Name: Piperacillin Sodium and Tazobactam Sodium
Class: Extended-spectrum Penicillins
Chemical Name: [2S-[2α,5α,6β(S*)]]-6-[[[[(4-Ethyl-2,3-dioxo-1-piperazinyl)carbonyl]amino]phenylacetyl]amino]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid monosodium salt
Molecular Formula: C23H27N5O7S•NaC10H11N4NaO5S
CAS Number: 157044-21-8

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Sep 2, 2019.

Introduction

Antibacterial; β-lactam antibiotic; fixed combination of piperacillin (an extended-spectrum penicillin) and tazobactam (a β-lactamase inhibitor).1 3 5 6 12 28 43 46 60

Uses for Zosyn

Gynecologic and Obstetric Infections

Treatment of postpartum endometritis or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) caused by susceptible β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.1 21 197

Not included in CDC recommendations for treatment of PID;344 if a penicillin used for empiric treatment of PID, CDC and others recommend a parenteral regimen that includes the fixed combination of ampicillin and sulbactam (ampicillin/sulbactam) in conjunction with doxycycline.344 345

Intra-abdominal Infections

Treatment of appendicitis (complicated by rupture or abscess) and peritonitis caused by susceptible β-lactamase-producing E. coli, Bacteroides fragilis, B. ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron, or B. vulgatus.1 12 13 14 43 197

Has been used for treatment of various intra-abdominal infections;43 708 recommended as one of several options for initial empiric treatment of high-risk or severe community-acquired extrabiliary intra-abdominal infections (e.g., in patients with advanced age, immunocompromise, severe physiologic disturbance), community-acquired biliary tract infections (e.g., acute cholecystitis), and complicated healthcare-associated intra-abdominal infections.708

Respiratory Tract Infections

Treatment of moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by susceptible β-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae.1 Also used for treatment of CAP caused by susceptible Enterobacteriaceae or anaerobic bacteria.512

Recommended as one of several options for empiric treatment of CAP in hospitalized patients requiring treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU).512 If Pseudomonas aeruginosa known or suspected to be involved, use in conjunction with a fluoroquinolone with antipseudomonal activity (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) with or without an aminoglycoside or in conjunction with an aminoglycoside and azithromycin.512 Factors that increase risk of Ps. aeruginosa infection in CAP patients include severe CAP requiring treatment in an ICU, structural lung disease (e.g., bronchiectasis), repeated COPD exacerbations, alcoholism, chronic corticosteroid therapy, and frequent anti-infective therapy.512

Treatment of moderate to severe nosocomial pneumonia caused by susceptible β-lactamase-producing Staphylococcus aureus or susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii, H. influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Ps. aeruginosa.1 197 If Ps. aeruginosa involved, use in conjunction with an aminoglycoside or a fluoroquinolone with antipseudomonal activity (e.g., ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) recommended.1 197 315

One of several options recommended for initial empiric treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) not associated with mechanical ventilation and initial empiric treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).315

In patients with HAP not at high risk of mortality, can consider use of piperacillin/tazobactam alone (monotherapy) for initial empiric treatment if no factors are present that increase likelihood of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; also known as oxacillin-resistant S. aureus or ORSA);315 use in conjunction with an antibacterial active against MRSA (vancomycin, linezolid) recommended if such factors are present or if patient is at high risk of mortality or has received IV anti-infectives during prior 90 days.315

In patients with clinically suspected VAP, can consider use of piperacillin/tazobactam alone (monotherapy) for initial empiric treatment in patients not at increased risk for MRSA;315 in those with factors that increase risk of MRSA or multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, use in conjunction with an anti-infective active against MRSA (vancomycin, linezolid) plus an antipseudomonal fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin), aminoglycoside (amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin), or polymyxin B recommended.315

Septicemia

Treatment of septicemia.39 40 41 43 197 Recommended as one of several options for initial empiric treatment of sepsis and bacteremia.39 42 43 197

Skin and Skin Structure Infections

Treatment of uncomplicated and complicated skin and skin structure infections (including cellulitis, cutaneous abscess, ischemic/diabetic foot infections) caused by susceptible β-lactamase-producing S. aureus.1 12 15 Recommended as a possible option for empiric monotherapy of complicated skin and skin structure infections that could be polymicrobial and unlikely to involve MRSA;197 do not use alone in infections that may be caused by MRSA.197

Although fixed combination of amoxicillin and clavulanate (amoxicillin/clavulanate) usually drug of choice, piperacillin/tazobactam suggested as an alternative for treatment of infected human or animal (e.g., dog, cat, reptile) bite wounds when a parenteral anti-infective used.292 543 Purulent bite wounds usually are polymicrobial and broad-spectrum anti-infective coverage recommended;292 543 nonpurulent infected bite wounds usually caused by staphylococci and streptococci, but can be polymicrobial.543

Possible option for empiric treatment of severe cellulitis or treatment of clostridial myonecrosis (gas gangrene);543 used in conjunction with vancomycin.543

Possible option for empiric treatment of necrotizing fasciitis;543 used in conjunction with vancomycin or linezolid.543

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

Treatment of UTIs in hospitalized patients;43 197 used with or without an aminoglycoside.43 197

Empiric Therapy in Febrile Neutropenic Patients

Has been used alone (monotherapy) or in conjunction with other anti-infectives (e.g., aminoglycosides) for empiric anti-infective therapy in febrile neutropenic patients.43 197 359 787

Recommended as one of several options for initial outpatient management of febrile neutropenia in adults receiving treatment for malignancy.787

Perioperative Prophylaxis

Has been used for perioperative prophylaxis to decrease postoperative infections in patients undergoing various urologic procedures (e.g., prostate biopsy),48 374 gastroduodenal procedures (e.g., pancreatic duodenectomy),47 374 or liver transplantation.49 374 Not generally recommended for perioperative prophylaxis.43 360

Zosyn Dosage and Administration

Administration

Administer by IV infusion.1 35 36 37 38 45

Usually administered by intermittent IV infusion;35 36 37 38 43 45 has been administered by continuous IV infusion.25 43 49 56 58

Do not give by rapid IV injection.25

IV Infusion

For solution compatibility information, see Compatibility under Stability.

Do not admix with other drugs (e.g., in a syringe or infusion bottle);1 35 36 37 38 45 do not add to blood products or albumin hydrolysates.1 35 36 37 38 45

If concomitant use of an aminoglycoside indicated (e.g., treatment of nosocomial pneumonia), reconstitute, dilute, and administer piperacillin/tazobactam and the aminoglycoside separately.1 35 36 37 38 45 (See Concomitant Use with Aminoglycosides under Dosage and Administration.)

Piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn) and generic preparations of piperacillin/tazobactam commercially available in US are not identical.1 35 36 37 38 Zosyn is formulated with edetate disodium dihydrate (EDTA) and sodium citrate;1 generic preparations do not contain EDTA or sodium citrate.35 36 37 38 EDTA acts as a metal chelating agent and sodium citrate acts as a buffer to inhibit certain aspects of chemical degradation and particulate formation following reconstitution with commonly used diluents or storage of solutions of the drug.44

Lactated Ringer’s injection is compatible for coadministration via Y-site infusion only with solutions prepared using piperacillin/sodium (Zosyn) formulated with EDTA;1 lactated Ringer's injection is incompatible with and cannot be used for Y-site infusion with solutions prepared using piperacillin/tazobactam (generic) that do not contain EDTA.1 35 37 38

Reconstitution and Dilution

Single-dose vials of piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn, generic): Reconstitute vials containing 2.25 g (2 g of piperacillin and 0.25 g of tazobactam), 3.375 g (3 g of piperacillin and 0.375 g of tazobactam), or 4.5 g (4 g of piperacillin and 0.5 g of tazobactam) by adding 10, 15, or 20 mL, respectively, of 0.9% sodium chloride injection, sterile water for injection, 5% dextrose injection, bacteriostatic water for injection (with parabens or benzyl alcohol), or bacteriostatic sodium chloride injection (with parabens or benzyl alcohol).1 35 37 38 Swirl until contents are dissolved.1 35 37 38 Further dilute reconstituted solutions to desired volume (usually 50–150 mL) with 0.9% sodium chloride injection, sterile water for injection (maximum recommended volume is 50 mL), 5% dextrose injection, or 6% dextran in sodium chloride.1 35 37 38

Single-dose ADD-Vantage vials of piperacillin/tazobactam (generic): Reconstitute and dilute in ADD-Vantage system according to the manufacturer’s labeling.45

Pharmacy bulk piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn, generic): Reconstitute vials or bottles containing 40.5 g (36 g of piperacillin and 4.5 g of tazobactam) by adding 152 mL of a compatible IV solution (see Compatibility under Stability) to provide a solution containing 200 mg/mL of piperacillin and 25 mg/mL of tazobactam.1 36 Not intended for direct IV infusion;1 36 solutions reconstituted in pharmacy bulk vials or bottles must be further diluted with a compatible IV solution prior to administration.1 36

Single-dose (frozen) premixed injections of piperacillin/tazobactam in dextrose (Zosyn in Galaxy containers): Thaw at room temperature (20–25°C) or in a refrigerator (2–8°C);1 do not thaw by immersion in a water bath or by exposure to microwave radiation.1 A precipitate may have formed in the frozen injection, but should dissolve with little or no agitation after reaching room temperature.1 Discard thawed injection if an insoluble precipitate is present or if container seals or outlet ports are not intact.1 Do not introduce additives into the injection.1 Do not use in series connections with other plastic containers;1 such use could result in air embolism from residual air being drawn from the primary container before administration of fluid from the secondary container is complete.1

Rate of Administration

Administer by IV infusion over 30 minutes.1 25 35 36 37 38 43

Has been administered by IV infusion over 3–4 hours24 25 43 54 55 57 58 and by continuous IV infusion.25 43 49 56 58 Some clinicians suggest 4-hour intermittent IV infusions or continuous IV infusion may be beneficial in certain clinical situations (e.g., critically ill patients, pathogen with high piperacillin/tazobactam MIC);25 43 52 53 54 58 some evidence that lengthening infusion duration may maximize pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of the drug.24 43 54 55 57 58 59

Concomitant Use with Aminoglycosides

Because piperacillin/tazobactam and aminoglycosides are physically and/or chemically incompatible in vitro,1 35 36 37 38 45 83 236 reconstitute, dilute, and administer the drugs separately if concomitant use indicated (e.g., treatment of nosocomial pneumonia).1 35 36 37 38 45

In certain situations when coadministration of piperacillin/tazobactam and an aminoglycoside via Y-site infusion considered necessary, use only certain dosages of amikacin or gentamicin and only certain acceptable diluents.1 35 36 37 38 44 45 (See Tables 1 and 2.) For Y-site coadministration, do not use tobramycin or any aminoglycoside other than amikacin or gentamicin.1 35 36 37 38 45 Coadministration via Y-site infusion in any manner other than that specified in the tables may result in inactivation of the aminoglycoside.1 35 36 37 38 45

Based on amikacin dosage of 10–15 mg/kg daily given in 2 divided doses or gentamicin dosage of 3–5 mg/kg daily given in 3 divided doses; higher dosage or once-daily dosage has not been evaluated for Y-site compatibility.

Table 1. Y-site Compatibility of Piperacillin/tazobactam in Single-dose Vials and Bulk Vials or Bottles (Zosyn, generic) with Aminoglycosides13536373845

Aminoglycoside

Piperacillin/tazobactam Dose (g)

Piperacillin/tazobactam Diluent (mL)

Aminoglycoside Concentration Range (mg/mL)

Acceptable Diluents

Amikacin

2.25

50

1.75–7.5

0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection

3.375

100

4.5

150

Gentamicin

2.25

50

0.7–3.32

0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection

3.375

100

4.5

150

Based on amikacin dosage of 10–15 mg/kg daily given in 2 divided doses or gentamicin dosage of 3–5 mg/kg daily given in 3 divided doses; higher dosage or once-daily dosage has not been evaluated for Y-site compatibility.

Frozen premixed Zosyn injections in Galaxy containers that contain 3.375 g/50 mL are not compatible with gentamicin and should not be used for Y-site coadministration with gentamicin.

Table 2. Y-site Compatibility of Piperacillin/tazobactam (Frozen) Premixed Injections in Dextrose (Zosyn in Galaxy Containers) with Aminoglycosides1

Aminoglycoside

Piperacillin/tazobactam Dose (g)

Aminoglycoside Concentration Range (mg/mL)

Acceptable Diluents

Amikacin

2.25, 3.375, or 4.5

1.75–7.5

0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection

Gentamicin

2.25 or 4.5

0.7–3.32

0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection

Dosage

Available as fixed combination of piperacillin sodium and tazobactam sodium (piperacillin/tazobactam);1 35 36 37 38 45 potency of each drug expressed in terms of the base.1 35 36 37 45 38 Contains 8:1 ratio of piperacillin to tazobactam.1 35 36 37 38 45

Dosage of piperacillin/tazobactam usually expressed as the total (sum) of the dosage of each of the 2 components (i.e., dosage of piperacillin plus dosage of tazobactam).1 35 36 37 38 43 45 315 543 708 However, dosage for pediatric patients often expressed in terms of piperacillin component.24 25 292 543 708

Pediatric Patients

General Neonatal Dosage
IV

Neonates ≤28 days of age: AAP recommends dosage based on postmenstrual age (i.e., gestational age plus chronologic age).292 AAP recommends 100 mg/kg (of piperacillin) every 8 hours in those with postmenstrual age ≤30 weeks and 80 mg/kg (of piperacillin) every 6 hours in those with postmenstrual age >30 weeks.292

Neonates weighing <1 kg: Some clinicians recommend 100 mg/kg (of piperacillin) every 12 hours in those ≤14 days of age and 100 mg/kg (of piperacillin) every 8 hours in those 15–28 days of age.24

Neonates weighing ≥1 kg: Some clinicians recommend 100 mg/kg (of piperacillin) every 12 hours in those ≤7 days of age and 100 mg/kg (of piperacillin) every 8 hours in those 8–28 days of age.24

Severe infections in neonates and infants <2 months of age: Some clinicians recommend 80 mg/kg (of piperacillin) every 6 hours;24 others recommend 80 mg/kg (of piperacillin) every 4 hours.24 Some suggest shortening dosing interval to every 6 hours and prolonging duration of IV infusion to 4 hours to maximize pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of the drug.24

General Pediatric Dosage
IV

Pediatric patients beyond neonatal period: AAP recommends 240–300 mg/kg (of piperacillin) daily in 3 or 4 divided doses.292 These experts state 400–600 mg/kg (of piperacillin) daily in 6 divided doses may be appropriate in some patients with cystic fibrosis.292

Severe infections in children: Some clinicians suggest 80 mg/kg (of piperacillin) every 6–8 hours in those 2–9 months of age and 100 mg/kg (of piperacillin) every 6–8 hours in those >9 months of age.24

Intra-abdominal Infections
Appendicitis and/or Peritonitis
IV

Children 2–9 months of age: 80 mg/kg (of piperacillin) and 10 mg/kg (of tazobactam) every 8 hours.1

Children ≥9 months of age weighing ≤40 kg with normal renal function: 100 mg/kg (of piperacillin) and 12.5 mg/kg (of tazobactam) every 8 hours.1

Children weighing >40 kg with normal renal function: 3.375 g (3 g of piperacillin and 0.375 g of tazobactam) every 6 hours.1

Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections
IV

Pediatric patients: Some clinicians recommend 200–300 mg/kg (of piperacillin) daily in divided doses every 6–8 hours.708

Some clinicians state usual duration of treatment is 4–7 days (unless difficult to achieve adequate source control);708 longer duration not associated with improved outcomes.708

Skin and Skin Structure Infections
Necrotizing Infections of Skin, Fascia, and Muscle
IV

Pediatric patients: Some clinicians recommend 60–75 mg/kg (of piperacillin) every 6 hours in conjunction with vancomycin.543

Adults

General Adult Dosage
IV

3.375 g (3 g of piperacillin and 0.375 g of tazobactam) every 6 hours for 7–10 days.1

Gynecologic and Obstetric Infections
Postpartum Endometritis or PID
IV

3.375 g (3 g of piperacillin and 0.375 g of tazobactam) every 6 hours for 7–10 days.1

Intra-abdominal Infections
Appendicitis and/or Peritonitis
IV

3.375 g (3 g of piperacillin and 0.375 g of tazobactam) every 6 hours for 7–10 days.1

Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections
IV

Some clinicians recommend 3.375 g (3 g of piperacillin and 0.375 g of tazobactam) every 6 hours.708 If Ps. aeruginosa identified, these clinicians recommend 3.375 g (3 g of piperacillin and 0.375 g of tazobactam) every 4 hours or 4.5 g (4 g of piperacillin and 0.5 g of tazobactam) every 6 hours.708

Some clinicians state usual duration of treatment is 4–7 days (unless difficult to achieve adequate source control);708 longer duration not associated with improved outcomes.708

Respiratory Tract Infections
Community-acquired Pneumonia
IV

3.375 g (3 g of piperacillin and 0.375 g of tazobactam) every 6 hours for 7–10 days.1

Nosocomial Pneumonia
IV

Initial empiric treatment of nosocomial pneumonia: Manufacturer recommends 4.5 g (4 g of piperacillin and 0.5 g of tazobactam) every 6 hours for 7–14 days;1 used in conjunction with an aminoglycoside.1 If Ps. aeruginosa identified, continue concomitant aminoglycoside for full duration of treatment.1

Initial empiric treatment of HAP or VAP: Some clinicians recommend 4.5 g (4 g of piperacillin and 0.5 g of tazobactam) every 6 hours used alone or in conjunction with other anti-infectives (see Respiratory Tract Infections under Uses).315 These experts state usual duration of treatment is 7 days;315 a longer or shorter duration may be indicated depending on clinical response.315

Skin and Skin Structure Infections
Uncomplicated and Complicated Infections
IV

3.375 g (3 g of piperacillin and 0.375 g of tazobactam) every 6 hours for 7–10 days.1

Incisional Surgical Site Infections
IV

Some clinicians recommended 3.375 g (3 g of piperacillin and 0.375 g of tazobactam) every 6 hours or 4.5 g (4 g of piperacillin and 0.5 g of tazobactam) every 8 hours.543

Infected Human or Animal Bite Wounds
IV

Some clinicians recommend 3.375 g (3 g of piperacillin and 0.375 g of tazobactam) every 6–8 hours.543

Necrotizing Infections of Skin, Fascia, and Muscle
IV

Some clinicians recommend 3.375 g (3 g of piperacillin and 0.375 g of tazobactam) every 6–8 hours in conjunction with vancomycin.543

Prescribing Limits

Pediatric Patients

IV

Maximum 16 g (of piperacillin) daily;24 292 AAP states a maximum of 24 g (of piperacillin) daily may be appropriate in some cystic fibrosis patients.292

Adults

IV

Maximum 3.375 g (3 g of piperacillin and 0.375 g of tazobactam) every 4 hours708 or 4.5 g (4 g of piperacillin and 0.5 g of tazobactam) every 6 hours.43

Maximum 18 g (16 g of piperacillin and 2 g of tazobactam) daily recommended by manufacturer.1

Special Populations

Hepatic Impairment

Dosage adjustments not needed.1 3 12 43 (See Hepatic Impairment under Cautions.)

Renal Impairment

Adjust dosage in adults with Clcr ≤40 mL/minute, including those undergoing hemodialysis or CAPD.1 7 12 43 (See Table 3.)

Dosage recommendations not available for pediatric patients with renal impairment.1

Hemodialysis removes approximately 30–40% of a dose of piperacillin/tazobactam (see Special Populations under Pharmacokinetics); supplemental dose of the drug needed after each hemodialysis session.1

Supplemental doses of piperacillin/tazobactam not needed in CAPD patients.1

Table 3. Dosage of Piperacillin/tazobactam for Adults with Renal Impairment13536373845

Clcr (mL/min)

Daily Dosage (Except Nosocomial Pneumonia)

Daily Dosage (Nosocomial Pneumonia)

20–40

2.25 g every 6 hours

3.375 g every 6 hours

<20

2.25 g every 8 hours

2.25 g every 6 hours

Hemodialysis Patients

2.25 g every 12 hours; also give 0.75 g after each hemodialysis session

2.25 g every 8 hours; also give 0.75 g after each hemodialysis session

CAPD Patients

2.25 g every 12 hours

2.25 g every 8 hours

Geriatric Patients

Select dosage with caution, usually starting at low end of dosage range, because of age-related decreases in hepatic, renal, and/or cardiac function.1 (see Geriatric Use under Cautions.)

Cautions for Zosyn

Contraindications

  • Hypersensitivity to any penicillin, cephalosporin, or β-lactamase inhibitor.1

Warnings/Precautions

Sensitivity Reactions

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions, reported with piperacillin/tazobactam.1 Such reactions more likely to occur in those with history of penicillin, cephalosporin, or carbapenem hypersensitivity or history of sensitivity to multiple allergens.1

Prior to initiation of piperacillin/tazobactam, make careful inquiry regarding previous hypersensitivity reactions to the drug, other β-lactams (including cephalosporins), or other allergens.1

If a severe hypersensitivity reaction occurs, discontinue immediately and institute appropriate therapy as indicated.1

Dermatologic Effects

Rash (maculopapular, bullous, urticarial)1 12 21 and pruritus1 12 21 reported.

Postmarketing reports of severe cutaneous adverse effects, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and exfoliative dermatitis.1

If rash develops, monitor closely;1 discontinue piperacillin/tazobactam if lesions progress.1

Hematologic Effects

Decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit,1 anemia,1 thrombocytopenia,1 increased platelet count,1 transient eosinophilia,1 transient leukopenia,1 and neutropenia reported in patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam.1 In most reported cases, leukopenia and neutropenia occurred after prolonged therapy (e.g., ≥21 days) and generally were reversible;1 systemic symptoms (e.g., fever, rigors, chills) also occurred in some patients.1 Postmarketing reports of hemolytic anemia, agranulocytosis, and pancytopenia.1

Positive direct antiglobulin (Coombs’) test results, prolonged PT, and prolonged PTT reported.1 12

Bleeding manifestation reported with some β-lactam antibiotics, including piperacillin.1 These reactions have sometimes been associated with abnormal coagulation tests (e.g., clotting time, platelet aggregation, PT) and are more likely to occur in patients with renal failure.1

Periodically evaluate hematologic function in patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam, especially in those receiving prolonged treatment (i.e., ≥21 days).1

If bleeding manifestations occur, discontinue piperacillin/tazobactam and institute appropriate measures.1

Nervous System Effects

Headache1 and insomnia1 reported in patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam. Postmarketing reports of delirium.1

Neuromuscular excitability or seizures reported with some penicillins when higher than recommended dosage used (especially in patients with renal failure).1

Nephrotoxicity

Increased Scr and BUN reported in patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam.1 12 Rare reports of renal failure;1 postmarketing reports of interstitial nephritis.1

When used in critically ill patients, piperacillin/tazobactam found to be an independent risk factor for renal failure and has been associated with delayed recovery of renal function compared with other β-lactam anti-infectives.1 In addition, concomitant use of vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam in critically ill patients has been associated with increased risk of acute kidney injury.1 50 51 (See Specific Drugs and Laboratory Tests under Interactions.)

Consider alternatives to piperacillin/tazobactam in critically ill patients;1 if alternatives inadequate or unavailable, monitor renal function during piperacillin/tazobactam treatment.1

Electrolyte Effects

Changes in serum electrolytes, including increased and decreased serum sodium, potassium, and calcium concentrations, reported in patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam.1

Periodically determine electrolyte concentrations when piperacillin/tazobactam used in patients with low potassium reserves;1 consider possibility of hypokalemia in those with potentially low potassium reserves who are receiving cytotoxic therapy or diuretics.1

Consider sodium content of piperacillin/tazobactam when used in geriatric patients or patients requiring restricted salt intake.1 (See Geriatric Use under Cautions.) Piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn) contains 2.84 mEq (65 mg) of sodium per gram of piperacillin.1 Most generic preparations of piperacillin/tazobactam contain 2.35 mEq (54 mg) of sodium per gram of piperacillin;36 37 45 some contain 2.43 mEq (56 mg) of sodium per gram of piperacillin.35 38

C. difficile-associated Diarrhea and Colitis (CDAD)

Treatment with anti-infectives alters normal colon flora and may permit overgrowth of Clostridioides difficile (formerly known as Clostridium difficile).1 302 303 304 C. difficile infection and C. difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis (CDAD; also known as antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis or pseudomembranous colitis) reported with nearly all anti-infectives, including piperacillin/tazobactam, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis.1 302 303 304 C. difficile produces toxins A and B, which contribute to development of CDAD;1 302 hypertoxin-producing strains of C. difficile are associated with increased morbidity and mortality since they may be refractory to anti-infectives and colectomy may be required.1

Consider CDAD if diarrhea develops during or after therapy and manage accordingly.1 302 303 304 Obtain careful medical history since CDAD may occur as late as ≥2 months after anti-infective therapy discontinued.1

If CDAD suspected or confirmed, discontinue anti-infectives not directed against C. difficile as soon as possible.302 Initiate appropriate anti-infective therapy directed against C. difficile (e.g., vancomycin, fidaxomicin, metronidazole), supportive therapy (e.g., fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation), and surgical evaluation as clinically indicated.1 302 303 304

Selection and Use of Anti-infectives

To reduce development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of piperacillin/tazobactam and other antibacterials, use only for treatment of infections proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.1

When selecting or modifying anti-infective therapy, use results of culture and in vitro susceptibility testing.1 In the absence of such data, consider local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns when selecting anti-infectives for empiric therapy.1

Information on test methods and quality control standards for in vitro susceptibility testing of antibacterial agents and specific interpretive criteria for such testing recognized by FDA is available at [Web].1

Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Available human data regarding use of piperacillin/tazobactam during pregnancy inadequate to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage.1

Piperacillin and tazobactam both cross the placenta.1

Lactation

Piperacillin distributed into milk;1 not known whether tazobactam distributed into milk.1 Effects of the drugs on breast-fed infants or milk production unknown.1

Consider developmental and health benefits of breast-feeding along with mother’s clinical need for piperacillin/tazobactam and potential adverse effects on the breast-fed infant from the drug or the underlying maternal condition.1

Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy not established in pediatric patients <2 months of age.1

Use for treatment of appendicitis and/or peritonitis in pediatric patients ≥2 months of age is supported by evidence from well-controlled studies and pharmacokinetic studies in adults and pediatric patients.1

Adverse effects reported in pediatric patients with severe intra-abdominal infections (including appendicitis and/or peritonitis) are similar to those reported in adults.1

Geriatric Use

Geriatric patients >65 years of age are not at increased risk of developing adverse effects to piperacillin/tazobactam based solely on age.1

Substantially eliminated by kidneys;1 risk of toxicity may be greater in patients with impaired renal function.1 Assess renal function periodically since geriatric patients are more likely to have decreased renal function.1

Select dosage with caution (usually starting at low end of dosage range) because of age-related decreases in hepatic, renal, and/or cardiac function and concomitant disease and drug therapy.1

Consider sodium content of piperacillin/sodium when used in geriatric patients.1 Geriatric patients may respond to salt loading with blunted natriuresis;1 this may be clinically important patients with diseases such as heart failure.1

Piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn) contains 65 mg (2.84 mEq) of sodium per gram of piperacillin;1 patients receive 780–1040 mg (34.1–45.5 mEq) of sodium daily with usually recommended dosages of this preparation.1 Sodium content of commercially available generic preparations of piperacillin/tazobactam varies depending on manufacturer.35 36 37 38 45 (See Electrolyte Effects under Cautions.)

Hepatic Impairment

Serum half-lives of piperacillin and tazobactam are prolonged in patients with hepatic cirrhosis;1 3 not considered clinically important.1 3 12 Dosage adjustments not required.1 3 12

Renal Impairment

Adjust dosage in adults with Clcr ≤40 mL/minute, including those undergoing hemodialysis or CAPD.1 Dosage recommendations not available for pediatric patients with impaired renal function.1 (See Renal Impairment under Dosage and Administration.)

Common Adverse Effects

GI effects (diarrhea, nausea, constipation), headache, insomnia, dermatologic effects.1

Interactions for Zosyn

Specific Drugs and Laboratory Tests

Drug or Test

Interaction

Comments

Aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin)

Antibacterial activities of piperacillin and aminoglycosides synergistic in vitro against some strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Ps. aeruginosa43 46

Piperacillin/tazobactam and aminoglycosides are physically and/or chemically incompatible in vitro1 35 36 37 38 45 83 236

Amikacin and gentamicin: Compatible in vitro with piperacillin/tazobactam for Y-site coadministration only under specific conditions1 44

Tobramycin: Not compatible in vitro with piperacillin/tazobactam1 36 37 38

Piperacillin can inactivate aminoglycosides in vivo;1 35 36 37 38 45 89 236 240 decreased aminoglycoside concentrations and half-lives reported when used in patients receiving piperacillin, especially with tobramycin or if high piperacillin dosage used or patient has renal impairment1 35 36 37 38 45 83 89 236

Tobramycin: Sequential administration with piperacillin/tazobactam in patients with normal renal function or mild to moderate renal impairment results in modestly decreased tobramycin concentrations1 35 36 37 38 45

Amikacin, gentamicin: If coadministration with piperacillin/tazobactam via Y-site infusion considered necessary, use only certain dosages of amikacin or gentamicin and only certain acceptable diluents1 36 37 38 (see Concomitant Use with Aminoglycosides under Dosage and Administration)

Tobramycin: Do not coadminister with piperacillin/tazobactam via Y-site infusion;1 35 36 37 38 45 if administered sequentially in patients with normal renal function or mild to moderate renal impairment, dosage adjustments not needed1 35 36 37 38 45

If an aminoglycoside used concomitantly with piperacillin/tazobactam in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis, monitor aminoglycoside concentrations1 35 36 37 38 45

Anticoagulants (oral anticoagulants, heparin)

Monitor coagulation parameters more frequently if used concomitantly with oral anticoagulants, high doses of heparin, or other drugs that affect blood coagulation or thrombocyte function1

Methotrexate

Possible decreased renal clearance of methotrexate1

Determine serum methotrexate concentrations frequently and monitor for signs and symptoms of methotrexate toxicity1

Neuromuscular blocking agents (e.g., vecuronium)

Vecuronium: Prolonged neuromuscular blockade reported when used with piperacillin;1 could occur with piperacillin/tazobactam1

Other neuromuscular blocking agents: Because of similar mechanism of action, possibility of prolonged neuromuscular blockade if used with piperacillin/tazobactam1

Vecuronium or other neuromuscular blocking agents: Monitor for adverse effects related to neuromuscular blockade1

Probenecid

Prolonged piperacillin and tazobactam half-lives1

Concomitant use not recommended unless benefits outweigh risks1

Tests for Aspergillus

Platelia Aspergillus EIA test: Possible false-positive results1

Platelia Aspergillus EIA test: Use caution when interpreting such tests and confirm diagnosis of Aspergillus infection using other diagnostic methods1

Tests for glucose

Possible false-positive reactions in urine glucose tests using copper reduction (e.g., Clinitest)1

Use glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions1

Vancomycin

Concomitant use in critically ill patients: Increased incidence of acute kidney injury compared with use of vancomycin alone1 50 51

Vancomycin and some piperacillin/tazobactam preparations may be physically and/or chemically incompatible in vitro61 HID

No evidence of pharmacokinetic interactions1

Monitor renal function;1 administer separately61

Zosyn Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Bioavailability

Following IV infusion of piperacillin/tazobactam, peak plasma concentrations of piperacillin and tazobactam attained immediately or 1–2 hours after completion of the infusion.1 43

Piperacillin plasma concentrations following IV infusion of piperacillin/tazobactam over 30 minutes are similar to those attained with equivalent doses of piperacillin administered alone.1

Distribution

Extent

Both piperacillin and tazobactam widely distributed into tissues and body fluids, including intestinal mucosa,1 gallbladder,1 female reproductive tissues (uterus, ovary, fallopian tube),1 lung,1 43 skin,43 bone,43 interstitial fluid,1 synovial fluid,43 and bile.1

Only low concentrations of piperacillin and tazobactam distributed into CSF in patients with uninflamed meninges.1 43

Both piperacillin and tazobactam cross the placenta.1

Piperacillin distributed into milk;1 not known whether tazobactam distributed into milk.1

Plasma Protein Binding

Both piperacillin and tazobactam approximately 30% bound to plasma proteins.1

Elimination

Metabolism

Piperacillin metabolized to a minor microbiologically active desethyl metabolite1 43 and an inactive metabolite.43

Tazobactam metabolized to a single metabolite that lacks pharmacologic and antibacterial activity.1 43

Elimination Route

Piperacillin, tazobactam, and their metabolites eliminated principally in urine by glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion;1 43 also excreted in bile.1

Following IV infusion, 68% of piperacillin dose and 80% of tazobactam dose eliminated unchanged in urine.1

Half-life

Plasma half-lives of piperacillin and tazobactam range from 0.7–1.2 hours in healthy adults.1

Special Populations

Patients with cirrhosis: Half-life of piperacillin and tazobactam increased by approximately 25 and 18%, respectively, compared with patients with normal hepatic function.1

Patients with renal impairment: Half-lives of piperacillin and tazobactam increase with decreasing Clcr.1 In those with Clcr <20 mL/minute, half-life of piperacillin is twofold higher and half-life of tazobactam is fourfold higher compared with patients with normal renal function.1

Pediatric patients: Clearance of piperacillin and tazobactam in children 9 months to 12 years of age is comparable to that reported in adults;1 piperacillin clearance in children 2–9 months of age is estimated to be 80% of that value.1 Clearance is slower in patients <2 months of age compared to older children.1

Geriatric adults 65–80 years of age: Mean half-lives of piperacillin and tazobactam increased by 32 and 55%, respectively, compared with adults 18–35 years of age;1 possibly the result of age-related changes in Clcr.1

Hemodialysis patients: Approximately 31 and 39% of piperacillin and tazobactam doses, respectively, removed by hemodialysis;1 an additional 5% of tazobactam dose removed as the tazobactam metabolite.1

Peritoneal dialysis patients: Approximately 6 and 21% of piperacillin and tazobactam doses, respectively, removed;1 up to 16% of tazobactam dose removed as the tazobactam metabolite.1

Stability

Storage

Parenteral

Powder for IV Infusion

Single-dose vials (Zosyn, generic): 20–25°C.1 35 37 38 Following reconstitution, use immediately;1 37 38 discard any unused portions after 24 hours if stored at 20–25°C or after 48 hours if refrigerated at 2–8°C.1 35 37 38

Single-dose ADD-Vantage vials (generic): 20–25°C.45 Reconstituted solutions prepared using 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose as directed by manufacturer are stable for 24 hours at room temperature;45 do not refrigerate or freeze.45

Bulk vials or bottles (Zosyn or generic): 20–25°C.1 36 Following reconstitution, use promptly;1 36 discard any unused portions after 24 hours if stored at 20–25°C or after 48 hours if refrigerated at 2–8°C.1 36 Do not freeze.1 36

Injection (Frozen) for IV Infusion

−20° C or lower.1 Thawed solutions are stable for 24 hours at room temperature (20–25°C) or 14 days at 2–8°C.1

Do not refreeze after thawing.1

Compatibility

For information on systemic interactions resulting from concomitant use, see Interactions.

Solution Compatibility

Sterile water for injection: If used for dilution, maximum recommended volume is 50 mL.1 35 36 37 38

Lactated Ringer’s injection: Compatible only with piperacillin/tazobactam formulated with EDTA (i.e., Zosyn) for coadministration at Y-site;1 incompatible with generic piperacillin/tazobactam preparations that do not contain EDTA.1 35 36 37 38

Chemically unstable in solutions containing only sodium bicarbonate and solutions that alter pH.1 35 36 37 38 45

Compatible

Dextran 6% in sodium chloride1 35 36 37 38

Dextrose 5%1 35 36 37 38

Sodium chloride 0.9%1 35 36 37 38

Drug Compatibility

Y-site CompatibilityHID

Compatible

Acetaminophen

Aminophylline

Anidulafungin

Aztreonam

Bivalirudin

Bleomycin sulfate

Bumetanide

Buprenorphine HCl

Butorphanol tartrate

Calcium gluconate

Cangrelor tetrasodium

Carboplatin

Carmustine

Ceftolozane sulfate–tazobactam sodium

Clindamycin phosphate

Cloxacillin sodium

Co-trimoxazole

Cyclophosphamide

Cytarabine

Dexamethasone sodium phosphate

Dexmedetomidine HCl

Diphenhydramine HCl

Docetaxel

Dopamine HCl

Enalaprilat

Etoposide

Etoposide phosphate

Fenoldopam mesylate

Floxuridine

Fluconazole

Fludarabine phosphate

Fluorouracil

Furosemide

Gallium nitrate

Granisetron HCl

Heparin sodium

Hetastarch in lactated electrolyte injection (Hextend)

Hydrocortisone sodium phosphate

Hydrocortisone sodium succinate

Hydromorphone HCl

Ifosfamide

Lansoprazole

Leucovorin calcium

Linezolid

Lorazepam

Magnesium sulfate

Mannitol

Meperidine HCl

Meropenem–vaborbactam

Mesna

Methotrexate sodium

Methylprednisolone sodium succinate

Metoclopramide HCl

Metronidazole

Milrinone lactate

Morphine sulfate

Ondansetron HCl

Potassium chloride

Ranitidine HCl

Remifentanil HCl

Sargramostim

Sodium bicarbonate

Tedizolid phosphate

Telavancin HCl

Thiotepa

Tigecycline

Vasopressin

Vinblastine sulfate

Vincristine sulfate

Zidovudine

Incompatible

Acyclovir sodium

Amiodarone HCl

Amphotericin B

Azithromycin

Caspofungin acetate

Chlorpromazine HCl

Cisplatin

Dacarbazine

Daunorubicin HCl

Dobutamine HCl

Doxorubicin HCl

Doxorubicin HCl liposome injection

Doxycycline hyclate

Droperidol

Famotidine

Ganciclovir sodium

Gemcitabine HCl

Haloperidol lactate

Hydroxyzine HCl

Idarubicin HCl

Mitomycin

Mitoxantrone HCl

Nalbuphine HCl

Prochlorperazine edisylate

Promethazine HCl

Quinupristin–dalfopristin

Streptozocin

Tobramycin sulfate

Variable

Amikacin sulfate (see Concomitant Use with Aminoglycosides under Dosage and Administration)

Cisatracurium besylate

Gentamicin sulfate (see Concomitant Use with Aminoglycosides under Dosage and Administration)

Isavuconazonium sulfate

Vancomycin HCl

Actions and Spectrum

  • Piperacillin/tazobactam is a fixed combination of piperacillin (an extended-spectrum penicillin) and tazobactam (a β-lactamase inhibitor).1 3 5 6 7 9 12 35 36 37 38 43 45 46

  • Piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn) and generic preparations of piperacillin/tazobactam commercially available in US are not identical.1 35 36 37 38 45 Zosyn is formulated with EDTA and sodium citrate;1 44 44 generic preparations do not contain EDTA and sodium citrate.35 36 37 38 (See IV Infusion under Dosage and Administration.)

  • Like other penicillins, antibacterial activity of piperacillin results from inhibition of bacterial septum formation and cell wall synthesis in susceptible bacteria and is mediated by penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs).1 43 46

  • Tazobactam is a penicillanic acid sulfone β-lactamase inhibitor structurally similar to sulbactam.1 3 5 6 9 12 28 46 60 Because tazobactam inactivates certain β-lactamases, concomitant use with piperacillin expands piperacillin’s spectrum of activity against many β-lactamase-producing bacteria.1 2 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 28 43 46 60

  • Piperacillin/tazobactam usually is bactericidal in action.1 28 43

  • Spectrum of activity of piperacillin/tazobactam includes many gram-positive and -negative aerobes and some anaerobes.1 2 4 5 6 9 10 11 15 18 19 20 21 22 43 Inactive against Mycoplasma and Chlamydia.43

  • Gram-positive aerobes: Active in vitro and in clinical infections against S. aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains only).1 43 Also active in vitro against S. epidermidis (methicillin-susceptible strains only),1 43 Streptococcus pyogenes (group A β-hemolytic streptococci; GAS),1 43 S. agalactiae (group B streptococci; GBS),1 43 S. pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible strains only),1 43 viridans streptococci,1 43 and Enterococcus faecalis (ampicillin- or penicillin-susceptible strains only).1 43 Not active against MRSA or methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis.43

  • Gram-negative aerobes: Active in vitro and in clinical infections against A. baumannii,1 E. coli,1 43 H. influenzae (except β-lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant strains; BLNAR),1 43 K. pneumoniae,1 43 and Ps. aeruginosa.1 43 Also active in vitro against Citrobacter koseri,1 43 Enterobacter,43 Moraxella catarrhalis,1 43 Morganella morganii,1 43 Neisseria,1 Proteus mirabilis,1 43 P. vulgaris,1 43 Providencia stuartii,1 P. rettgeri,1 Salmonella,1 43 Shigella,43 and Serratia marcescens.1 43

  • Anaerobes: Active in vitro and in clinical infections against B. fragilis,1 43 B. ovatus,1 43 B. thetaiotaomicron,1 43 and B. vulgatus.1 43 Also active in vitro against Bacillus,43 B. distasonis,1 43 Clostridium perfringens,1 43 Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes),43 Fusobacterium,43 Peptostreptococcus,43 and Prevotella melaninogenica.1 43

  • Resistance or reduced susceptibility to piperacillin/tazobactam can occur.43 60

Advice to Patients

  • Advise patients that antibacterials (including piperacillin/tazobactam) should only be used to treat bacterial infections and not used to treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold).1

  • Importance of completing full course of therapy, even if feeling better after a few days.1

  • Advise patients that skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may decrease effectiveness and increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable with piperacillin/tazobactam or other antibacterials in the future.1

  • Advise patients that serious hypersensitivity reactions, including serious allergic cutaneous reactions, that require immediate treatment could occur.1

  • Importance of informing clinicians of prior hypersensitivity reactions to piperacillin/tazobactam, other β-lactams (including cephalosporins), or other allergens.1 Importance of discontinuing the drug and informing clinician if an allergic reaction occurs.1

  • Advise patients that diarrhea is a common problem caused by anti-infectives and usually ends when the drug is discontinued.1 Importance of contacting a clinician if watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) occur during or as late as ≥2 months after the last dose.1

  • Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs, as well as any concomitant illnesses.1

  • Importance of women informing clinician if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.1

  • Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information.1 (See Cautions.)

Preparations

Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.

Please refer to the ASHP Drug Shortages Resource Center for information on shortages of one or more of these preparations.

* available from one or more manufacturer, distributor, and/or repackager by generic (nonproprietary) name

Piperacillin Sodium and Tazobactam Sodium

Routes

Dosage Forms

Strengths

Brand Names

Manufacturer

Parenteral

For injection, for IV infusion

2.25 g (2 g of piperacillin and 0.25 g of tazobactam)*

Piperacillin Sodium and Tazobactam Sodium for Injection

Piperacillin Sodium and Tazobactam Sodium for Injection ADD-Vantage

Hospira

Zosyn

Wyeth

3.375 g (3 g of piperacillin and 0.375 g of tazobactam)*

Piperacillin Sodium and Tazobactam Sodium for Injection

Piperacillin Sodium and Tazobactam Sodium for Injection ADD-Vantage

Hospira

Zosyn

Wyeth

4.5 g (4 g of piperacillin and 0.5 g of tazobactam)*

Piperacillin Sodium and Tazobactam Sodium for Injection

Piperacillin Sodium and Tazobactam Sodium for Injection ADD-Vantage

Hospira

Zosyn

Wyeth

40.5 g (36 g of piperacillin and 4.5 g of tazobactam) pharmacy bulk package*

Piperacillin Sodium and Tazobactam Sodium for Injection

Zosyn

Wyeth

Piperacillin Sodium and Tazobactam Sodium in Dextrose

Routes

Dosage Forms

Strengths

Brand Names

Manufacturer

Parenteral

Injection (frozen), for IV infusion

2.25 g (40 mg of piperacillin per mL [2 g] and 5 mg of tazobactam) per mL [0.25 g]) in 2% Dextrose

Zosyn Iso-osmotic in Dextrose Injection (Galaxy)

Wyeth

3.375 g (60 mg of piperacillin per mL [3 g] and 7.5 mg of tazobactam per mL [0.375 g]) in 0.7% Dextrose

Zosyn Iso-osmotic in Dextrose Injection (Galaxy)

Wyeth

4.5 g (40 mg of piperacillin per mL [4 g] and 5 mg of tazobactam per mL [0.5 g]) in 2% Dextrose

Zosyn Iso-osmotic in Dextrose Injection (Galaxy)

Wyeth

AHFS DI Essentials™. © Copyright 2020, Selected Revisions September 2, 2019. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 4500 East-West Highway, Suite 900, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

† Use is not currently included in the labeling approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

References

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2. Lederle. Zosyn (piperacillin sodium/tazobactam sodium) product monograph. Pearl River, NY; 1993 Nov.

3. Sörgel F, Kinzig M. The chemistry, pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of piperacillin/tazobactam. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1993; 31(Suppl A):39-60. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8383655?dopt=AbstractPlus

4. Livermore DM. Determinants of the activity of β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1993; 31(Suppl A):9-21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8449836?dopt=AbstractPlus

5. Acar JF, Goldstein FW, Kitzis MD. Susceptibility survey of piperacillin alone and in the presence of tazobactam. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1993; 31(Suppl A):23-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8383653?dopt=AbstractPlus

6. Kuck NA, Jacobus NV, Petersen PJ et al. Comparative in vitro and in vivo activities of piperacillin combined with the β-lactamase inhibitors tazobactam, clavulanic acid, and sulbactam. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:1964-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2558615?dopt=AbstractPlus http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=172796&blobtype=pdf

7. Johnson CA, Halstenson CE, Kelloway JS et al. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of piperacillin and tazobactam in patients with renal disease. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1992; 51:32-41. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1310077?dopt=AbstractPlus

8. Piddock LJV, Jin YF, Turner HL. Activity of 13 β-lactam agents combined with BRL 42715 against β-lactamase producing gram-negative bacteria compared to combinations with clavulanic acid, tazobactam and sulbactam. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1993; 31:89-103. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8383105?dopt=AbstractPlus

9. Williams JD. Interactions between antibiotics and beta-lactamase inhibitors. Infect Med. 1993; 10(Suppl A):15-21.

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11. Eliopoulos GM, Klimm K, Ferraro MJ et al. Comparative in vitro activity of piperacillin combined with the beta-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam (YTF 830). Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1989; 12:481-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2560420?dopt=AbstractPlus

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30. Lederle Laboratories, Pearl River, NY: Personal communication.

32. Anon. A reminder: piperacillin/tazobactam is not for pseudomonas. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1994; 36:110. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7968784?dopt=AbstractPlus

35. X-Gen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection single-use vials prescribing information. Big Flats, NY; 2018 Feb.

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37. Sandoz Inc. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection single-dose vials prescribing information. Princeton, NJ; 2014 Apr.

38. Wockhardt USA LLC. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection for IV use prescribing information. Parsippany, NJ; 2018 Nov.

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44. Desai NR, Shah SM, Cohen J et al. Zosyn (piperacillin/tazobactam) reformulation: Expanded compatibility and coadministration with lactated Ringer's solutions and selected aminoglycosides. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008; 4:303-14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18728835?dopt=AbstractPlus http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2504059&blobtype=pdf

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46. Doi Y, Chambers HF. Penicillins and β-lactamase inhibitors. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015.

47. Tanaka K, Nakamura T, Imai S et al. The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics reduces the incidence of surgical site infection after pancreatoduodenectomy. Surg Today. 2018; 48:825-834. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29687153?dopt=AbstractPlus

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