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PrandiMet (metformin / repaglinide) and Alcohol/Food Interactions

There are 2 alcohol/food/lifestyle interactions with PrandiMet (metformin / repaglinide) which include:

Major

metFORMIN food

Major Food Interaction

Consumer information for this interaction is not currently available.

GENERALLY AVOID: Alcohol can potentiate the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism and increase the risk of lactic acidosis. In addition, alcohol may cause hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. Although hypoglycemia rarely occurs during treatment with metformin alone, the risk may increase with acute consumption of alcohol. Even modest amounts can lower blood sugar significantly, especially when the alcohol is ingested on an empty stomach or following exercise. The mechanism involves inhibition of both gluconeogenesis as well as the counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia. Episodes of hypoglycemia may last for 8 to 12 hours after ethanol ingestion. By contrast, chronic alcohol abuse can cause impaired glucose tolerance and hyperglycemia. Moderate alcohol consumption generally does not affect blood glucose levels in patients with well controlled diabetes.

Food may have varying effects on the absorption of metformin from immediate-release versus extended-release formulations. When a single 850 mg dose of immediate-release metformin was administered with food, mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and systemic exposure (AUC) decreased by 40% and 25%, respectively, and time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax) increased by 35 minutes compared to administration under fasting conditions. By contrast, administration of extended-release metformin with food increased AUC by 50% without affecting Cmax or Tmax, and both high- and low-fat meals had the same effect. These data may not be applicable to formulations that contain metformin with other oral antidiabetic agents.

MANAGEMENT: Metformin should be taken with meals, and excessive alcohol intake should be avoided during treatment. Diabetes patients in general should avoid consuming alcohol if their blood glucose is not well controlled, or if they have hypertriglyceridemia, neuropathy, or pancreatitis. Alcohol should not be consumed on an empty stomach or following exercise, as it may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Patients should contact their physician immediately if they experience potential signs and symptoms of lactic acidosis such as malaise, myalgia, respiratory distress, increasing somnolence, and nonspecific abdominal distress (especially after stabilization of metformin therapy, when gastrointestinal symptoms are uncommon). With more marked acidosis, there may also be associated hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. Metformin should be withdrawn promptly if lactic acidosis is suspected. Serum electrolytes, ketones, blood glucose, blood pH, lactate levels, and blood metformin levels may be useful in establishing a diagnosis. Lactic acidosis should be suspected in any diabetic patient with metabolic acidosis lacking evidence of ketoacidosis (ketonuria and ketonemia).

References

  1. "Position Statement: evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes related complications. American Diabetes Association." Diabetes Care 25(Suppl 1) (2002): S50-S60
  2. "Product Information. Glucophage (metformin)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
Moderate

repaglinide food

Moderate Food Interaction

Consumer information for this interaction is not currently available.

MONITOR: Grapefruit juice may increase the plasma concentrations of orally administered drugs that are substrates of the CYP450 3A4 isoenzyme. The proposed mechanism is inhibition of CYP450 3A4-mediated first-pass metabolism in the gut wall by certain compounds present in grapefruit. Because grapefruit juice inhibits primarily intestinal rather than hepatic CYP450 3A4, the magnitude of interaction is greatest for those drugs that undergo significant presystemic metabolism by CYP450 3A4 (i.e., drugs with low oral bioavailability). In general, the effect of grapefruit juice is concentration-, dose- and preparation-dependent, and can vary widely among brands. Certain preparations of grapefruit juice (e.g., high dose, double strength) have sometimes demonstrated potent inhibition of CYP450 3A4, while other preparations (e.g., low dose, single strength) have typically demonstrated moderate inhibition. Pharmacokinetic interactions involving grapefruit juice are also subject to a high degree of interpatient variability, thus the extent to which a given patient may be affected is difficult to predict.

MANAGEMENT: Patients who regularly consume grapefruit or grapefruit juice should be monitored for adverse effects and altered plasma concentrations of drugs that undergo significant presystemic metabolism by CYP450 3A4. Grapefruit and grapefruit juice should be avoided if an interaction is suspected. Orange juice is not expected to interact with these drugs.

References

  1. Gunston GD, Mehta U "Potentially serious drug interactions with grapefruit juice." S Afr Med J 90 (2000): 41
  2. Bailey DG, Dresser GR, Kreeft JH, Munoz C, Freeman DJ, Bend JR "Grapefruit-felodipine interaction: Effect of unprocessed fruit and probable active ingredients." Clin Pharmacol Ther 68 (2000): 468-77
  3. Fuhr U, Maier-Bruggemann A, Blume H, et al. "Grapefruit juice increases oral nimodipine bioavailability." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 36 (1998): 126-32
  4. "Grapefruit juice interactions with drugs." Med Lett Drugs Ther 37 (1995): 73-4
  5. Takanaga H, Ohnishi A, Maatsuo H, et al. "Pharmacokinetic analysis of felodipine-grapefruit juice interaction based on an irreversible enzyme inhibition model." Br J Clin Pharmacol 49 (2000): 49-58
  6. Ozdemir M, Aktan Y, Boydag BS, Cingi MI, Musmul A "Interaction between grapefruit juice and diazepam in humans." Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 23 (1998): 55-9
  7. Jonkman JH, Sollie FA, Sauter R, Steinijans VW "The influence of caffeine on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of theophylline." Clin Pharmacol Ther 49 (1991): 248-55
  8. Clifford CP, Adams DA, Murray S, Taylor GW, Wilkins MR, Boobis AR, Davies DS "Pharmacokinetic and cardiac effects of terfenadine after inhibition of its metabolism by grapefruit juice." Br J Clin Pharmacol 42 (1996): p662
  9. Bailey DG, Arnold JM, Strong HA, Munoz C, Spence JD "Effect of grapefruit juice and naringin on nisoldipine pharmacokinetics." Clin Pharmacol Ther 54 (1993): 589-94
  10. Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ "Grapefruit juice increases serum concentrations of atorvastatin and has no effect on pravastatin." Clin Pharmacol Ther 66 (1999): 118-27
  11. Lee AJ, Chan WK, Harralson AF, Buffum J, Bui BCC "The effects of grapefruit juice on sertraline metabolism: An in vitro and in vivo study." Clin Ther 21 (1999): 1890-9
  12. Josefsson M, Zackrisson AL, Ahlner J "Effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine in healthy volunteers." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 51 (1996): 189-93
  13. Bailey DG, Arnold JM, Munoz C, Spence JD "Grapefruit juice--felodipine interaction: mechanism, predictability, and effect of naringin." Clin Pharmacol Ther 53 (1993): 637-42
  14. Sigusch H, Hippius M, Henschel L, Kaufmann K, Hoffmann A "Influence of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of a slow release nifedipine formulation." Pharmazie 49 (1994): 522-4
  15. Flanagan D "Understanding the grapefruit-drug interaction." Gen Dent 53 (2005): 282-5; quiz 286
  16. Majeed A, Kareem A "Effect of grapefruit juice on cyclosporine pharmacokinetics." Pediatr Nephrol 10 (1996): 395
  17. Hukkinen SK, Varhe A, Olkkola KT, Neuvonen PJ "Plasma concentrations of triazolam are increased by concomitant ingestion of grapefruit juice." Clin Pharmacol Ther 58 (1995): 127-31
  18. Zaidenstein R, Soback S, Gips M, Avni B, Dishi V, Weissgarten Y, Golik A, Scapa E "Effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its active metabolite E3174 in healthy volunteers." Ther Drug Monit 23 (2001): 369-73
  19. Sato J, Nakata H, Owada E, Kikuta T, Umetsu M, Ito K "Influence of usual intake of dietary caffeine on single-dose kinetics of theophylline in healthy human subjects." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 44 (1993): 295-8
  20. Dresser GK, Spence JD, Bailey DG "Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic consequences and clinical relevance of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition." Clin Pharmacokinet 38 (2000): 41-57
  21. Yamreudeewong W, Henann NE, Fazio A, Lower DL, Cassidy TG "Drug-food interactions in clinical practice." J Fam Pract 40 (1995): 376-84
  22. Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ "Grapefruit juice-simvastatin interaction: Effect on serum concentrations of simvastatin, simvastatin acid, and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors." Clin Pharmacol Ther 64 (1998): 477-83
  23. Bailey DG, Arnold JMO, Spence JD "Grapefruit juice and drugs - how significant is the interaction." Clin Pharmacokinet 26 (1994): 91-8
  24. Garg SK, Kumar N, Bhargava VK, Prabhakar SK "Effect of grapefruit juice on carbamazepine bioavailability in patients with epilepsy." Clin Pharmacol Ther 64 (1998): 286-8
  25. Libersa CC, Brique SA, Motte KB, et al. "Dramatic inhibition of amiodarone metabolism induced by grapefruit juice." Br J Clin Pharmacol 49 (2000): 373-8
  26. Bailey DG, Malcolm J, Arnold O, Spence JD "Grapefruit juice-drug interactions." Br J Clin Pharmacol 46 (1998): 101-10
  27. Bailey DG, Kreeft JH, Munoz C, Freeman DJ, Bend JR "Grapefruit juice felodipine interaction: Effect of naringin and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin in humans." Clin Pharmacol Ther 64 (1998): 248-56
  28. Eagling VA, Profit L, Back DJ "Inhibition of the CYP3A4-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of the HIV-I protease inhibitor saquinavir by grapefruit juice components." Br J Clin Pharmacol 48 (1999): 543-52
  29. Damkier P, Hansen LL, Brosen K "Effect of diclofenac, disulfiram, itraconazole, grapefruit juice and erythromycin on the pharmacokinetics of quinidine." Br J Clin Pharmacol 48 (1999): 829-38
  30. Min DI, Ku YM, Geraets DR, Lee HC "Effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of quinidine in healthy volunteers." J Clin Pharmacol 36 (1996): 469-76
  31. Kantola T, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ "Grapefruit juice greatly increases serum concentrations of lovastatin and lovastatin acid." Clin Pharmacol Ther 63 (1998): 397-402
  32. Edgar B, Bailey D, Bergstrand R, et al "Acute effects of drinking grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics and dynamics on felodipine and its potential clinical relevance." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 42 (1992): 313-7
View all 32 references

PrandiMet (metformin / repaglinide) drug interactions

There are 547 drug interactions with PrandiMet (metformin / repaglinide)

PrandiMet (metformin / repaglinide) disease interactions

There are 7 disease interactions with PrandiMet (metformin / repaglinide) which include:

Drug Interaction Classification

These classifications are only a guideline. The relevance of a particular drug interaction to a specific individual is difficult to determine. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting or stopping any medication.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No interaction information available.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.