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Moxifloxacin Disease Interactions

There are 8 disease interactions with moxifloxacin:

Major

Moxifloxacin (Includes Moxifloxacin) ↔ Liver Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Moxifloxacin is primarily metabolized by the liver via glucuronide and sulfate conjugation and may accumulate in patients with impaired hepatic function. Therapy with moxifloxacin should be administered cautiously in patients with liver disease. Dosage adjustments are not necessary in patients with mild hepatic insufficiency (Child Pugh Class A). Due to a lack of clinical data, use is not recommended in patients with moderate or severe hepatic insufficiency.

References

  1. "Product Information. Avelox (moxifloxacin)" Bayer, West Haven, CT.
Major

Quinolones (Includes Moxifloxacin) ↔ Cns Disorders

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: CNS Disorder

Quinolones may cause CNS stimulation manifested as tremors, agitation, restlessness, anxiety, confusion, hallucinations, paranoia, insomnia, toxic psychosis, and/or seizures. Benign intracranial hypertension has also been reported. Therapy with quinolones should be administered cautiously in patients with or predisposed to seizures or other CNS abnormalities. In addition, these patients should be advised to avoid the consumption of caffeine-containing products during therapy with some quinolones, most notably ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, and cinoxacin, since these agents can substantially reduce the clearance of caffeine and other methylxanthines, potentially resulting in severe CNS reactions.

References

  1. Wadworth AN, Goa KL "Lomefloxacin: a review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use." Drugs 42 (1991): 1018-60
  2. Jaber LA, Bailey EM, Rybak MJ "Enoxacin: a new fluoroquinolone." Clin Pharm 8 (1989): 97-107
  3. Schwartz MT, Calvert JF "Potential neurologic toxicity related to ciprofloxacin." Ann Pharmacother 24 (1990): 138-40
  4. Traeger SM, Bonfiglio MF, Wilson JA, Martin BR, Nackes NA "Seizures associated with ofloxacin therapy." Clin Infect Dis 21 (1995): 1504-6
  5. Arcieri G, Griffith E, Gruenwaldt G, et al "A survey of clinical experience with ciprofloxacin, a new quinolone antimicrobial." J Clin Pharmacol 28 (1988): 179-89
  6. "Product Information. Maxaquin (lomefloxacin)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  7. Anastasio GD, Menscer D, Little JM "Norfloxacin and seizures." Ann Intern Med 109 (1988): 169-70
  8. Cox CE, Simmons JR "Cinoxacin therapy for urinary tract infections: therapeutic safety and efficacy." South Med J 75 (1982): 549-50
  9. McDermott JL, Gideonse N, Campbell JW "Acute delirium associated with ciprofloxacin administration in a hospitalized elderly patient." J Am Geriatr Soc 39 (1991): 909-10
  10. "Product Information. Tequin (gatifloxacin)" Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  11. "Product Information. Levaquin (levofloxacin)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  12. Karki SD, Bentley DW, Raghavan M "Seizure with ciprofloxacin and theophylline combined therapy." DICP 24 (1990): 595-6
  13. Darwish T "Ciprofloxacin-induced seizures in a healthy patient." N Z Med J 121 (2008): 104-5
  14. Ernst ME, Ernst EJ, Klepser ME "Levofloxacin and trovafloxacin: the next generation of fluoroquinolones?" Am J Health Syst Pharm 54 (1997): 2569-84
  15. "Product Information. Cipro (ciprofloxacin)." Bayer, West Haven, CT.
  16. Tack KJ, Smith JA "The safety profile of ofloxacin." Am J Med 87 (1989): s78-81
  17. "Product Information. NegGram (nalidixic acid)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  18. "Product Information. Floxin (ofloxacin)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  19. Fennig S, Mauas L "Ofloxacin-induced delirium." J Clin Psychiatry 53 (1992): 137-8
  20. Todd PA, Faulds D "Ofloxacin: a reappraisal of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacology, and therapeutic use." Drugs 42 (1991): 825-76
  21. Isaacson SH, Carr J, Rowan AJ "Ciprofloxacin-induced complex partial status epilepticus manifesting as an acute confusional state." Neurology 43 (1993): 1619-21
  22. "Product Information. Cinobac (cinoxacin)." Oclassen Pharmaceuticals Inc, San Rafael, CA.
  23. Thomas RJ, Regan DR "Association of a tourette-like syndrome with ofloxacin." Ann Pharmacother 30 (1996): 138-41
  24. "Product Information. Avelox (moxifloxacin)" Bayer, West Haven, CT.
  25. Burt RA "Review of adverse reactions associated with cinoxacin and other drugs used to treat urinary tract infections." Urology 23 (1984): 101-7
  26. Kremer L, Walton M, Wardle EN "Nalidixic acid and intracranial hypertension." Br Med J 4 (1967): 488
  27. Melvani S, Speed BR "Alatrofloxacin-induced seizures during slow intravenous infusion." Ann Pharmacother 34 (2000): 1017-9
  28. "Product Information. Penetrex (enoxacin)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  29. Winrow AP, Supramaniam G "Benign intracranial hypertension after ciprofloxacin administration." Arch Dis Child 65 (1990): 1165-6
  30. Arcieri G, August R, Becker N, et al "Clinical experience with ciprofloxacin in the USA." Eur J Clin Microbiol 5 (1986): 220-5
  31. Sisca TS, Heel RC, Romankiewicz JA "Cinoxacin. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of urinary tract infections." Drugs 25 (1983): 544-69
  32. "Product Information. Trovan (trovafloxacin)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  33. Poc TE, Marion GS, Jackson DS "Seizures due to nalidixic acid therapy." South Med J 77 (1984): 539-40
  34. Haria M, Lamb HM "Trovafloxacin." Drugs 54 (1997): 435-45;disc. 446
  35. Akhtar S, Ahmad H "Ciprofloxacin-induced catatonia." J Clin Psychiatry 54 (1993): 115-6
  36. Bednarczyk EM, Green JA, Nelson D, et al "Comparative assessment of the effect of lomefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and placebo on cerebral blood flow, and glucose and oxygen metabolism in healthy subjects by position emission tomography." Pharmacotherapy 12 (1992): 369-75
  37. Stamey TA "Cinoxacin: an overview." Urology 17 (1981): 492-5
  38. Just PM "Overview of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics." Pharmacotherapy 13 (1993): s4-17
  39. Leslie PJ, Cregeen RJ, Proudfoot AT "Lactic acidosis, hyperglycaemia and convulsions following nalidixic acid overdosage." Hum Toxicol 3 (1984): 239-43
  40. Getenet JC, Croisile B, Vighetto A, et al. "Idiopathic intracranial hypertension after ofloxacin treatment." Acta Neurol Scand 87 (1993): 503-4
  41. Norrby SR "Side-effects of quinolones: comparisons between quinolones and other antibiotics." Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 10 (1991): 378-83
  42. "Product Information. Zagam (sparfloxacin)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  43. McCue JD, Zandt JR "Acute psychoses associated with the use of ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole." Am J Med 90 (1991): 528-9
  44. Moore B, Safani M, Keesey J "Possible exacerbation of myasthenia gravis by ciprofloxacin." Lancet Jan (1988): 882
  45. De Sarro A, De Sarro G "Adverse reactions to fluoroquinolones. An overview on mechanistic aspects." Curr Med Chem 8 (2001): 371-84
  46. "Product Information. Noroxin (norfloxacin)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  47. Schacht P, Arcieri G, Hullmann R "Safety of oral ciprofloxacin. An update based on clinical trial results." Am J Med 87 (1989): s98-102
  48. Fraser AG, Harrower AD "Convulsions and hyperglycaemia asociated with nalidixic acid." Br Med J 2 (1977): 1518
  49. Unseld E, Ziegler G, Gemeinhardt A, Janssen U, Klotz U "Possible interaction of fluoroquinolones with benzodiazepine-GABA-receptorn complex." Br J Clin Pharmacol 30 (1990): 63-70
  50. Walton GD, Hon JK, Mulpur TG "Ofloxacin-induced seizure." Ann Pharmacother 31 (1997): 1475-7
  51. Rosolen A, Drigo P, Zanesco L "Acute hemiparesis associated with ciprofloxacin." BMJ 309 (1994): 1411
  52. "Product Information. Factive (gemifloxacin)." GeneSoft Inc, San Francisco, CA.
  53. Slavich IL, Gleffe Rf, Haas EJ "Grand mal epileptic seizures during ciprofloxacin therapy." JAMA 261 (1989): 558-9
  54. Semel JD, Allen N "Seizures in patients simultaneously receiving theophylline and imipenem or ciprofloxacin or metronidazole." South Med J 84 (1991): 465-8
  55. Altes J, Gasco J, De Antonio J, Villalonga C "Ciprofloxacin and delirium." Ann Intern Med 110 (1989): 170-1
  56. Fanhavard P, Sanchorawala V, Oh J, Moser EM, Smith SP "Concurrent use of foscarnet and ciprofloxacin may increase the propensity for seizures." Ann Pharmacother 28 (1994): 869-72
  57. Ball P "Ciprofloxacin: an overview of adverse experiences." J Antimicrob Chemother 18 (1986): 187-93
View all 57 references
Major

Quinolones (Includes Moxifloxacin) ↔ Myasthenia Gravis

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Myasthenia Gravis

Fluoroquinolones have neuromuscular blocking activity and may exacerbate muscle weakness in persons with myasthenia gravis. Postmarketing serious adverse events, including deaths and requirement for ventilatory support, have been associated with fluoroquinolones use in persons with myasthenia gravis. Fluoroquinolones should be avoided in patients with history of myasthenia gravis.

Major

Quinolones (Includes Moxifloxacin) ↔ Qt Interval Prolongation

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Magnesium Imbalance, Ischemic Heart Disease, Hypokalemia, Electrolyte Abnormalities, Arrhythmias, Abnormal Electrocardiogram, Congestive Heart Failure

Quinolones have been reported to prolong the QT interval of the electrocardiogram in some patients. QT prolongation may potentiate the risk of ventricular arrhythmias including ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and torsade de pointes. The risk appears to be greatest with grepafloxacin and sparfloxacin (both are no longer marketed in the U.S.), although cardiovascular morbidity and mortality attributable to QT prolongation have also been reported rarely with others like gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin. Reported cases have primarily occurred in patients with advanced age, cardiac disease, electrolyte disturbances, and/or underlying medical problems for which they were receiving concomitant medications known to prolong the QT interval. Therapy with quinolones should be avoided in patients with known QT prolongation and/or uncorrected electrolyte disorders (hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia) and in patients treated concomitantly with class IA or III antiarrhythmic agents. Cautious use with ECG monitoring is advised in patients with other proarrhythmic conditions such as clinically significant bradycardia, congestive heart failure, acute myocardial ischemia, and atrial fibrillation. As QT prolongation may be a concentration-dependent effect, it is important that the recommended dosages or infusion rates of these drugs not be exceeded, particularly in patients with renal and/or hepatic impairment.

References

  1. "Product Information. Levaquin (levofloxacin)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  2. Iannini PB "Cardiotoxicity of macrolides, ketolides and fluoroquinolones that prolong the QTc interval." Expert Opin Drug Saf 1 (2002): 121-8
  3. Stahlmann R "Clinical toxicological aspects of fluoroquinolones." Toxicol Lett 127 (2002): 269-77
  4. Demolis JL, Kubitza D, Tenneze L, Funck-Bretano C "Effect of a single oral dose of moxifloxacin (400 mg and 800 mg) on ventricular repolarization in healthy subjects." Clin Pharmacol Ther 68 (2000): 658-66
  5. "Product Information. Avelox (moxifloxacin)" Bayer, West Haven, CT.
  6. Kahn JB "Latest industry information on the safety profile of levofloxacin in the US." Chemotherapy 47 Suppl 3 (2001): 32-7
  7. Iannini PB, Circiumaru I "Gatifloxacin-induced QTc prolongation and ventricular tachycardia." Pharmacotherapy 21 (2001): 361-2
  8. Iannini PB, Doddamani S, Byazrova E, Curciumaru I, Kramer H "Risk of torsades de pointes with non-cardiac drugs." BMJ 322 (2001): 46-7
  9. Dupont H, Timsit JF, Souweine B, Gachot B, Wolff M, Regnier B "Torsades de pointe probably related to sparfloxacin." Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 15 (1996): 350-1
  10. "Product Information. Factive (gemifloxacin)." GeneSoft Inc, San Francisco, CA.
  11. Owens RC "QT Prolongation with Antimicrobial Agents : Understanding the Significance." Drugs 64 (2004): 1091-124
  12. Morganroth J, Hunt T, Dorr MB, Magner D, Talbot GH "The cardiac pharmacodynamics of therapeutic doses of sparfloxacin." Clin Ther 21 (1999): 1171-81
  13. Daya SK, Gowda RM, Khan IA "Ciprofloxacin- and hypocalcemia-induced torsade de pointes triggered by hemodialysis." Am J Ther 11 (2004): 77-9
  14. Jaillon P, Morganroth J, Brumpt I, Talbot G "Overview of electrocardiographic and cardiovascular safety data for sparfloxacin. Sparfloxacin Safety Group." J Antimicrob Chemother 37(suppl a) (1996): 161-7
  15. Katritsis D, Camm AJ "Quinolones: cardioprotective or cardiotoxic." Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 26 (2003): 2317-20
  16. "Product Information. Zagam (sparfloxacin)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  17. Owens RC Jr, Ambrose PG "Torsades de pointes associated with fluoroquinolones." Pharmacotherapy 22 (2002): 663-8; discussion 668-72
  18. Owens RC "Risk assessment for antimicrobial agent-induced QTc interval prolongation and torsades de pointes." Pharmacotherapy 21 (2001): 301-19
  19. Bertino JS Jr, Owens RC Jr, Carnes TD, Iannini PB "Gatifloxacin-associated corrected QT interval prolongation, torsades de pointes, and ventricular fibrillation in patients with known risk factors." Clin Infect Dis 34 (2002): 861-3
  20. Demolis JL, Charransol A, Funck-Brentano C, Jaillon P "Effects of a single oral dose of sparfloxacin on ventricular repolarization in healthy volunteers." Br J Clin Pharmacol 41 (1996): 499-503
  21. Noel GJ, Natarajan J, Chien S, Hunt TL, Goodman DB, Abels R "Effects of three fluoroquinolones on QT interval in healthy adults after single doses." Clin Pharmacol Ther 73 (2003): 292-303
  22. Kang J, Wang L, Chen XL, Triggle DJ, Rampe D "Interactions of a series of fluoroquinolone antibacterial drugs with the human cardiac K+ channel HERG." Mol Pharmacol 59 (2001): 122-6
  23. Ansari SR, Chopra N "Gatifloxacin and Prolonged QT Interval." Am J Med Sci 327 (2004): 55-6
  24. Siepmann M, Kirch W "Drug points - Tachycardia associated with moxifloxacin." Br Med J 322 (2001): 23
  25. "Product Information. Tequin (gatifloxacin)" Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  26. Oliphant CM, Green GM "Quinolones: a comprehensive review." Am Fam Physician 65 (2002): 455-64
  27. Frothingham R "Rates of torsades de pointes associated with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin." Pharmacotherapy 21 (2001): 1468-72
  28. Noel GJ, Goodman DB, Chien S, Solanki B, Padmanabhan M, Natarajan J "Measuring the Effects of Supratherapeutic Doses of Levofloxacin on Healthy Volunteers Using Four Methods of QT Correction and Periodic and Continuous ECG Recordings." J Clin Pharmacol 44 (2004): 464-73
  29. Samaha FF "QTC interval prolongation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in association with levofloxacin." Am J Med 107 (1999): 528-9
View all 29 references
Major

Quinolones (Includes Moxifloxacin) ↔ Tendonitis

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Tendonitis

Tendonitis and ruptures of the shoulder, hand, and Achilles tendons have been reported in patients receiving quinolones, both during and after treatment. Therapy with quinolones should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting tendonitis, since it may delay the recognition or confound the diagnosis of a quinolone-induced musculoskeletal effect. It is recommended to discontinue these agents if, at any time during therapy, pain, inflammation or rupture of a tendon develop and institute appropriate therapy.

References

  1. "Product Information. Penetrex (enoxacin)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  2. "Product Information. Factive (gemifloxacin)." GeneSoft Inc, San Francisco, CA.
  3. "Product Information. Trovan (trovafloxacin)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  4. "Product Information. Zagam (sparfloxacin)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  5. Schacht P, Arcieri G, Hullmann R "Safety of oral ciprofloxacin. An update based on clinical trial results." Am J Med 87 (1989): s98-102
  6. Casparian JM, Luchi M, Moffat RE, Hinthorn D "Quinolones and tendon ruptures." South Med J 93 (2000): 392-6
  7. "Product Information. Noroxin (norfloxacin)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  8. "Product Information. Tequin (gatifloxacin)" Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  9. Donck JB, Segaert MF, Vanrenterghem YF "Fluoroquinolones and achilles tendinopathy in renal transplant recipients." Transplantation 58 (1994): 736-7
  10. "Product Information. Levaquin (levofloxacin)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  11. "Product Information. Maxaquin (lomefloxacin)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  12. "Product Information. NegGram (nalidixic acid)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  13. "Product Information. Avelox (moxifloxacin)" Bayer, West Haven, CT.
  14. Zabraniecki L, Negrier I, Vergne P, Arnaud M, Bonnet C, Bertin P, Treves R "Fluoroquinolone induced tendinopathy: report of 6 cases." J Rheumatol 23 (1996): 516-20
  15. Carrasco JM, Garcia B, Andujar C, Garrote F, de Juana P, Bermejo T "Tendinitis associated with ciprofloxacin." Ann Pharmacother 31 (1997): 120
  16. "Product Information. Floxin (ofloxacin)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  17. "Product Information. Cinobac (cinoxacin)." Oclassen Pharmaceuticals Inc, San Rafael, CA.
  18. "Product Information. Cipro (ciprofloxacin)." Bayer, West Haven, CT.
View all 18 references
Moderate

Antibiotics (Includes Moxifloxacin) ↔ Colitis

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Colitis/Enteritis (Noninfectious)

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with most antibacterial agents and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening, with an onset of up to two months following cessation of therapy. Antibiotic therapy can alter the normal flora of the colon and permit overgrowth of Clostridium difficile, whose toxin is believed to be a primary cause of antibiotic- associated colitis. The colitis is usually characterized by severe, persistent diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps, and may be associated with the passage of blood and mucus. The most common culprits are clindamycin, lincomycin, the aminopenicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin), and the cephalosporins. Therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics and other agents with significant antibacterial activity should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of gastrointestinal diseases, particularly colitis. There is some evidence that pseudomembranous colitis, if it occurs, may run a more severe course in these patients and that it may be associated with flares in their underlying disease activity. The offending antibiotic(s) should be discontinued if significant diarrhea occurs during therapy. Stool cultures for Clostridium difficile and stool assay for C. difficile toxin may be helpful diagnostically. A large bowel endoscopy may be considered to establish a definitive diagnosis in cases of severe diarrhea.

References

  1. Moriarty HJ, Scobie BA "Pseudomembranous colitis in a patient on rifampicin and ethambutol." N Z Med J 04/23/80 (1980): 294-5
  2. Thomas E, Mehta JB "Pseudomembranous colitis due to oxacillin therapy." South Med J 77 (1984): 532-3
  3. Saadah HA "Carbenicillin and pseudomembranous enterocolitis." Ann Intern Med 93 (1980): 645
  4. Daly JJ, Chowdary KV "Pseudomembranous colitis secondary to metronidazole." Dig Dis Sci 28 (1983): 573-4
  5. Lyon JA "Imipenem/cilastatin: the first carbapenem antibiotic." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 19 (1985): 894-8
  6. Trexler MF, Fraser TG, Jones MP "Fulminant pseudomembranous colitis caused by clindamycin phosphate vaginal cream." Am J Gastroenterol 92 (1997): 2112-3
  7. Davies J, Beck E "Recurrent colitis following antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Postgrad Med J 57 (1981): 599-601
  8. O'Meara TF, Simmons RA "Carbenicillin and pseudomembranous enterocolitis." Ann Intern Med 92 (1980): 440-1
  9. Meadowcroft AM, Diaz PR, Latham GS "Clostridium difficile toxin-induced colitis after use of clindmycin phosphate vaginal cream." Ann Pharmacother 32 (1998): 309-11
  10. Milstone EB, McDonald AJ, Scholhamer CF Jr "Pseudomembranous colitis after topical application of clindamycin." Arch Dermatol 117 (1981): 154-5
  11. Harmon T, Burkhart G, Applebaum H "Perforated pseudomembranous colitis in the breast-fed infant." J Pediatr Surg 27 (1992): 744-6
  12. Ehrenpreis ED, Lievens MW, Craig RM "Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea after norfloxacin." J Clin Gastroenterol 12 (1990): 188-9
  13. Bauwens JE, McFarland LV, Melcher SA "Recurrent clostridium difficile disease following ciprofloxacin use." Ann Pharmacother 31 (1997): 1090
  14. Burt RA "A review of the drug events reported by 12,917 patients treated with cephalexin." Postgrad Med J 59 (1983): 47-50,51-3
  15. Dan M, Samra Z "Clostridium difficile colitis associated with ofloxacin therapy." Am J Med 87 (1989): 479
  16. Bernstein L "Adverse reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, with particular reference to long-term therapy." Can Med Assoc J 112 (1975): s96-8
  17. Calandra GB, Brown KR, Grad LC, et al "Review of adverse experiences and tolerability in the first 2,516 patients treated with imipenem/cilastatin." Am J Med 78 (1985): 73-8
  18. Osler T, Lott D, Bordley J, et al "Cefazolin-induced pseudomembranous colitis resulting in perforation of the sigmoid colon." Dis Colon Rectum 29 (1986): 140-3
  19. Parry MF, Rha CK "Pseudomembranous colitis caused by topical clindamycin phosphate." Arch Dermatol 122 (1986): 583-4
  20. Clissold SP, Todd PA, Campoli-Richards DM "Imipenem/cilastatin: a review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy." Drugs 33 (1987): 185-241
  21. Van Ness MM, Cattau EL Jr "Fulminant colitis complicating antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis: case report and review of the clinical manifestations and treatment." Am J Gastroenterol 82 (1987): 374-7
  22. Cone JB, Wetzel W "Toxic megacolon secondary to pseudomembranous colitis." Dis Colon Rectum 25 (1982): 478-82
  23. Hutcheon DF, Milligan FD, Yardley JH, Hendrix TR "Cephalosporin-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Am J Dig Dis 23 (1978): 321-6
  24. Bingley PJ, Harding GM "Clostridium difficile colitis following treatment with metronidazole and vancomycin." Postgrad Med J 63 (1987): 993-4
  25. Hinton NA "The effect of oral tetracycline HCl and doxycycline on the intestinal flora." Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 12 (1970): 341-52
  26. Cannon SR, Dyson PH, Sanderson PJ "Pseudomembranous colitis associated with antibiotic prophylaxis in orthopaedic surgery." J Bone Joint Surg Br 70-B (1988): 600-2
  27. Sugarman B "Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pseudomembranous colitis, and spinal cord injury." South Med J 78 (1985): 711-3
  28. Miller DL, Sedlack JD, Holt RW "Perforation complicating rifampin-associated pseudomembranous enteritis." Arch Surg 124 (1989): 1082
  29. Miller SN, Ringler RP "Vancomycin-induced pseudomembranous colitis." J Clin Gastroenterol 9 (1987): 114-5
  30. Wang C, Calandra GB, Aziz MA, Brown KR "Efficacy and safety of imipenem/cilastatin: a review of worldwide clinical experience." Rev Infect Dis 7 (1985): s528-36
  31. Midtvedt T, Carlstedt-Duke B, Hoverstad T, et al "Influence of peroral antibiotics upon the biotransformatory activity of the intestinal microflora in healthy subjects." Eur J Clin Invest 16 (1986): 11-7
  32. Golledge CL, Riley TV "Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea after doxycycline malaria prophylaxis." Lancet 345 (1995): 1377-8
  33. Pokorney BH, Nichols TW, Jr "Pseudomembranous colitis. A complication of sulfasalazine therapy in a patient with Crohn's colitis." Am J Gastroenterol 76 (1981): 374-6
  34. Saginur R, Hawley CR, Bartlett JG "Colitis associated with metronidazole therapy." J Infect Dis 141 (1980): 772-4
  35. Altamirano A, Bondani A "Adverse reactions to furazolidone and other drugs. A comparative review." Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 169 (1989): 70-80
  36. Edlund C, Lidbeck A, Kager L, Nord CE "Effect of enoxacin on colonic microflora of healthy volunteers." Eur J Clin Microbiol 6 (1987): 298-300
  37. Sankarankutty M, McGeorge D, Galasko CS "Pseudomembranous colitis following cephradine prophylaxis." Postgrad Med J 58 (1982): 726-8
  38. Boriello SP, Jones RH, Phillips I "Rifampicin-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Br Med J 281 (1980): 1180-1
  39. Klinger D, Radford P, Collin J "Pneumoperitoneum without faecal peritonitis in a patient with pseudomembranous colitis." Br Med J 288 (1984): 1271-2
  40. Gordin F, Gibert C, Schmidt ME "Clostridium difficile colitis associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole given as prophylaxis for pneumocystis carinii pneumonia." Am J Med 96 (1994): 94-5
  41. Edlund C, Brismar B, Nord CE "Effect of lomefloxacin on the normal oral and intestinal microflora." Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1 (1990): 35-9
  42. Ring FA, Hershfield NB, Machin GA, Scott RB "Sulfasalazine-induced colitis complicating idiopathic ulcerative colitis." Can Med Assoc J 131 (1984): 43-5
  43. Friedman RJ, Mayer IE, Galambos JT, Hersh T "Oxacillin-induced pseudomembranous colitis." Am J Gastroenterol 73 (1980): 445-7
  44. "Multum Information Services, Inc. Expert Review Panel"
  45. Leigh DA, Simmons K, Williams S "Gastrointestinal side effects following clindamycin and lincomycin treatment: a follow up study." J Antimicrob Chemother 6 (1980): 639-45
  46. Hecht JR, Olinger EJ "Clostridium difficile colitis secondary to intravenous vancomycin." Dig Dis Sci 34 (1989): 148-9
  47. Brause BD, Romankiewicz JA, Gotz V, Franklin JE Jr, Roberts RB "Comparative study of diarrhea associated with clindamycin and ampicillin therapy." Am J Gastroenterol 73 (1980): 244-8
View all 47 references
Moderate

Quinolones (Includes Moxifloxacin) ↔ Crystalluria

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Dehydration, Diarrhea, Vomiting

Crystalluria has been reported rarely during quinolone therapy. Although it is not expected to occur under normal circumstances with usual recommended dosages, patients who are dehydrated (e.g., due to severe diarrhea or vomiting) may be at increased risk and should be encouraged to consume additional amounts of liquid or given intravenous fluid to ensure an adequate urinary output. Alkalinity of the urine should be avoided, since it may also increase the risk of crystalluria. Renal function tests should be performed periodically during prolonged therapy (> 2 weeks).

References

  1. "Product Information. Trovan (trovafloxacin)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  2. "Product Information. NegGram (nalidixic acid)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  3. Ball P "Ciprofloxacin: an overview of adverse experiences." J Antimicrob Chemother 18 (1986): 187-93
  4. "Product Information. Penetrex (enoxacin)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  5. Thorsteinsson SB, Bergan T, Oddsdottir S, Rohwedder R, Holm R "Crystalluria and ciprofloxacin, influence of urinary pH and hydration." Chemotherapy 32 (1986): 408-17
  6. "Product Information. Tequin (gatifloxacin)" Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  7. "Product Information. Zagam (sparfloxacin)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  8. "Product Information. Noroxin (norfloxacin)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  9. "Product Information. Factive (gemifloxacin)." GeneSoft Inc, San Francisco, CA.
  10. "Product Information. Avelox (moxifloxacin)" Bayer, West Haven, CT.
  11. "Product Information. Cipro (ciprofloxacin)." Bayer, West Haven, CT.
  12. "Product Information. Floxin (ofloxacin)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  13. "Product Information. Cinobac (cinoxacin)." Oclassen Pharmaceuticals Inc, San Rafael, CA.
  14. "Product Information. Maxaquin (lomefloxacin)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  15. "Product Information. Levaquin (levofloxacin)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  16. Stratta P, Lazzarich E, Canavese C, Bozzola C, Monga G "Ciprofloxacin crystal nephropathy." Am J Kidney Dis 50 (2007): 330-5
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Moderate

Quinolones (Includes Moxifloxacin) ↔ Diabetes

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility

Applies to: Diabetes Mellitus

The use of certain quinolones has been associated with disturbances in blood glucose homeostasis possibly stemming from effects on pancreatic beta cell ATP-sensitive potassium channels that regulate insulin secretion. Hypoglycemia and, less frequently, hyperglycemia have been reported, although the latter may also occur due to infection alone. Hypoglycemia has usually occurred in patients with diabetes receiving concomitant oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin. Administration of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, and especially gatifloxacin in patients treated with sulfonylureas or other oral hypoglycemic agents has resulted in severe, refractory hypoglycemia and hypoglycemic coma. Elderly patients and patients with reduced renal function are particularly susceptible. Blood glucose should be monitored more closely whenever quinolones are prescribed to patients with diabetes. Gatifloxacin has been known to cause hypoglycemic episodes generally within the first 3 days of therapy and sometimes even after the first dose, while hyperglycemia usually occurs 4 to 10 days after initiation of therapy. Patients should be counseled to recognize symptoms of hypoglycemia such as headache, dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, tremor, weakness, hunger, excessive perspiration, and palpitations. If hypo- or hyperglycemia occur during quinolone therapy, patients should initiate appropriate remedial therapy immediately, discontinue the antibiotic, and contact their physician.

References

  1. Park-Wyllie LY, Juurlink DN, Kopp A, et al. "Outpatient gatifloxacin therapy and dysglycemia in older adults." N Engl J Med 354 (2006): 1352-61
  2. Saraya A, Yokokura M, Gonoi T, Seino S "Effects of fluoroquinolones on insulin secretion and beta-cell ATP-sensitive K(+) channels." Eur J Pharmacol 497 (2004): 111-7
  3. Gajjar DA, LaCreta FP, Kollia GD, et al. "Effect of multiple-dose gatifloxacin or ciprofloxacin on glucose homeostasis and insulin production in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus maintained with diet and exercise." Pharmacotherapy 20 (6 Pt 2) (2000): s76-86
  4. "Product Information. Cipro (ciprofloxacin)." Bayer, West Haven, CT.
  5. LeBlanc M, Belanger C, Cossette P "Severe and resistant hypoglycemia associated with concomitant gatifloxacin and glyburide therapy." Pharmacotherapy 24 (2004): 926-31
  6. "Product Information. Raxar (grepafloxacin)." Glaxo Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, NC.
  7. "Product Information. Trovan (trovafloxacin)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  8. Biggs WS "Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia associated with gatifloxacin use in elderly patients." J Am Board Fam Pract 16 (2004): 455-7
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  10. "Product Information. Levaquin (levofloxacin)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  11. Friedrich LV, Dougherty R "Fatal hypoglycemia associated with levofloxacin." Pharmacotherapy 24 (2004): 1807-12
  12. Wang S, Rizvi AA "Levofloxacin-induced hypoglycemia in a nondiabetic patient." Am J Med Sci 331 (2006): 334-5
  13. Bhasin R, Arce FC, Pasmantier R "Hypoglycemia associated with the use of gatifloxacin." Am J Med Sci 330 (2005): 250-3
  14. Lin G, Hays DP, Spillane L "Refractory hypoglycemia from ciprofloxacin and glyburide interaction." J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (2004): 295-7
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  19. Gavin JR 3rd, Kubin R, Choudhri S, et al "Moxifloxacin and glucose homeostasis: a pooled-analysis of the evidence from clinical and postmarketing studies." Drug Saf 27 (2004): 671-86
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  22. Kanbay M, Aydogan T, Bozalan R, et al. "A rare but serious side effect of levofloxacin: hypoglycemia in a geriatric patient." Diabetes Care 29 (2006): 1716-7
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moxifloxacin drug Interactions

There are 647 drug interactions with moxifloxacin

moxifloxacin alcohol/food Interactions

There is 1 alcohol/food interaction with moxifloxacin

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No information available.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

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