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Nuprin (ibuprofen) Disease Interactions

There are 13 disease interactions with Nuprin (ibuprofen):

Major

Nsaids (Includes Nuprin) ↔ Asthma

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Asthma

Approximately 10% of patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma, characterized by nasal polyposis, pansinusitis, eosinophilia, and precipitation of asthma and rhinitis attacks after ingestion of aspirin. The use of aspirin in these patients has been associated with severe bronchospasm and fatal anaphylactoid reactions. Since cross-sensitivity has been noted between aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), therapy with any NSAID should be avoided in asthmatic patients with a history of aspirin or other NSAID sensitivity, and administered cautiously in all patients with preexisting asthma. Prior to initiating therapy with NSAIDs, patients should be questioned about previous allergic-type reactions to these agents. Salicylate salts, salsalate, salicylamide, and acetaminophen may be appropriate alternatives in patients with a history of NSAID-induced bronchospasm, since cross-sensitivity to these agents appears to be low. However, cross-sensitivity has been demonstrated occasionally with high dosages of these agents (e.g., acetaminophen >= 1000 mg), thus it may be appropriate to initiate therapy with low dosages and increase gradually. There is some evidence suggesting that COX-2 inhibitors may be safely used in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma, although the labeling for these products contraindicate such use. If necessary, aspirin desensitization may also be attempted in some patients under medical surveillance.

References

  1. "Product Information. Voltaren (diclofenac)." Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. Motrin (ibuprofen)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  3. "Product Information. Naprosyn (naproxen)." Syntex Laboratories Inc, Palo Alto, CA.
  4. Stevenson DD, Hougham AJ, Schrank PJ, Goldlust MB, Wilson RR "Salsalate cross-sensitivity in aspirin-sensitive patients with asthma." J Allergy Clin Immunol 86 (1990): 749-58
  5. "Product Information. Feldene (piroxicam)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  6. Stevenson DD, Simon RA "Lack of cross-reactivity between rofecoxib and aspirin in aspirin-sensitive patients with asthma." J Allerg Clin Immunol 108 (2001): 47-51
  7. Lewis RV "Severe asthma after naproxen." Lancet 05/30/87 (1987): 1270
  8. "Product Information. Ansaid (flurbiprofen)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  9. "Product Information. Vioxx (rofecoxib)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  10. Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, eds. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 14th ed." New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Health Professionals Division (1998):
  11. Settipane RA, Stevenson DD "Cross sensitivity with acetaminophen in aspirin-sensitive subjects with asthma." J Allergy Clin Immunol 84 (1989): 26-33
  12. Szczeklik A, Stevenson DD "Aspirin-induced asthma: Advances in pathogenesis and management." J Allerg Clin Immunol 104 (1999): 5-13
  13. "Product Information. Mobic (meloxicam)" Boehringer-Ingelheim, Ridgefield, CT.
  14. "Product Information. Clinoril (sulindac)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  15. Schreuder G "Ketoprofen: possible idiosyncratic acute bronchospasm." Med J Aust 152 (1990): 332-3
  16. Nasser SMS, Lee TH "Aspirin-induced early and late asthmatic responses." Clin Exp Allergy 25 (1995): 1-3
  17. Chan TY "Severe asthma attacks precipitated by NSAIDs." Ann Pharmacother 29 (1995): 199
  18. Lee TH "Mechanism of bronchospasm in aspirin-sensitive asthma." Am Rev Respir Dis 148 (1993): 1442-3
  19. Carmona MJ, Blanca M, Garcia A, Fernandez S, Burgos F, Miranda A, Vega JM, Garcia J "Intolerance to piroxicam in patients with adverse reactions to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs." J Allergy Clin Immunol 90 (1992): 873-9
  20. Israel E, Fischer AR, Rosenberg MA, Lilly CM, Callery JC, Shapiro J, Cohn J, Rubin P, Drazen JM "The pivotal role of 5-lipoxygenase products in the reaction of aspirin-sensitive asthmatics to aspirin." Am Rev Respir Dis 148 (1993): 1447-51
  21. Haddow GR, Riley E, Isaacs R, McSharry R "Ketorolac, nasal polyposis, and bronchial asthma: a cause for concern." Anesth Analg 76 (1993): 420-2
  22. "Product Information. Daypro (oxaprozin)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  23. Cohen RD, Bateman ED, Potgieter PD "Near-fatal bronchospasm in an asthmatic patient following ingestion of flurbiprofen. A case report." S Afr Med J 61 (1982): 803
  24. Shapiro N "Acute angioedema after ketorolac ingestion - report of case." J Oral Maxillofac Surg 52 (1994): 626-7
  25. Ayres JG, Fleming DM, Whittington RM "Asthma death due to ibuprofen." Lancet 05/09/87 (1987): 1082
  26. "Product Information. Celebrex (celecoxib)." Searle, Chicago, IL.
  27. Salberg DJ, Simon MR "Severe asthma induced by naproxen: a case report and review of the literature." Ann Allergy 45 (1980): 372-5
  28. "Product Information. Bextra (valdecoxib)." Pharmacia Corporation, Peapack, NJ.
  29. Lee TH "Mechanism of aspirin sensitivity." Am Rev Respir Dis 145 (1992): s34-6
  30. "Product Information. Tolectin (tolmetin)." McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  31. "Product Information. Relafen (nabumetone)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  32. "Product Information. Nalfon (fenoprofen)." Xspire Pharma, Ridgeland, MS.
  33. Woessner KM, Simon RA, Stevenson DD "The safety of celecoxib in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma." Arthritis Rheum 46 (2002): 2201-6
  34. Zikowski D, Hord AH, Haddox JD, Glascock J "Ketorolac-induced bronchospasm." Anesth Analg 76 (1993): 417-9
  35. "Product Information. Orudis (ketoprofen)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  36. Dahlen B, Szczeklik A, Murray HH "Celecoxib in patients with asthma and aspirin intolerance." N Engl J Med 344 (2000): 142
  37. "Product Information. Lodine (etodolac)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  38. "Product Information. Indocin (indomethacin)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
View all 38 references
Major

Nsaids (Includes Nuprin) ↔ Fluid Retention

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Fluid Retention, Congestive Heart Failure, Hypertension

Fluid retention and edema have been reported in association with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Therapy with NSAIDs should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting fluid retention, hypertension, or a history of heart failure. Blood pressure and cardiovascular status should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.

References

  1. Heerdink ER, Leufkens HG, Herings RM, Ottervanger JP, Stricker BH, Bakker A "NSAIDs associated with increased risk of congestive heart failure in elderly patients taking diuretics." Arch Intern Med 158 (1998): 1108-12
  2. "Product Information. Orudis (ketoprofen)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  3. Agnholt J, Andreasen F "The effect of ibuprofen therapy on water and electrolyte balance." Acta Med Scand 212 (1982): 65-9
  4. "Product Information. Lodine (etodolac)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  5. Johnson AG, Nguyen TV, Day RO "Do nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs affect blood pressure? A meta-analysis." Ann Intern Med 121 (1994): 289-300
  6. "Product Information. Nalfon (fenoprofen)." Xspire Pharma, Ridgeland, MS.
  7. Lewis RV, Toner JM, Jackson PR, Ramsay LE "Effects of indomethacin and sulindac on blood pressure of hypertensive patients." Br Med J 292 (1986): 934-5
  8. "Product Information. Celebrex (celecoxib)." Searle, Chicago, IL.
  9. "Product Information. Daypro (oxaprozin)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  10. "Product Information. Anaprox (naproxen)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  11. "Product Information. Feldene (piroxicam)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  12. "Product Information. Motrin (ibuprofen)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  13. Van Den Ouweland FA, Gribnau FW, Meyboom RH "Congestive heart failure due to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the elderly." Age Ageing 17 (1988): 8-16
  14. Gurwitz JH, Everitt DE, Monane M, et al "The impact of ibuprofen on the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with hydrochlorothiazide in elderly persons." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 51 (1996): m74-9
  15. "Product Information. Clinoril (sulindac)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  16. "Product Information. Vioxx (rofecoxib)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  17. "Product Information. Naprosyn (naproxen)." Syntex Laboratories Inc, Palo Alto, CA.
  18. Willkens RF "Worldwide clinical safety experience with diclofenac." Semin Arthritis Rheum 2 Suppl 1 (1985): 105-10
  19. "Product Information. Indocin (indomethacin)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  20. "Product Information. Mobic (meloxicam)" Boehringer-Ingelheim, Ridgefield, CT.
  21. Brooks CD, Linet OI, Schellenberg D, Turner LF, Defesche CL, Teoh KW, Johnson JH, Assenzo JR "Clinical safety of flurbiprofen." J Clin Pharmacol 30 (1990): 342-51
  22. Petersson I, Nilsson G, Hansson B-G, Hedner T "Water intoxication associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy." Acta Med Scand 221 (1987): 221-3
  23. "Product Information. Tolectin (tolmetin)." McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  24. "Product Information. Ansaid (flurbiprofen)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  25. "Product Information. Relafen (nabumetone)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  26. Easton PA, Koval A "Hypertensive reaction with sulindac." Can Med Assoc J 122 (1980): 1273-4
  27. Heynen G "Toleration and safety of piroxicam." Eur J Rheumatol Inflamm 8 (1987): 86-93
  28. Buckley MM, Brogden RN "Ketorolac. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential." Drugs 39 (1990): 86-109
  29. "Product Information. Bextra (valdecoxib)." Pharmacia Corporation, Peapack, NJ.
View all 29 references
Major

Nsaids (Includes Nuprin) ↔ Gi Toxicity

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Peptic Ulcer, Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage, Gastrointestinal Perforation, Duodenitis/Gastritis, History - Peptic Ulcer, Alcoholism, Colitis/Enteritis (Noninfectious), Colonic Ulceration, Smoking

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause gastrointestinal mucosal damage, the risk of which appears to be related to both dosage and duration of therapy. Serious GI toxicity such as bleeding, ulceration and perforation can develop at any time, with or without warning symptoms, and occurs in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3 to 6 months and 2% to 4% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, although short-term therapy is not without risk. While agents that selectively inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (i.e., COX-2 inhibitors) are generally thought to be associated with a reduced risk of GI toxicity compared to conventional NSAIDs, they have not been proven risk-free. In addition, there is evidence that COX-2 inhibitors may delay healing of gastric ulcers, and likely to the same extent as traditional NSAIDs. Thus, therapy with all NSAIDs, including COX-2 inhibitors, should be prescribed cautiously in patients with a history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with such a history who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Caution is also advised if NSAIDs are prescribed to patients with other risk factors such as oral corticosteroid or anticoagulant use, alcohol use, smoking, older age, and poor general health status. Particular vigilance is necessary when treating elderly (i.e., age 60 years or more) and/or debilitated patients, since they are often more susceptible to the GI toxicity of these drugs and seem to tolerate ulceration and bleeding less well than younger, healthier individuals. Whenever possible, especially if prolonged use is anticipated, treatment with non-ulcerogenic agents should be attempted first. If NSAIDS are used, patients should be treated with the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration possible, and prophylactic therapy with a cytoprotective agent (e.g., misoprostol), histamine H2-receptor antagonist, or a proton pump inhibitor should be administered as necessary. Patients should be counseled to avoid or minimize consumption of alcohol during NSAID therapy. Three or more alcoholic drinks per day during NSAID use may increase the risk of gastrointestinal ulceration and bleeding. Patients should also be advised to promptly seek medical attention if they experience symptoms that could indicate serious GI tract ulceration or bleeding such as epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis.

References

  1. Levy M, Miller DR, Kaufman DW, Siskind V, Schwingl P, Rosenberg L, Strom B, Shapiro S "Major upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Relation to the use of aspirin and other nonnarcotic analgesics." Arch Intern Med 148 (1988): 281-5
  2. Scott B "Bleeding massive gastric ulcer on diflunisal (Dolobid) ." Br Med J 1 (1979): 489
  3. "Product Information. Mobic (meloxicam)" Boehringer-Ingelheim, Ridgefield, CT.
  4. Taha AS, McLaughlin S, Holland PJ, Kelly RW, Sturrock RD, Russell RI "Effect on gastric and duodenal mucosal prostaglandins of repeated intake of therapeutic doses of naproxen and etodolac in rheumatoid arthritis." Ann Rheum Dis 49 (1990): 354-8
  5. Armstrong CP, Blower AL "Ulcerogenicity of piroxicam: an analysis of spontaneously reported data." Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 294 (1987): 772
  6. Carson J, Notis WM, Orris ES "Colonic ulceration and bleeding during diclofenac therapy ." N Engl J Med 323 (1990): 135
  7. Oren R, Ligumsky M "Indomethacin-induced colonic ulceration and bleeding." Ann Pharmacother 28 (1994): 883-5
  8. Somasundaram S, Hayllar H, Rafi S, Wrigglesworth JM, Macpherson AJS, Bjarnason I "The biochemical basis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced damage to the gastrointestinal tract: a review and a hypothesis." Scand J Gastroenterol 30 (1995): 289-99
  9. Simon LS, Weaver AL, Graham DY, et al. "Anti-inflammatory and upper gastrointestinal effects of celecoxib in rheumatoid artthritis: a randomised controlled trial." JAMA 282 (1999): 1921-8
  10. Santucci L, Patoia L, Fiorucci S, Farroni F, Favero D, Morelli A "Oesophageal lesions during treatment with piroxicam." BMJ 300 (1990): 1018
  11. Lanza FL, Nelson RS, Royer GL "Effects of ibuprofen, tolmetin and placebo on the gastric mucosa of aspirin-sensitive volunteers." Am J Gastroenterol 72 (1979): 528-34
  12. Venturatos SG, Hines C Jr, Blalock JB "Ulceration of the small intestine in a patient with celiac disease." South Med J 77 (1984): 520-2
  13. Halter F, Tarnawski AS, Schmassmann A, Peskar BM "Cyclooxygenase 2-implications on maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity and ulcer healing: controversial issues and perspectives." Gut 49 (2001): 443-53
  14. van Eeden A, Schotborgh RH, Tytgat GN "An endoscopic evaluation of the effects of etodolac and diclofenac on the gastric and duodenal mucosa." Clin Ther 12 (1990): 496-502
  15. Levine MS, Rothstein RD, Laufer I "Giant esophageal ulcer due to clinoril." Am J Roentgenol 156 (1991): 955-6
  16. Fuller DK, Kalekas PJ "Ketorolac and gastrointestinal ulceration." Ann Pharmacother 27 (1993): 978-9
  17. O'Brien WM "Long-term efficacy and safety of tolmetin sodium in treatment of geriatric patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: a retrospective study." J Clin Pharmacol 23 (1983): 309-23
  18. Bataille C, Soumagne D, Loly J, Brassinne A "Esophageal ulceration due to indomethacin." Digestion 24 (1982): 66-8
  19. "Product Information. Orudis (ketoprofen)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  20. Sacanella E, Munoz F, Cardellach F, Estruch R, Miro O, Urbanomarquez A "Massive haemorrhage due to colitis secondary to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs." Postgrad Med J 72 (1996): 57-8
  21. Lanza FL, Royer GL Jr, Nelson RS, et al "A comparative endoscopic evaluation of the damaging effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents on the gastric and duodenal mucosa." Am J Gastroenterol 75 (1981): 17-21
  22. Bianchi Porro G, Caruso I, Petrillo M, Montrone F, Ardizzone S "A double-blind gastroscopic evaluation of the effects of etodolac and naproxen on the gastrointestinal mucosa of rheumatic patients." J Intern Med 229 (1991): 5-8
  23. Wilcox GM, Porensky RS "Acute colitis associated with etodolac." J Clin Gastroenterol 25 (1997): 367-8
  24. Willkens RF "Worldwide clinical safety experience with diclofenac." Semin Arthritis Rheum 2 Suppl 1 (1985): 105-10
  25. Voss GD, Schweitzer P "GI bleeding associated with nabumetone." Am J Hosp Pharm 51 (1994): 2506-8
  26. Whitcomb DC, Martin SP, Trellis DR, Evans BA, Becich MJ "'Diaphragmlike' stricture and ulcer of the colon during diclofenac treatment." Arch Intern Med 152 (1992): 2341-3
  27. Deakin M "Small bowel perforation associated with an excessive dose of slow release diclofenac sodium." BMJ 297 (1988): 488-9
  28. Fitzgerald GA, Patrono C "The coxibs, selective inhibitors of cyclooxsygenase-2." N Engl J Med 345 (2001): 433-42
  29. Taha AS, Sturrock RD, Russell RI "Mucosal erosions in longterm non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users: predisposition to ulceration and relation to helicobacter pylori." Gut 36 (1995): 334-6
  30. Lussier A, LeBel E "Radiochromium (chromium-51) evaluation of gastrointestinal blood loss associated with placebo, aspirin, and nabumetone." Am J Med 83 (1987): 15-8
  31. Khoury MI "Ulcerative proctitis in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus after ibuprofen treatment." J Rheumatol 16 (1989): 217-8
  32. Allen B, Edwards R "A safety profile of controlled release naproxen tablets." N Z Med J 102 (1989): 310-2
  33. "Product Information. Vioxx (rofecoxib)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  34. Lanza FL, Codispoti JR, Nelson EB "An endoscopic comparison of gastroduodenal injury with over-the-counter doses of ketoprofen and acetaminophen." Am J Gastroenterol 93 (1998): 1051-4
  35. Roth SH "Endoscopy-controlled study of the safety of nabumetone compared with naproxen in arthritis therapy." Am J Med 83 (1987): 25-30
  36. "Product Information. Motrin (ibuprofen)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  37. Siegel MA, Balciunas BA "Medication can induce severe ulcerations." J Am Dent Assoc 122 (1991): 75-7
  38. Schattenkirchner M "An updated safety profile of etodolac in several thousand patients." Eur J Rheumatol Inflamm 10 (1990): 56-65
  39. "Product Information. Naprosyn (naproxen)." Syntex Laboratories Inc, Palo Alto, CA.
  40. Gerber D "Adverse reactions of piroxicam." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 21 (1987): 707-10
  41. Lanza F, Rack MF, Lynn M, Wolf J, Sanda M "An endoscopic comparison of the effects of etodolac, indomethacin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and placebo on the gastrointestinal mucosa." J Rheumatol 14 (1987): 338-41
  42. Baert F, Hart J, Blackstone MO "A case of diclofenac-induced colitis with focal granulomatous change." Am J Gastroenterol 90 (1995): 1871-3
  43. Stewart JT, Pennington CR, Pringle R "Anti-inflammatory drugs and bowel perforations and haemorrhage." Br Med J 290 (1985): 787-8
  44. Linder JD, Klaus E, Monkemuller KE, Davis JV, Wilcox CM "Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib: a possible cause of gastropathy and hypoprothrombinemia." South Med J 93 (2000): 930-2
  45. "Product Information. Tolectin (tolmetin)." McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  46. Ecker GA, Karsh J "Naproxen induced ulcerative esophagitis." J Rheumatol 19 (1992): 646-7
  47. Bergmann JF, Chassany O, Geneve J, Abiteboul M, Caulin C, Segrestaa JM "Endoscopic evaluation of the effect of ketoprofen, ibuprofen and aspirin on the gastroduodenal mucosa." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 42 (1992): 685-8
  48. Maliekal J, Elboim CM "Gastrointestinal complications associated with intramuscular ketorolac tromethamine therapy in the elderly." Ann Pharmacother 29 (1995): 698-701
  49. Mason AM "Bleeding massive gastric ulcer on diflunisal (Dolobid) ." Br Med J 1 (1979): 888
  50. Abraham NS, Hartman C, Castillo D, Richardson P, Smalley W "Effectiveness of National Provider Prescription of PPI Gastroprotection Among Elderly NSAID Users." Am J Gastroenterol 103 (2008): 323-32
  51. Mehta S, Dasarathy S, Tandon RK, Mathur M, Malaviya AN "A prospective randomized study of the injurious effects of aspirin and naproxen on the gastroduodenal mucosa in patients with rheumatoid arthritis." Am J Gastroenterol 87 (1992): 996-1000
  52. Thompson MR "Indomethacin and perforated duodenal ulcer." Br Med J 02/16/80 (1980): 448
  53. Singh G, Ramey DR, Morfeld D, Fries JF "Comparative toxicity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents." Pharmacol Ther 62 (1994): 175-91
  54. Kaufman DW, Kelly JP, Sheehan JE, Laszlo A, Wiholm BE, Alfredsson L, Koff RS, Shapiro S "Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in relation to major upper gastrointestinal bleeding." Clin Pharmacol Ther 53 (1993): 485-94
  55. "Product Information. Indocin (indomethacin)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  56. Estes LL, Fuhs DW, Heaton AH, Butwinick CS "Gastric ulcer perforation associated with the use of injectable ketorolac." Ann Pharmacother 27 (1993): 42-3
  57. "Product Information. Voltaren (diclofenac)." Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ.
  58. "Product Information. Celebrex (celecoxib)." Searle, Chicago, IL.
  59. Schnitzer TJ, Truitt K, Fleischmann R, Dalgin P, Block J, Zeng Q, Bolognese J, Seidenberg B, Ehrich EW "The safety profile, tolerability, and effective dose range of rofecoxib in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis." Clin Ther 21 (1999): 1688-702
  60. Catalano MA "Worldwide safety experience with diclofenac." Am J Med 80 (1986): 81-7
  61. Buchman AL, Schwartz MR "Colonic ulceration associated with the systemic use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medication." J Clin Gastroenterol 22 (1996): 224-6
  62. Peterson WL, Cryer B "COX-1-sparing NSAIDs - Is the enthusiasm justified?." JAMA 282 (1999): 1961-3
  63. "Product Information. Nalfon (fenoprofen)." Xspire Pharma, Ridgeland, MS.
  64. Bombardier C, Laine L, Reicin A, et al. "Comparison of upper gastrointestinal toxicity of refecoxib and naproxen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. VIGOR Study Group." N Engl J Med 343 (2000): 1520-8
  65. Roth SH "Naproxen: antirheumatic efficacy and safety in patients with pre-existing gastrointestinal disease." Semin Arthritis Rheum 17 (1988): 36-9
  66. Cantu TG, Lipani JA "Gastrointestinal ulceration with NSAIDs." Am J Med 99 (1995): 440-1
  67. Emery P, Zeidler H, Kvien TK, Guslandi M, Naudin R, Stead H, Verburg KM, Isakson PC, Hubbard RC, Geis GS "Celecoxib versus diclofenac in long-term management of rheumatoid arthritis: randomised double-blind comparison." Lancet 354 (1999): 2106-11
  68. Silverstein FE, Faich G, Goldstein JL, et al. "Gastrointestinal toxicity with celecoxib vs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthtitis and rheumatoid arthritis. The CLASS Study: a randomized controlled trial." JAMA 284 (2000): 1247-55
  69. Langman MJ, Jensen DM, Watson DJ, et al. "Adverse upper gastrointestinal effects of rofecoxib compared with NSAIDs." JAMA 282 (1999): 1929-33
  70. "Product Information. Feldene (piroxicam)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  71. Collins AJ, Davies J, Dixon ASJ "A prospective endoscopic study of the effect of orudis and oruvail on the upper gastrointestinal tract, in patients with osteoarthritis." Br J Rheumatol 27 (1988): 106-9
  72. "Product Information. Dolobid (diflunisal)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  73. Day TK "Intestinal perforation associated with osmotic slow release indomethacin capsules." Br Med J 287 (1983): 1671-2
  74. Clements D, Williams GT, Rhodes J "Colitis associated with ibuprofen." Br Med J 301 (1990): 987
  75. Laine L, Harper S, Simon T, Bath R, Johanson J, Schwartz H, Stern S, Quan H, Bolognese J "A randomized trial comparing the effect of rofecoxib, a cyclooxygenase 2-specific inhibitor, with that of ibuprofen on the gastroduodenal mucosa of patients with osteoarthritis." Gastroenterology 117 (1999): 776-83
  76. Wolfe PA, Polhamus CD, Kubik C, Robinson AB, Clement DJ "Giant duodenal ulcers associated with the postoperative use of ketorolac: report of three cases." Am J Gastroenterol 89 (1994): 1110-1
  77. Talbot R, Rees H "Perforated duodenal ulcer on diflunisal (Dolobid) ." Br Med J 2 (1978): 1229
  78. Greb WH, von Schrader HW, Cerlek S, Dominis M, Hauptmann E, Zenic N "Endoscopic studies of nabumetone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A comparative endoscopic and histologic evaluation." Am J Med 83 (1987): 19-24
  79. Geczy M, Peltier L, Wolbach R "Naproxen tolerability in the elderly: a summary report." J Rheumatol 14 (1987): 348-54
  80. Wilcox CM, Shalek KA, Cotsonis G "Striking prevalence of over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drug use in patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage." Arch Intern Med 154 (1994): 42-6
  81. Kwo PY, Tremaine WJ "Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced enteropathy: case discussion and review of the literature." Mayo Clin Proc 70 (1995): 55-61
  82. Wiedrick JE, Friesen EG, Garton AM, Otten NH "Upper gastrointestinal bleeding associated with oral ketorolac therapy." Ann Pharmacother 28 (1994): 1109
  83. "Product Information. Relafen (nabumetone)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  84. Brooks CD, Linet OI, Schellenberg D, Turner LF, Defesche CL, Teoh KW, Johnson JH, Assenzo JR "Clinical safety of flurbiprofen." J Clin Pharmacol 30 (1990): 342-51
  85. Bernhard GC "Worldwide safety experience with nabumetone." J Rheumatol 19 (1992): 48-57
  86. Peskar BM, Maricic N, Gretzera B, Schuligoi R, Schmassmann A "Role of cyclooxygenase-2 in gastric mucosal defense." Life Sci 69 (2001): 2993-3003
  87. "Product Information. Ansaid (flurbiprofen)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  88. Heynen G "Toleration and safety of piroxicam." Eur J Rheumatol Inflamm 8 (1987): 86-93
  89. Strom BL, Berlin JA, Kinman JL "Parenteral ketorolac and risk of gastrointestinal and operative site bleeding: a postmarketing surveillance study." JAMA 275 (1996): 376-82
  90. Goldenberg MM "Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis." Clin Ther 21 (1999): 1497-513
  91. Witham R "Voltaren (diclofenac sodium)-induced ileocolitis ." Am J Gastroenterol 86 (1991): 246-7
  92. Quigley EMM, Donovan JP, Livingston WC "Ketorolac-related giant gastric ulcers." Am J Gastroenterol 89 (1994): 631-2
  93. Fok KH, George PJ, Vicary FR "Peptic ulcers induced by piroxicam." Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 290 (1985): 117
  94. "Product Information. Clinoril (sulindac)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  95. Feldman M, McMahon AT "Do cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors provide benefits similar to those of traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, with less gastrointestinal toxicity?." Ann Intern Med 132 (2000): 134-43
  96. "Product Information. Lodine (etodolac)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  97. "Product Information. Daypro (oxaprozin)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  98. Wolfe MM, Lichtenstein DR, Singh G "Gastrointestinal toxicity of nonsteroiddal antiinflammatory drugs." N Engl J Med 340 (1999): 1888-99
  99. "Product Information. Bextra (valdecoxib)." Pharmacia Corporation, Peapack, NJ.
View all 99 references
Major

Nsaids (Includes Nuprin) ↔ Rash

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Dermatitis - Drug-Induced

Severe, potentially fatal dermatologic reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and other exfoliative dermatitis have been associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These events may occur without warning. Patients should be advised to discontinue the NSAID and seek medical attention promptly at the first sign of rash, blisters, fever, itching, or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

References

  1. "Product Information. Indocin (indomethacin)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  2. "Product Information. Tolectin (tolmetin)." McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  3. "Product Information. Ansaid (flurbiprofen)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  4. "Product Information. Relafen (nabumetone)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  5. "Product Information. Feldene (piroxicam)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  6. "Product Information. Motrin (ibuprofen)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  7. "Product Information. Naprosyn (naproxen)." Syntex Laboratories Inc, Palo Alto, CA.
  8. "Product Information. Orudis (ketoprofen)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  9. "Product Information. Lodine (etodolac)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  10. "Product Information. Clinoril (sulindac)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  11. "Product Information. Celebrex (celecoxib)." Searle, Chicago, IL.
  12. "Product Information. Daypro (oxaprozin)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  13. "Product Information. Nalfon (fenoprofen)." Xspire Pharma, Ridgeland, MS.
  14. "Product Information. Voltaren (diclofenac)." Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ.
  15. Friedman B, Orlet HK, Still JM, Law E "Toxic epidermal necrolysis due to administration of celecoxib (Celebrex)." South Med J 95 (2002): 1213-4
  16. "Product Information. Mobic (meloxicam)" Boehringer-Ingelheim, Ridgefield, CT.
View all 16 references
Major

Nsaids (Includes Nuprin) ↔ Renal Toxicities

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction, Dehydration, Congestive Heart Failure, Hyponatremia, Liver Disease

Chronic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be associated with renal toxicities, including elevations in serum creatinine and BUN, tubular necrosis, glomerulitis, renal papillary necrosis, acute interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and renal failure. In patients with pre-renal conditions whose renal perfusion may be dependent on the function of prostaglandins, NSAIDs may precipitate overt renal decompensation via a dose-related inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Patients at greatest risk for this reaction include geriatric patients and those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, or substantial volume and/or sodium depletion (e.g., due to diuretics). Therapy with NSAIDs should be administered cautiously in such patients, and hypovolemia and hyponatremia should be corrected prior to initiating treatment. Clinical monitoring of renal function is recommended during therapy, particularly in the presence of manifestations associated with mild azotemia (e.g., malaise, fatigue, loss of appetite). If renal function declines or renal failure occurs, prompt discontinuation of NSAID therapy will usually lead to recovery to the pretreatment state. NSAIDs are generally not recommended for patients with advanced renal disease due to the lack of information from controlled clinical studies regarding their use in such patients.

References

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Major

Nsaids (Includes Nuprin) ↔ Thrombosis

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Cerebrovascular Insufficiency, History - Cerebrovascular Disease, History - Myocardial Infarction, Ischemic Heart Disease

The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular thrombotic events such as myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal. The risk may increase with duration of use. Clinical trials of several cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have supported this association. Although not all NSAIDs have been studied, investigators believe it may be a class effect, and that the risk may be similar for all NSAIDs, both COX-2 selective and nonselective. Therapy with NSAIDs should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. Patients should be treated with the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration necessary. Appropriate antiplatelet therapy should be administered to patients requiring cardioprotection. However, there is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events associated with NSAID use, while the risk of serious GI events is increased. Patients should be advised to promptly seek medical attention if they experience symptoms that could indicate a cardiovascular thrombotic event such as chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, and slurring of speech.

NSAIDs are contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Two large clinical trials of a COX-2 inhibitor for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke.

References

  1. Fitzgerald GA, Patrono C "The coxibs, selective inhibitors of cyclooxsygenase-2." N Engl J Med 345 (2001): 433-42
  2. "Product Information. Vioxx (rofecoxib)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  3. Marcus AJ, Broekman MJ, Pinsky DJ "COX inhibitors and thromboregulation." N Engl J Med 347 (2002): 1025-6
  4. Mukherjee D, Nissen SE, Topol EJ "Risk of cardiovascular events associated with selective COX-2 inhibitors." JAMA 286 (2001): 954-9
  5. Bombardier C, Laine L, Reicin A, et al. "Comparison of upper gastrointestinal toxicity of refecoxib and naproxen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. VIGOR Study Group." N Engl J Med 343 (2000): 1520-8
  6. Silverstein FE, Faich G, Goldstein JL, et al. "Gastrointestinal toxicity with celecoxib vs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthtitis and rheumatoid arthritis. The CLASS Study: a randomized controlled trial." JAMA 284 (2000): 1247-55
View all 6 references
Moderate

Ibuprofen (Includes Nuprin) ↔ Pku

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Phenylketonuria

Chewable products frequently may contain aspartame, which is metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract to phenylalanine. Motrin (brand of ibuprofen) chewable 50 mg and 100 mg tablets provide the equivalent of 3 mg and 6 mg of phenylalanine each, respectively. The aspartame/phenylalanine content should be considered when these and similar products are used in patients who must restrict their intake of phenylalanine (i.e. phenylketonurics).

References

  1. "Product Information. Motrin (ibuprofen)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
Moderate

Nsaids (Includes Nuprin) ↔ Anemia

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Anemia, Bleeding

Dose-dependent decreases in serum hemoglobin and hematocrit have been observed in patients treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Anemia has been reported occasionally. The mechanism may involve NSAID-induced fluid retention or gastrointestinal blood loss, or an incompletely described effect on erythropoiesis. The decreases in hemoglobin concentration tend to be slight with average doses but may exceed 1 g/dL when large doses are given, such as those used to treat osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Although these effects are generally not clinically important in otherwise healthy individuals, they may be relevant in patients with preexisting anemia or substantial blood loss. Therapy with NSAIDs should be administered cautiously in patients with or predisposed to anemia. Clinical monitoring of hematopoietic function may be appropriate, particularly during chronic therapy.

References

  1. "Product Information. Relafen (nabumetone)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  2. Salom IL, Jacob G, Jallad N, Perdomo CA, Mullane JF, Weidler D "Gastrointestinal microbleeding associated with the use of etodolac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, and naproxen in normal males." J Clin Pharmacol 24 (1984): 240-6
  3. "Product Information. Bextra (valdecoxib)." Pharmacia Corporation, Peapack, NJ.
  4. Squires JE, Mintz PD, Clark S "Tolmetin-induced hemolysis." Transfusion 25 (1985): 410-3
  5. Kornberg A, Rachmilewitz EA "Aplastic anemia after prolonged ingestion of indomethacin." Acta Haematol 67 (1982): 136-8
  6. Bennett L, Schlossman R, Rosenthal J, et al "Aplastic anemia and sulindac." Ann Intern Med 92 (1980): 874
  7. Johnson FP Jr, Hamilton HE, Liesch MR "Immune hemolytic anemia associated with sulindac." Arch Intern Med 145 (1985): 1515-6
  8. Arnold R, Heimpel H "Aplastic anaemia after naproxen?" Lancet 02/09/80 (1980): 321
  9. Catalano MA "Worldwide safety experience with diclofenac." Am J Med 80 (1986): 81-7
  10. "Product Information. Lodine (etodolac)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  11. "Product Information. Ansaid (flurbiprofen)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  12. Angeles ML, Reid ME, Yacob UA, Cash KL, Fetten JV "Sulindac-induced immune hemolytic anemia." Transfusion 34 (1994): 255-8
  13. "Product Information. Celebrex (celecoxib)." Searle, Chicago, IL.
  14. Randi ML, Tison T, Luzzatto G "Haemolytic uraemic syndrome during treatment with ketorolac trometamol." BMJ 306 (1993): 186
  15. "Product Information. Indocin (indomethacin)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  16. Bernhard GC "Worldwide safety experience with nabumetone." J Rheumatol 19 (1992): 48-57
  17. Gerber D "Adverse reactions of piroxicam." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 21 (1987): 707-10
  18. Reitz CL, Bottomley SS "Pure red cell aplasia associated with fenoprofen." Am J Med Sci 287 (1984): 62-3
  19. "Product Information. Naprosyn (naproxen)." Syntex Laboratories Inc, Palo Alto, CA.
  20. Eustace S, O'Neill T, McHale S, Molony J "Fatal aplastic anaemia following prolonged diclofenac use in an elderly patient." Ir J Med Sci 158 (1989): 217
  21. "Product Information. Voltaren (diclofenac)." Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ.
  22. "Product Information. Clinoril (sulindac)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  23. "Product Information. Feldene (piroxicam)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  24. Sanz MA, Martinez JA, Gomis F, Garcia-Borras JJ "Sulindac-induced bone marrow toxicity." Lancet 2 (1980): 802-3
  25. "Product Information. Tolectin (tolmetin)." McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  26. Brooks CD, Linet OI, Schellenberg D, Turner LF, Defesche CL, Teoh KW, Johnson JH, Assenzo JR "Clinical safety of flurbiprofen." J Clin Pharmacol 30 (1990): 342-51
  27. "Product Information. Daypro (oxaprozin)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  28. Salama A, Gottsche B, Mueller-Eckhardt C "Autoantibodies and drug- or metabolite-dependent antibodies in patients with diclofenac-induced immune haemolysis." Br J Haematol 77 (1991): 546-9
  29. "Product Information. Dolobid (diflunisal)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  30. Sanada M, Takai K "Aplastic anaemia associated with piroxicam." Br J Haematol 77 (1991): 256-7
  31. "Product Information. Mobic (meloxicam)" Boehringer-Ingelheim, Ridgefield, CT.
  32. Andrews R, Russell N "Aplastic anaemia associated with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug: relapse after exposure to another such drug." Br Med J 301 (1990): 38
  33. Schattenkirchner M "An updated safety profile of etodolac in several thousand patients." Eur J Rheumatol Inflamm 10 (1990): 56-65
  34. Lopez A, Linares M, Sanchez H, Blanquer A "Autoimmune hemolytic anemia induced by diclofenac." Ann Pharmacother 29 (1995): 787
  35. Miller JL "Marrow aplasia and sulindac." Ann Intern Med 92 (1980): 129
  36. Ashraf M, Pearson RM, Winfield DA "Aplastic anaemia associated with fenoprofen." Br Med J 284 (1982): 1301-2
  37. Lee SH, Fawcett V, Preece JM "Aplastic anaemia associated with piroxicam." Lancet 1 (1982): 1186
  38. Hughes JA, Sudell W "Hemolytic anemia associated with naproxen." Arthritis Rheum 26 (1983): 1054
  39. Lussier A, LeBel E "Radiochromium (chromium-51) evaluation of gastrointestinal blood loss associated with placebo, aspirin, and nabumetone." Am J Med 83 (1987): 15-8
  40. "Product Information. Vioxx (rofecoxib)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  41. "Product Information. Toradol (ketorolac)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  42. Kramer MR, Levene C, Hershko C "Severe reversible autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia associated with diclofenac therapy." Scand J Haematol 36 (1986): 118-20
  43. "Product Information. Motrin (ibuprofen)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  44. McNeil P, MacKenzie I, Manoharan A "Naproxen-associated aplastic anaemia." Med J Aust 145 (1986): 53-5
  45. Schattner A, Shtalrid M, Levy R, Berrebi A "Fatal aplastic anemia due to indomethacin: lymphocyte transformation tests in vitro." Isr J Med Sci 17 (1981): 433-6
  46. Green D, Davies RO, Holmes GI et al "Effects of diflunisal on platelet function and fecal blood loss." Pharmacotherapy 3 (1983): s65-9
  47. "Product Information. Nalfon (fenoprofen)." Xspire Pharma, Ridgeland, MS.
  48. van Dijk BA, Rico PB, Hoitsma A, Kunst VA "Immune hemolytic anemia associated with tolmetin and suprofen." Transfusion 29 (1989): 638-41
  49. "Product Information. Orudis (ketoprofen)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
View all 49 references
Moderate

Nsaids (Includes Nuprin) ↔ Heart Failure

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Congestive Heart Failure

Fluid retention and edema have been observed in patients treated with NSAIDs, including some topical formulations. These drugs should be used with caution in patients with fluid retention or heart failure.

Moderate

Nsaids (Includes Nuprin) ↔ Hepatotoxicity

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Borderline elevations of serum transaminases, LDH, and alkaline phosphatase have been reported in up to 15% of patients treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These abnormalities may progress, remain unchanged, or regress with continuing therapy. Notable liver enzyme elevations exceeding 3 times the upper limit of normal have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatotoxicity, including liver necrosis, hepatic failure, jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, have been reported. Therapy with NSAIDs should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting liver disease. Periodic monitoring of liver function is recommended during prolonged therapy. NSAIDs are also highly protein-bound and some are extensively metabolized by the liver. Metabolic activity and/or plasma protein binding may be altered in patients with hepatic impairment. A dosage reduction may be required in some cases.

References

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  4. Haddock RE, Jeffery DJ, Lloyd JA, Thawley AR "Metabolism of nabumetone (BRL 14777) by various species including man." Xenobiotica 14 (1984): 327-37
  5. Dhand AK, LaBrecque DR, Metzger J "Sulindac (clinoril) hepatitis." Gastroenterology 80 (1981): 585-6
  6. Whittaker SJ, Amar JN, Wanless IR, Heathcote J "Sulindac hepatotoxicity." Gut 23 (1982): 875-7
  7. Davies NM "Clinical pharmacokinetics of flurbiprofen and its enantiomers." Clin Pharmacokinet 28 (1995): 100-14
  8. Lockwood GF, Albert KS, Szpunar GJ, Wagner JG "Pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen in man III: plasma protein binding." J Pharmacokinet Biopharm 11 (1983): 469-82
  9. Reeve PA, Moshiri M, Bell GD "Pulmonary oedema, jaundice and renal impairment with naproxen." Br J Rheumatol 26 (1987): 70-1
  10. Knadler MP, Brater DC, Hall SD "Plasma protein binding of flurbiprofen: enantioselectivity and influence of pathophysiological status." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 249 (1989): 378-85
  11. Banks AT, Zimmerman HJ, Ishak KG, Harter JG "Diclofenac-associated hepatotoxicity: analysis of 180 cases reported to the food and drug administration as adverse reactions." Hepatology 22 (1995): 820-7
  12. Homon CA, Fluck ER, Janssen FW, Ruelius HW "Protein binding and clearance of oxaprozin, a highly bound anti- inflammatory agent." Agents Actions 12 (1982): 211-5
  13. Hucker HB, Stauffer SC, White SD, et al "Physiologic disposition and metabolic fate of a new anti-inflammatory agent, cis-5-fluoro-2-methyl-1-[p-(methylsulfinyl)-benzylidenyl]-indene-3-acetic acid in the." Drug Metab Dispos 1 (1973): 721-36
  14. "Product Information. Mobic (meloxicam)" Boehringer-Ingelheim, Ridgefield, CT.
  15. Helfgott SM, Sandberg-Cook J, Zakim D, Nestler J "Diclofenac-associated hepatotoxicity." JAMA 264 (1990): 2660-2
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  17. Breen EG, McNicholl J, Cosgrove E, McCabe J, Stevens FM "Fatal hepatitis associated with diclofenac." Gut 27 (1986): 1390-3
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  19. Ferdinandi ES, Sehgal SN, Demerson CA, Dubuc J, Zilber J, Dvornik D, Cayen MN "Disposition and biotransformation of C-etodolac in man." Xenobiotica 16 (1986): 153-66
  20. Hyson CP, Kazakoff MA "A severe multisystem reaction to sulindac." Arch Intern Med 151 (1991): 387-8
  21. Riess W, Stierlin H, Degen P, et al "Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the anti-inflammatory agent Voltaren." Scand J Rheumatol Suppl 22 (1978): 17-29
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  31. "Product Information. Daypro (oxaprozin)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
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  33. Purcell P, Henry D, Melville G "Diclofenac hepatitis." Gut 32 (1991): 1381-5
  34. Turner R "Hepatic and renal tolerability of long-term naproxen treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis." Semin Arthritis Rheum 17 (1988): 29-35
  35. Singh G, Ramey DR, Morfeld D, Fries JF "Comparative toxicity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents." Pharmacol Ther 62 (1994): 175-91
  36. "Product Information. Ansaid (flurbiprofen)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  37. Alvan G, Orme M, Bertilsson L, et al "Pharmacokinetics of indomethacin." Clin Pharmacol Ther 18 (1975): 364-73
  38. Hepps KS, Maliha GM, Estrada R, Goodgame RW "Severe cholestatic jaundice associated with piroxicam." Gastroenterology 101 (1991): 1737-40
  39. "Product Information. Clinoril (sulindac)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  40. Planas R, De Leon R, Quer JC, Barranco C, Bruguera M, Gassull MA "Fatal submassive necrosis of the liver associated with piroxicam." Am J Gastroenterol 85 (1990): 468-70
  41. "Product Information. Relafen (nabumetone)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  42. Brooks CD, Linet OI, Schellenberg D, Turner LF, Defesche CL, Teoh KW, Johnson JH, Assenzo JR "Clinical safety of flurbiprofen." J Clin Pharmacol 30 (1990): 342-51
  43. Sherman KE, Jones C "Hepatotoxicity associated with piroxicam use." Gastroenterology 103 (1992): 354-5
  44. "Product Information. Dolobid (diflunisal)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  45. Victorino RM, Baptista A, Silveira JC, de Moura MC "Jaundice associated with naproxen." Postgrad Med J 56 (1980): 368-70
  46. Julh RP, Van Thiel DH, Dittert LW, et al "Ibuprofen and sulindac kinetics in alcoholic liver disease." Clin Pharmacol Ther 34 (1983): 104-9
  47. "Product Information. Bextra (valdecoxib)." Pharmacia Corporation, Peapack, NJ.
  48. Catalano MA "Worldwide safety experience with diclofenac." Am J Med 80 (1986): 81-7
  49. Rubin A, Warrick P, Wolen RL, et al "Physiological disposition of fenoprofen in man III: metabolism and protein binding of fenoprofen." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 183 (1972): 449-57
  50. Jick H, Derby LE, Rodriguez LA, et al "Liver disease associated with diclofenac, naproxen, and piroxicam." Pharmacotherapy 12 (1992): 207-12
  51. "Product Information. Tolectin (tolmetin)." McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  52. Park GD, Spector R, Headstream T, Goldberg M "Serious adverse reactions associated with sulindac." Arch Intern Med 142 (1982): 1292-4
  53. Purdum PP, Shelden SL, Boyd JW, Shiffman ML "Oxaprozin-induced fulminant hepatitis." Ann Pharmacother 28 (1994): 1159-61
  54. Lee SM, O'Brien CJ, Williams R, Whitaker S, Gould SR "Subacute hepatic necrosis induced by piroxicam." Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 293 (1986): 540-1
  55. Gallanosa AG, Spyker DA "Sulindac hepatotoxicity: a case report and review." Clin Toxicol 23 (1985): 205-38
  56. Cappell MS, Kozicky O, Competiello LS "Indomethacin-induced cholestasis." J Clin Gastroenterol 10 (1988): 445-7
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  58. "Product Information. Motrin (ibuprofen)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  59. Blouin R, Chaudhary I, Nishihara K, Cox S "The effects of liver and renal disease on stereoselective serum binding of flurbiprofen." Br J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1993): 62-4
  60. "Product Information. Indocin (indomethacin)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  61. Williams RL, Upton RA, Cello JP, et al "Naproxen disposition in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 27 (1984): 291-6
  62. "Product Information. Feldene (piroxicam)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  63. Sallie RW, McKenzie T, Reed WD, Quinlan MF, Shilkin KB "Diclofenac hepatitis." Aust N Z J Med 21 (1991): 251-5
  64. Janssen FW, Jusko WJ, Chiang ST, Kirkman SK, Southgate PJ, Coleman AJ, Ruelius HW "Metabolism and kinetics of oxaprozin in normal subjects." Clin Pharmacol Ther 27 (1980): 352-62
  65. Helleberg L "Clinical pharmacokinetics of indomethacin." Clin Pharmacokinet 6 (1981): 245-58
  66. "Product Information. Voltaren (diclofenac)." Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ.
  67. "Product Information. Nalfon (fenoprofen)." Xspire Pharma, Ridgeland, MS.
  68. Selley ML, Glass J, Triggs EJ, Thomas J "Pharmacokinetic studies of tolmetin in man." Clin Pharmacol Ther 17 (1975): 599-605
  69. Hyneck ML "An overview of the clinical pharmacokinetics of nabumetone." J Rheumatol 19 (1992): 20-4
  70. "Product Information. Celebrex (celecoxib)." Searle, Chicago, IL.
  71. Daniele B, Pignata S, D'Agostino L, et al "Sulindac-induced severe hepatitis." Am J Gastroenterol 83 (1988): 1429-31
  72. Hvidberg E, Lausen HH, Jansen JA "Indomethacin: plasma concentrations and protein binding in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 4 (1972): 119-24
  73. Caballeria E, Masso RM, Arago JV, Sanchis A "Piroxicam hepatotoxicity." Am J Gastroenterol 85 (1990): 898-9
  74. Stierlin H, Faigle JW "Biotransformation of diclofenac sodium (Voltaren) in animals and man. II. Quantitative determination of the unchanged drug and principal phenolic metabolites, in urine and bile." Xenobiotica 9 (1979): 611-21
  75. Zimmerman HJ "Hepatic effects of oxaprozin." Semin Arthritis Rheum 15 (1986): 35-9
  76. "Product Information. Toradol (ketorolac)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  77. Richardson CJ, Blocka KL, Ross SG, Verbeeck RK "Piroxicam and 5'-hydroxypiroxicam kinetics following multiple dose administration of piroxicam." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 32 (1987): 89-91
  78. Wood LJ, Mundo F, Searle J, Powell LW "Sulindac hepatotoxicity: effects of acute and chronic exposure." Aust N Z J Med 15 (1985): 397-401
  79. Giroux Y, Moreau M, Kass TG "Cholestatic jaundice caused by sulindac." Can J Surg 25 (1982): 334-5
  80. Klein SM, Khan MA "Hepatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis and pancreatitis in association with sulindac therapy." J Rheumatol 10 (1983): 513-3
  81. Lasseter K, Shamblen E, Murdoch A, Marino M, Minor M, Kraml MJ "Pharmacokinetics of etodolac in patients with hepatic cirrhosis." J Clin Pharmacol 28 (1988): 933
  82. Gerber D "Adverse reactions of piroxicam." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 21 (1987): 707-10
  83. Macdonald JI, Wallace SM, Mahachai V, Verbeeck RK "Both phenolic and acyl glucuronidation pathways of diflunisal are impaired in liver cirrhosis." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 42 (1992): 471-4
  84. Willis JV, Kendall MJ, Flinn RM, Thornhill DP, Welling PG "The pharmacokinetics of diclofenac sodium following intravenous and oral administration." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 16 (1979): 405-10
  85. Mabee CL, Mabee SW, Baker PB, Kirkpatrick RB, Levine EJ "Fulminant hepatic failure associated with etodolac use." Am J Gastroenterol 90 (1995): 659-61
  86. Pages LJ, Martinez JJ, Garg DC, et al "Pharmacokinetics of ketorolac tromethamine in hepatically impaired vs young healthy subjects." J Clin Pharmacol 27 (1987): 724
  87. O'Brien WM, Bagby GF "Rare adverse reactions to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs." J Rheumatol 12 (1985): 562-7
  88. Maleev A, Vlahov V, Gruev I, Dierdorf D, Kostova N, Bacracheva N "Liver insufficiency as a factor modifying the pharmacokinetic characteristic of the preparation nabumetone." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 24 (1986): 425-9
  89. "Product Information. Naprosyn (naproxen)." Syntex Laboratories Inc, Palo Alto, CA.
  90. Schattenkirchner M "An updated safety profile of etodolac in several thousand patients." Eur J Rheumatol Inflamm 10 (1990): 56-65
  91. "Product Information. Vioxx (rofecoxib)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  92. Stierlin H, Faigle JW, Sallmann A, et al "Biotransformationm of diclofenac sodium (Voltaren) in animal and in man. I. Isolation and identification of principal metabolites." Xenobiotica 9 (1979): 601-10
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Moderate

Nsaids (Includes Nuprin) ↔ Hyperkalemia

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Hyperkalemia, Renal Dysfunction

Increase in serum potassium concentration, including hyperkalemia, have been reported with use of NSAIDs, even in some patients without renal impairment. In patients with normal renal function, these effects have been attributed to a hyporeninemic- hypoaldosteronism state.

Moderate

Nsaids (Includes Nuprin) ↔ Hypertension

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Hypertension

NSAIDs including topicals can lead to the onset of new hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which can contribute to the increased incidence of cardiovascular events. Blood pressure should be monitored closely during NSAID therapy and throughout the course of therapy.

Moderate

Nsaids (Includes Nuprin) ↔ Platelet Aggregation Inhibition

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Thrombocytopathy, Coagulation Defect, Thrombocytopenia, Bleeding, Vitamin K Deficiency

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reversibly inhibit platelet adhesion and aggregation and may prolong bleeding time in some patients. With the exception of aspirin, the platelet effects seen with most NSAIDs at usual recommended dosages are generally slight and of relatively short duration but may be more pronounced in patients with underlying hemostatic abnormalities. Thrombocytopenia has also been reported rarely during NSAID use. Therapy with NSAIDs should be administered cautiously in patients with significant active bleeding or a hemorrhagic diathesis, including hemostatic and/or coagulation defects associated with hemophilia, vitamin K deficiency, hypoprothrombinemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathy, or severe hepatic impairment. NSAIDs that selectively inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (i.e., COX-2 inhibitors) do not appear to affect platelet function or bleeding time at indicated dosages and may be preferable if risk of bleeding is a concern.

References

  1. Leese PT, Hubbard RC, Karim A, Isakson PC, Yu SS, Geis GS "Effects of celecoxib, a novel cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on platelet function in healthy adults: A randomized, controlled trial." J Clin Pharmacol 40 (2000): 124-32
  2. "Product Information. Relafen (nabumetone)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  3. Hyson CP, Kazakoff MA "A severe multisystem reaction to sulindac." Arch Intern Med 151 (1991): 387-8
  4. Thwaites BK, Nigus DB, Bouska GW, Mongan PD, Ayala EF, Merrill GA "Intravenous ketorolac tromethamine worsens platelet function during knee arthroscopy under spinal anesthesia." Anesth Analg 82 (1996): 1176-81
  5. Berliner S, Sidi Y, Shaklai M, Pinkhas J "Appearance of thrombocytopenia and benign monoclonal gammopathy following intake of drugs." Acta Haematol 67 (1982): 71-2
  6. Park GD, Spector R, Headstream T, Goldberg M "Serious adverse reactions associated with sulindac." Arch Intern Med 142 (1982): 1292-4
  7. Bernhard GC "Worldwide safety experience with nabumetone." J Rheumatol 19 (1992): 48-57
  8. Brooks CD, Linet OI, Schellenberg D, Turner LF, Defesche CL, Teoh KW, Johnson JH, Assenzo JR "Clinical safety of flurbiprofen." J Clin Pharmacol 30 (1990): 342-51
  9. Robb PJ, Rollin AM, Saunders DA "Diclofenac and post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage." Clin Otolaryngol 20 (1995): 483
  10. "Product Information. Dolobid (diflunisal)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  11. Katz ME, Wang P "Fenoprofen-associated thrombocytopenia." Ann Intern Med 92 (1980): 262
  12. Gerber D "Adverse reactions of piroxicam." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 21 (1987): 707-10
  13. "Product Information. Tolectin (tolmetin)." McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  14. Concannon MJ, Meng L, Welsh CF, Puckett CL "Inhibition of perioperative platelet aggregation using toradol (ketorolac)." Ann Plast Surg 30 (1993): 264-6
  15. Baber N, Halliday LDC, van den Heuval, et al "Indomethacin in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical effects, pharmacokinetics, and platelet studies in responders and non-responders." Ann Rheum Dis 38 (1979): 128-37
  16. Jick H, Derby LE, Garcia Rodriguez LA, Jick SS, Dean AD "Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and certain rare, serious adverse events: a cohort study." Pharmacotherapy 13 (1993): 212-7
  17. "Product Information. Nalfon (fenoprofen)." Xspire Pharma, Ridgeland, MS.
  18. O'Brien WM "Long-term efficacy and safety of tolmetin sodium in treatment of geriatric patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: a retrospective study." J Clin Pharmacol 23 (1983): 309-23
  19. Karachalios GN, Parigorakis JG "Thrombocytopenia and sulindac." Ann Intern Med 104 (1986): 128
  20. Rosenbaum JT, O'Connor M "Thrombocytopenia associated with sulindac." Arthritis Rheum 24 (1981): 753-4
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Nuprin (ibuprofen) drug Interactions

There are 440 drug interactions with Nuprin (ibuprofen)

Nuprin (ibuprofen) alcohol/food Interactions

There are 3 alcohol/food interactions with Nuprin (ibuprofen)

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No information available.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

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