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Chlordiazepoxide / clidinium Disease Interactions

There are 21 disease interactions with chlordiazepoxide / clidinium:

Major

Anticholinergics (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Arrhythmias

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Arrhythmias

Patients with tachycardia should be supervised closely during treatment with anticholinergic agents. Tachycardia is produced by blocking normal vagal inhibition of the SA node. Paradoxically, bradycardia may occur due to central vagal stimulation which may occur prior to peripheral cholinergic blockade.

References

  1. "Product Information. Artane (trihexyphenidyl)." Lederle Laboratories, Wayne, NJ.
  2. Blumensohn R, Razoni G, Shalev A, Munitz H "Bradycardia due to trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 20 (1986): 786-7
  3. "Product Information. Cogentin (benztropine)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  4. Voinov H, Elefante V, Mujica R "Sinus bradycardia related to the use of benztropine mesylate." Am J Psychiatry 149 (1992): 711
View all 4 references
Major

Anticholinergics (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Autonomic Neuropathy

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Autonomic Neuropathy

Agents with anticholinergic activity can exacerbate many of the manifestations of autonomic neuropathy, including tachycardia, anhidrosis, bladder atony, obstipation, dry mouth and eyes, cycloplegia and blurring of vision, and sexual impotence in males. Therapy with antimuscarinic agents and higher dosages of antispasmodic agents (e.g., dicyclomine or oxybutynin) should be administered cautiously in patients with autonomic neuropathy.

References

  1. "Product Information. Atropine Sulfate Injection, USP (atropine)." ESI Lederle Generics, Philadelphia, PA.
Major

Anticholinergics (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Gi Obstruction

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Esophageal Obstruction, Gastrointestinal Obstruction

Anticholinergics are contraindicated in patients with obstructive diseases such as achalasia, esophageal stricture or stenosis, pyloroduodenal stenosis, stenosing peptic ulcer, pyloric obstruction, and paralytic ileus. Anticholinergics may further suppress intestinal motility with resultant precipitation or aggravation of toxic megacolon.

References

  1. "Product Information. Antivert (meclizine)." Roerig Division, New York, NY.
  2. Blamoutier J "Comparative trial of two antihistamines, mequitazine and brompheniramine." Curr Med Res Opin 5 (1978): 366-70
  3. "Azatadine (optimine)--a new antihistamine." Med Lett Drugs Ther 19 (1977): 77-9
  4. "Product Information. Chlortrimeton (chlorpheniramine)." Schering-Plough, Liberty Corner, NJ.
  5. "Product Information. Atropine Sulfate Injection, USP (atropine)." ESI Lederle Generics, Philadelphia, PA.
  6. "Product Information. Optimine (azatadine)." Schering Laboratories, Kenilworth, NJ.
  7. "Product Information. Periactin (cyproheptadine)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  8. "Product Information. Benadryl (diphenhydramine)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  9. "Product Information. Tavist (clemastine)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
  10. Bantz EW, Dolen WK, Chadwick EW, Nelson HS "Chronic chlorpheniramine therapy: subsensitivity, drug metabolism, and compliance." Ann Allergy 59 (1987): 341-6
  11. "Product Information. Cogentin (benztropine)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  12. Simons FE, Frith EM, Simons KJ "The pharmacokinetics and antihistaminic effects of brompheniramine." J Allergy Clin Immunol 70 (1982): 458-64
  13. "Product Information. Poly-Histine-D (pyrilamine)." Bock Pharmaceutical Company, St. Louis, MO.
  14. "Product Information. Phenergan (promethazine)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  15. "Product Information. Artane (trihexyphenidyl)." Lederle Laboratories, Wayne, NJ.
  16. Mevorach D "Adverse effects of atropine sulfate autoinjection." Ann Pharmacother 26 (1992): 564
  17. "Product Information. Dimetane (brompheniramine)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
View all 17 references
Major

Anticholinergics (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Glaucoma

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Glaucoma/Intraocular Hypertension

Anticholinergic agents are contraindicated in patients with primary glaucoma, a tendency toward glaucoma (narrow anterior chamber angle), or adhesions (synechiae) between the iris and lens, as well as for the elderly and others in whom undiagnosed glaucoma or excessive pressure in the eye may be present. Because anticholinergics cause mydriasis, they may exacerbate these conditions.

References

  1. Schuller DE, Turkewitz D "Adverse effects of antihistamines." Postgrad Med 79 (1986): 75-86
  2. "Product Information. Chlortrimeton (chlorpheniramine)." Schering-Plough, Liberty Corner, NJ.
  3. "Product Information. Dimetane (brompheniramine)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  4. "Product Information. Moban (molindone)." Gate Pharmaceuticals, Sellersville, PA.
  5. "Product Information. Phenergan (promethazine)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  6. Goldstein JH "Effects of drugs on cornea, conjunctiva, and lids." Int Ophthalmol Clin 11 (1971): 13-34
  7. "Product Information. Poly-Histine-D (pyrilamine)." Bock Pharmaceutical Company, St. Louis, MO.
  8. Holland MG "Autonomic drugs in ophthalmology: some problems and promises. Section II: Anticholinergic drugs." Ann Ophthalmol 6 (1974): 661-4
  9. "Product Information. Thorazine (chlorpromazine)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  10. "Product Information. Benadryl (diphenhydramine)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  11. O'Connor PS, Mumma JV "Atropine toxicity." Am J Ophthalmol 99 (1985): 613-4
  12. Berdy GJ, Berdy SS, Odin LS, Hirst LW "Angle closure glaucoma precipitated by aerosolized atropine." Arch Intern Med 151 (1991): 1658-60
  13. Pecora JL "Malignant glaucoma worsened by miotics in a postoperative angle- closure glaucoma patient." Ann Ophthalmol 11 (1979): 1412-4
  14. Clearkin LG "Angle closure glaucoma precipitated by atropine." Arch Intern Med 152 (1992): 880
  15. "Product Information. Periactin (cyproheptadine)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  16. "Product Information. Compazine (prochlorperazine)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  17. "Product Information. Artane (trihexyphenidyl)." Lederle Laboratories, Wayne, NJ.
  18. "Product Information. Orap Tablets (pimozide)." Gate Pharmaceuticals, Sellersville, PA.
  19. "Product Information. Atropine Sulfate Injection, USP (atropine)." ESI Lederle Generics, Philadelphia, PA.
  20. "Product Information. Cogentin (benztropine)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  21. "Product Information. Optimine (azatadine)." Schering Laboratories, Kenilworth, NJ.
  22. Kanto J "New aspects in the use of atropine." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 21 (1983): 92-4
  23. "Product Information. Tavist (clemastine)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
View all 23 references
Major

Anticholinergics (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Obstructive Uropathy

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Urinary Retention

In general, the use of anticholinergic agents is contraindicated in patients with urinary retention and bladder neck obstruction caused by prostatic hypertrophy. Dysuria may occur and may require catheterization. Also, anticholinergic drugs may aggravate partial obstructive uropathy. Caution is advised even when using agents with mild to moderate anticholinergic activity, particularly in elderly patients.

References

  1. Schuller DE, Turkewitz D "Adverse effects of antihistamines." Postgrad Med 79 (1986): 75-86
  2. "Product Information. Phenergan (promethazine)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  3. "Product Information. Artane (trihexyphenidyl)." Lederle Laboratories, Wayne, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Moban (molindone)." Gate Pharmaceuticals, Sellersville, PA.
  5. "Product Information. Poly-Histine-D (pyrilamine)." Bock Pharmaceutical Company, St. Louis, MO.
  6. Shutt LE, Bowes JB "Atropine and hyoscine." Anaesthesia 34 (1979): 476-90
  7. "Product Information. Dimetane (brompheniramine)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  8. "Product Information. Periactin (cyproheptadine)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  9. "Product Information. Compazine (prochlorperazine)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  10. "Product Information. Benadryl (diphenhydramine)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  11. "Product Information. Zyrtec (cetirizine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  12. "Product Information. Chlortrimeton (chlorpheniramine)." Schering-Plough, Liberty Corner, NJ.
  13. Bantz EW, Dolen WK, Chadwick EW, Nelson HS "Chronic chlorpheniramine therapy: subsensitivity, drug metabolism, and compliance." Ann Allergy 59 (1987): 341-6
  14. "Product Information. Antivert (meclizine)." Roerig Division, New York, NY.
  15. "Product Information. Atropine Sulfate Injection, USP (atropine)." ESI Lederle Generics, Philadelphia, PA.
  16. "Product Information. Optimine (azatadine)." Schering Laboratories, Kenilworth, NJ.
  17. "Product Information. Cogentin (benztropine)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  18. "Product Information. Tavist (clemastine)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
  19. "Product Information. Orap Tablets (pimozide)." Gate Pharmaceuticals, Sellersville, PA.
  20. "Product Information. Thorazine (chlorpromazine)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  21. O'Kelly SW, Spargo PM "Postoperative urinary retention in men." BMJ 302 (1991): 1403-4
View all 21 references
Major

Anticholinergics (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Tardive Dyskinesia

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Tardive Dyskinesia

Anticholinergic agents and agents with secondary anticholinergic activity may aggravate tardive dyskinesia or induce previously suppressed symptoms. Therapy with these agents should be avoided, if possible, or administered cautiously in patients with preexisting tardive dyskinesia, particularly in the elderly. If tardive dyskinesia symptoms develop or worsen during treatment with an anticholinergic agent, prompt withdrawal of therapy will provide better chances of improving the condition.

References

  1. Jones B, Lal S "Tardive dyskinesia uncovered after ingestion of Sominex, an over-the- counter drug." Can J Psychiatry 30 (1985): 370-1
  2. "Product Information. Benadryl (diphenhydramine)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  3. Kiloh LG, Smith JS, Williams SE "Antiparkinson drugs as causal agents in tardive dykinesia." Med J Aust 2 (1973): 591-3
  4. "Product Information. Artane (trihexyphenidyl)." Lederle Laboratories, Wayne, NJ.
  5. Brait KA, Zagerman AJ "Dyskinesias after antihistamine use ." N Engl J Med 296 (1977): 111
  6. "Product Information. Cogentin (benztropine)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  7. Burnett GB, Prange AJ Jr, Wilson IC, Jolliff LA, Creese IC, Synder SH "Adverse effects of anticholinergic antiparkinsonian drugs in tardive dyskinesia. An investigation of mechanism." Neuropsychobiology 6 (1980): 109-20
  8. Yassa R "Antiparkinsonian medication withdrawal in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: a report of three cases." Can J Psychiatry 30 (1985): 440-2
View all 8 references
Major

Antiperistaltic Agents (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Infectious Diarrhea

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Infectious Diarrhea/Enterocolitis/Gastroenteritis

The use of drugs with antiperistaltic activity (primarily antidiarrheal and antimuscarinic agents, but also antispasmodic agents such as dicyclomine or oxybutynin at high dosages) is contraindicated in patients with diarrhea due to pseudomembranous enterocolitis or enterotoxin-producing bacteria. These drugs may prolong and/or worsen diarrhea associated with organisms that invade the intestinal mucosa, such as toxigenic E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella, and pseudomembranous colitis due to broad-spectrum antibiotics. Other symptoms and complications such as fever, shedding of organisms and extraintestinal illness may also be increased or prolonged. In general, because antiperistaltic agents decrease gastrointestinal motility, they may delay the excretion of infective gastroenteric organisms or toxins and should be used cautiously in patients with any infectious diarrhea, particularly if accompanied by high fever or pus or blood in the stool. Some cough and cold and other combination products may occasionally include antimuscarinic agents for their drying effects and may, therefore, require careful selection when necessary.

References

  1. "Product Information. Atropine Sulfate Injection, USP (atropine)." ESI Lederle Generics, Philadelphia, PA.
  2. "Product Information. Imodium (loperamide)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  3. Marshall WF Jr, Rosenthal P, Merritt RJ "Atropine therapy and paralytic ileus in an infant." J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 9 (1989): 532-4
  4. "Lomotil for diarrhea in children." Med Lett Drugs Ther 17 (1975): 104
  5. Walley T, Milson D "Loperamide related toxic megacolon in Clostridium difficile colitis." Postgrad Med J 66 (1990): 582
  6. Brown JW "Toxic megacolon associated with loperamide therapy." JAMA 241 (1979): 501-2
View all 6 references
Major

Benzodiazepines (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Acute Alcohol Intoxication

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Acute Alcohol Intoxication

The use of benzodiazepines with alcohol is not recommended. Patients with acute alcohol intoxication exhibit depressed vital signs. The central nervous system depressant effects of benzodiazepines may be additive with those of alcohol, and severe respiratory depression and death may occur. Therapy with benzodiazepines should be administered cautiously in patients who might be prone to acute alcohol intake.

References

  1. "Product Information. Xanax (alprazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  2. "Product Information. Dalmane (flurazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  3. "Product Information. Doral (quazepam)." Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Versed (midazolam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  5. "Product Information. Tranxene (clorazepate)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  6. "Product Information. Serax (oxazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  7. "Product Information. Ativan (lorazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  8. "Product Information. Valium (diazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  9. "Product Information. ProSom (estazolam)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  10. "Product Information. Librium (chlordiazepoxide)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  11. "Product Information. Restoril (temazepam)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
  12. "Product Information. Halcion (triazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  13. "Product Information. Klonopin (clonazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
View all 13 references
Major

Benzodiazepines (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Closed-Angle Glaucoma

Severe Potential Hazard, Low plausibility

Applies to: Glaucoma/Intraocular Hypertension

The manufacturers consider the use of benzodiazepines to be contraindicated in patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma or untreated open-angle glaucoma. These agents do not possess anticholinergic activity but have very rarely been associated with increased intraocular pressure.

References

  1. "Product Information. Klonopin (clonazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. Restoril (temazepam)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
  3. "Product Information. Xanax (alprazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  4. "Product Information. Doral (quazepam)." Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
  5. "Product Information. Dalmane (flurazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  6. "Product Information. ProSom (estazolam)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  7. "Product Information. Versed (midazolam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  8. "Product Information. Ativan (lorazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  9. "Product Information. Tranxene (clorazepate)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  10. "Product Information. Librium (chlordiazepoxide)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  11. Fraunfelder FT, Fraunfelder FW; Randall JA "Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects 5th" Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann (2001):
  12. "Product Information. Valium (diazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  13. "Product Information. Serax (oxazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  14. "Product Information. Halcion (triazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
View all 14 references
Major

Benzodiazepines (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Drug Dependence

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Drug Abuse/Dependence

Benzodiazepines have the potential to cause dependence and abuse. Tolerance as well as physical and psychological dependence can develop, particularly after prolonged use and/or excessive dosages. However, abrupt cessation following continual use of as few as 6 weeks at therapeutic levels has occasionally precipitated withdrawal symptoms. Addiction- prone individuals, such as those with a history of alcohol or substance abuse, should be under careful surveillance when treated with benzodiazepines. It may be prudent to refrain from dispensing large quantities of medication to these patients. After prolonged use or if dependency is suspected, withdrawal of benzodiazepine therapy should be undertaken gradually using a dosage- tapering schedule. If withdrawal symptoms occur, temporary reinstitution of benzodiazepines may be necessary.

References

  1. "Product Information. Halcion (triazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  2. Pecknold JC "Discontinuation reactions to alprazolam in panic disorder." J Psychiatr Res 27 (1993): 155-70
  3. Wilbur R, Kulik AV "Abstinence syndrome from therapeutic doses of oxazepam." Can J Psychiatry 28 (1983): 298-300
  4. Frattola L, Garreau M, Piolti R, Bassi S, Albizzati MG, Borghi C, Morselli PL "Comparison of the efficacy, safety and withdrawal of alpidem and alprazolam in anxious patients." Br J Psychiatry 165 (1994): 94-100
  5. Bond WS, Schwartz M "Withdrawal reactions after long-term treatment with flurazepam." Clin Pharm 3 (1984): 316-8
  6. "Product Information. Klonopin (clonazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  7. Hersch EL, Billings RF "Acute confusional state with status petit mal as a withdrawal syndrome: and five year follow-up." Can J Psychiatry 33 (1988): 157-9
  8. Specht U, Boenigk HE, Wolf P "Discontinuation of clonazepam after long-term treatment." Epilepsia 30 (1989): 458-63
  9. Hayward P, Wardle J, Higgitt A, Gray J "Changes in ''withdrawal symptoms'' following discontinuation of low-dose diazepam." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 125 (1996): 392-7
  10. Tien AY, Gujavarty KS "Seizure following withdrawal from triazolam." Am J Psychiatry 142 (1985): 1516-7
  11. Finer MJ "Habituation to chlordiazepoxide in an alcoholic population." JAMA 213 (1970): 1342
  12. Rickels K, Schweizer E, Csanalosi I, Case WG, Chung H "Long-term treatment of anxiety and risk of withdrawal. Prospective comparison of clorazepate and buspirone." Arch Gen Psychiatry 45 (1988): 444-50
  13. Browne JL, Hauge KJ "A review of alprazolam withdrawal." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 20 (1986): 837-41
  14. Patterson WM "Triazolam withdrawal." J Clin Psychiatry 49 (1988): 369
  15. Rosebush PI, Mazurek MF "Catatonia after benzodiazepine withdrawal." J Clin Psychopharmacol 16 (1996): 315-9
  16. Robinson GM, Sellers EM "Diazepam withdrawal seizures." Can Med Assoc J 126 (1982): 944-5
  17. Fontaine R, Chouinard G, Annable L "Rebound anxiety in anxious patients after abrupt withdrawal of benzodiazepine treatment." Am J Psychiatry 141 (1984): 848-52
  18. Keshavan MS, Moodley P, Eales M, Joyce E, Yeragani VK "Delusional depression following benzodiazepine withdrawal." Can J Psychiatry 33 (1988): 626-7
  19. "Product Information. Dalmane (flurazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  20. Rigby J, Harvey M, Davies DR "Mania precipitated by benzodiazepine withdrawal." Acta Psychiatr Scand 79 (1989): 406-7
  21. "Product Information. Restoril (temazepam)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
  22. "Product Information. ProSom (estazolam)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  23. Heritch AJ, Capwell R, Roy-Byrne PP "A case of psychosis and delirium following withdrawal from triazolam." J Clin Psychiatry 48 (1987): 168-9
  24. Bond WS, Berwish NJ, Swift B "Severe withdrawal syndrome after substitution of a short-acting benzodiazepine for a long-acting benzodiazepine." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 19 (1985): 742-4
  25. Busto U, Sellers EM, Naranjo CA, et al "Withdrawal reaction after long-term therapeutic use of benzodiazepines." N Engl J Med 315 (1986): 854-9
  26. "Product Information. Valium (diazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  27. MacKinnon GL, Parker WA "Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome: a literature review and evaluation." Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 9 (1982): 19-33
  28. Berlin RM, Conell LJ "Withdrawal symptoms after long-term treatment with therapeutic doses of flurazepam: a case report." Am J Psychiatry 140 (1983): 488-90
  29. Jaffe R, Gibson E "Clonazepam withdrawal psychosis." J Clin Psychopharmacol 6 (1986): 193
  30. Howe JG "Lorazepam withdrawal seizures." Br Med J 280 (1980): 1163-4
  31. Petursson H, Lader MH "Benzodiazepine dependence." Br J Addict 76 (1981): 133-45
  32. Schneider LS, Syapin PJ, Pawluczyk S "Seizures following triazolam withdrawal despite benzodiazepine treatment." J Clin Psychiatry 48 (1987): 418-9
  33. Lapierre YD, Labelle A "Manic-like reaction induced by lorazepam withdrawal." Can J Psychiatry 32 (1987): 697-8
  34. "Product Information. Xanax (alprazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  35. Kroboth PD, Bertz RJ, Smith RB "Acute tolerance to triazolam during continuous and step infusions: estimation of the effect offset rate constant." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 264 (1993): 1047-55
  36. "Product Information. Doral (quazepam)." Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
  37. Greenblatt DJ, Shader RI, Abernethy DR "Current status of benzodiazepines (second of two parts): clinical use of benzoidazepines." N Engl J Med 309 (1983): 410-6
  38. Finley PR, Nolan PE, Jr "Precipitation of benzodiazepine withdrawal following sudden discontinuation of midazolam." DICP 23 (1989): 151-2
  39. Hauser P, Devinsky O, De Bellis M, Theodore WH, Post RM "Benzodiazepine withdrawal delirium with catatonic features. Occurrence in patients with partial seizure disorders." Arch Neurol 46 (1989): 696-9
  40. Ryan GP, Boisse NR "Experimental induction of benzodiazepine tolerance and physical dependence." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 226 (1983): 100-7
  41. Roy-Byrne PP, Sullivan MD, Cowley DS, Ries RK "Adjunctive treatment of benzodiazepine discontinuation syndromes - a review." J Psychiatr Res 27 Suppl (1993): 143-53
  42. Kales A, Bixler EO, Soldatos CR, Jacoby JA, Kales JD "Lorazepam: effects on sleep and withdrawal phenomena." Pharmacology 32 (1986): 121-30
  43. Ananth J "Abstinence syndrome from therapeutic doses of oxazepam." Can J Psychiatry 28 (1983): 592
  44. Pierce MW, Shu VS, Groves LJ "Safety of estazolam. The United States clinical experience." Am J Med 88 (1990): s12-7
  45. "Product Information. Tranxene (clorazepate)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  46. "Product Information. Serax (oxazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  47. "Product Information. Librium (chlordiazepoxide)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  48. "Product Information. Ativan (lorazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
View all 48 references
Major

Benzodiazepines (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Renal/Liver Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease, Renal Dysfunction

Benzodiazepines are metabolized by the liver, and the metabolites are excreted in the urine. Chlordiazepoxide, clorazepate, diazepam, flurazepam and quazepam undergo oxidative N-dealkylation to active metabolites that are substantially longer-acting than the parent compound. These metabolites then undergo further biotransformation to pharmacologically inactive products before excretion by the kidney. Therapy with benzodiazepines should be administered cautiously at lower initial dosages in patients with impaired renal and/or hepatic function. Agents that are converted to weakly active, short-acting, or inactive metabolites may be preferable in hepatic impairment. Lorazepam, oxazepam and temazepam are conjugated to inactive metabolites, while alprazolam, estazolam and triazolam undergo hydroxylation to weakly active or inactive metabolites.

References

  1. Dehlin O, Kullingsjo H, Liden A, Agrell B, Moser G, Olsen I "Pharmacokinetics of alprazolam in geriatric patients with neurotic depression." Pharmacol Toxicol 68 (1991): 121-4
  2. "Product Information. Ativan (lorazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  3. Murray TG, Chiang ST, Koepke HH, Walker BR "Renal disease, age, and oxazepam kinetics." Clin Pharmacol Ther 30 (1981): 805-9
  4. de Silva JAF, Strojny N "Determination of flurazepam and its major biotransformation products in blood and urine by spectrophotofluorometry and spectrophotometry." J Pharm Sci 60 (1971): 1303-14
  5. Chung M, Hilbert JM, Gural RP, Radwanski E, Symchowicz S, Zampaglione N "Multiple-dose quazepam kinetics." Clin Pharmacol Ther 35 (1984): 520-4
  6. Allen MD, Greenblatt DJ, Arnold JD "Single- and multiple-dose kinetics of estazolam, a triazolo benzodiazepine." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 66 (1979): 267-74
  7. Wilensky AJ, Levy RH, Troupin AS, Moretti-Ojemann L "Clorazepate kinetics in treated epileptics." Clin Pharmacol Ther 24 (1978): 22-30
  8. "Product Information. Tranxene (clorazepate)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  9. Ghabrial H, Desmond PV, Watson KJ, et al "The effects of age and chronic liver disease on the elimination of temazepam." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 30 (1986): 93-7
  10. Greenblatt DJ, Divoll MK, Soong MH, Boxenbaum HG, Harmatz JS, Shader RI "Desmethyldiazepam pharmacokinetics: studies following intravenous and oral desmethyldiazepam, oral clorazepate, and intravenous diazepam." J Clin Pharmacol 28 (1988): 853-9
  11. Kroboth PD, Smith RB, Silver MR, Rault R, Sorkin MI, Puschett JB, Juhl RP "Effects of end stage renal disease and aluminium hydroxide on triazolam pharmacokinetics." Br J Clin Pharmacol 19 (1985): 839-42
  12. "Product Information. Serax (oxazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  13. "Product Information. Halcion (triazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  14. "Product Information. Restoril (temazepam)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
  15. Klotz U, Avant GR, Hoyumpa A, Schenker S, Wikinson GR "The effects of age and liver disease on the disposition and elimination of diazepam in adult man." J Clin Invest 55 (1975): 347-59
  16. Kroboth PD, Smith RB, Van Thiel DH, Juhl RP "Nighttime dosing of triazolam in patients with liver disease and normal subjects: kinetics and daytime effects." J Clin Pharmacol 27 (1987): 555-60
  17. Greenblatt DJ, Divoll M, Harmatz JJ "Kinetics and clinical effects of flurazepam in young and elderly noninsomniacs." Clin Pharmacol Ther 30 (1981): 475-86
  18. Schmith VD, Piraino B, Smith RB, Kroboth PD "Alprazolam in end-stage renal disease: I. Pharmacokinetics." J Clin Pharmacol 31 (1991): 571-9
  19. Hilbert JM, Chung M, Radwanski E, Gural R, Symchowicz S, Zampaglione N "Quazepam kinetics in the elderly." Clin Pharmacol Ther 36 (1984): 566-9
  20. Kaplan SA, de Silva JAF, Jack ML, et al "Blood level profile in man following chronic oral administration of flurazepam hydrochloride." J Pharm Sci 62 (1973): 1932-5
  21. "Product Information. Xanax (alprazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  22. Kraus JW, Desmond PV, Marshall JP, Johnson RF, Schenker S, Wilkinson GR "Effects of age and liver disease on disposition of lorazepam." Clin Pharmacol Ther 24 (1978): 411-9
  23. Tedesco FJ, Mills LR "Diazepam (valium) hepatitis." Dig Dis Sci 27 (1982): 470-2
  24. Ochs HR, Greenblatt DJ, Kaschell HJ, Klehr U, Divoll M, Abernathy DR "Diazepam kinetics in patients with renal insufficiency or hyperthyroidism." Br J Clin Pharmacol 12 (1981): 829-32
  25. "Product Information. ProSom (estazolam)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  26. "Product Information. Dalmane (flurazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  27. "Product Information. Klonopin (clonazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  28. Cutler RE, Blair AD "Pharmacokinetics of diazepam in normal and uremic humans." Clin Pharmacol Ther 25 (1979): 219-20
  29. Johnson J, Padilla BG, Carter J, Holt JH, Ozawa T "Adverse effects of flurazepam in a hemodialysis patient." J Am Assoc Nephrol Nurses Tech 4 (1977): 93-5
  30. Hoyumpa AM "Disposition and elimination of minor tranquilizers in the aged and in patients with liver disease." South Med J 71 (1978): 23-8
  31. "Product Information. Doral (quazepam)." Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
  32. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  33. "Product Information. Librium (chlordiazepoxide)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  34. Roberts RK, Wilkinson GR, Branch RA, Schenker S "Effect of age and parenchymal liver disease on the disposition and elimination of chlordiazepoxide (librium)." Gastroenterology 75 (1978): 479-85
  35. Kroboth PD, Smith RB, Rault R, Silver MR, Sorkin MI, Puschett JB, Juhl RP "Effects of end-stage renal disease and aluminum hydroxide on temazepam kinetics." Clin Pharmacol Ther 37 (1985): 453-9
  36. Juhl RP, Van Thiel DH, Dittert LW, Smith RB "Alprazolam pharmacokinetics in alcoholic liver disease." J Clin Pharmacol 24 (1984): 113-9
  37. Verbeeck RK, Tjandramaga TB, de Schepper PJ, Verberckmoes R "Impaired elimination of lorazepam following subchronic administration in two patients with renal failure." Br J Clin Pharmacol 12 (1981): 749-50
  38. Ochs HR, Rauh HW, Greenblatt DJ, Kaschell HJ "Clorazepate dipotassium and diazepam in renal insufficiency: serum concentrations and protein binding of diazepam and desmethyldiazepam." Nephron 37 (1984): 100-4
  39. "Product Information. Valium (diazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  40. Sellers EM, Greenblatt DJ, Giles HG, et al "Chlordiazepoxide and oxazepam disposition in cirrhosis." Clin Pharmacol Ther 26 (1979): 240-6
  41. Greenblatt DJ "Clinical pharmacokinetics of oxazepam and lorazepam." Clin Pharmacokinet 6 (1981): 89-105
  42. Sellers EM, Greenblatt DJ, Giles HG, et al "Chlordiazepoxide and oxazepam disposition in cirrhosis." Clin Pharmacol Ther 26 (1979): 240-6
  43. Gustavson LE, Carrigan PJ "The clinical pharmacokinetics of single doses of estazolam." Am J Med 88 (1990): s2-5
  44. Morrison G, Chiang ST, Koepke HH, Walker BR "Effect of renal impairment and hemodialysis on lorazepam kinetics." Clin Pharmacol Ther 35 (1984): 646-52
  45. Morgan DD, Robinson JD, Mendenhall CL "Clinical pharmacokinetics of chlordiazepoxide in patients with alcoholic hepatitis." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 19 (1981): 279-85
  46. Hicks R, Dysken MW, Davis JM, et al "The pharmacokinetics of psychotropic medication in the elderly: a review." J Clin Psychiatry 42 (1981): 374-85
  47. Busch U, Molzahn M, Bozler G, Koss FW "Pharmacokinetics of oxazepam following multiple administration in volunteers and patients with chronic renal disease." Arzneimittelforschung 31 (1981): 1507-11
View all 47 references
Major

Benzodiazepines (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Respiratory Depression

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Pulmonary Impairment, Asphyxia, Respiratory Arrest

Benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression and apnea, usually when given in high dosages and/or by intravenous administration. However, some patients may be susceptible at commonly used dosages, including the elderly, debilitated or severely ill patients, those receiving other CNS depressants, and those with limited ventilatory reserve, chronic pulmonary insufficiency or other respiratory disorders. Therapy with benzodiazepines should be administered cautiously in these patients. Appropriate monitoring and individualization of dosage are particularly important, and equipment for resuscitation should be immediately available if the parenteral route is used. Benzodiazepines, especially injectable formulations, should generally be avoided in patients with sleep apnea, severe respiratory insufficiency, or hypoxia.

References

  1. Cohen S, Khan A "Respiratory distress with use of lorazepam in mania." J Clin Psychopharmacol 7 (1987): 199-200
  2. Eldridge PR, Punt JA "Risks associated with giving benzodiazepines to patients with acute neurological injuries." Br Med J 300 (1990): 1189-90
  3. "Product Information. Dalmane (flurazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  4. Skatrud JB, Badr S, Begle RL, Juan D "Ventilatory response to single, high dose estazolam in healthy humans." J Clin Pharmacol 30 (1990): 543-8
  5. Iber FL, Livak A, Kruss DM "Apnea and cardiopulmonary arrest during and after endoscopy." J Clin Gastroenterol 14 (1992): 109-13
  6. Yakel DL, Jr Whittaker SE, Elstad MR "Midazolam-induced angioedema and bronchoconstriction." Crit Care Med 20 (1992): 307-8
  7. "Product Information. Klonopin (clonazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  8. "Product Information. Doral (quazepam)." Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
  9. Sullivan RJ, Jr "Respiratory depression requiring ventilatory support following 0.5 mg of triazolam." J Am Geriatr Soc 37 (1989): 450-2
  10. "Product Information. Versed (midazolam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  11. "Product Information. Valium (diazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  12. Berggren L, Eriksson I, Mollenholt P, Sunzel M "Changes in respiratory pattern after repeated doses of diazepam and midazolam in healthy subjects." Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 31 (1987): 667-72
  13. "Product Information. Restoril (temazepam)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
  14. Mendelson WB, Weingartner H, Greenblatt DJ, Garnett D, Gillin JC "A clinical study of flurazepam." Sleep 5 (1982): 350-60
  15. Man GC, Hsu K, Sproule BJ "Effect of alprazolam on exercise and dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Chest 90 (1986): 832-6
  16. "Product Information. ProSom (estazolam)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  17. Berry RB, Kouchi K, Bower J, Prosise G, Light RW "Triazolam in patients with obstructive sleep apnea." Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151 (1995): 450-4
  18. "Product Information. Ativan (lorazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  19. "Product Information. Librium (chlordiazepoxide)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  20. "Product Information. Xanax (alprazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  21. Taylor JW, Simon KB "Possible intramuscular midazolam-associated cardiorespiratory arrest and death." DICP 24 (1990): 695-7
  22. Pierce MW, Shu VS, Groves LJ "Safety of estazolam. The United States clinical experience." Am J Med 88 (1990): s12-7
  23. "Product Information. Tranxene (clorazepate)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  24. Murphy PJ, Erskine R, Langton JA "The effect of intravenously administered diazepam, midazolam and flumazenil on the sensitivity of upper airway reflexes." Anaesthesia 49 (1994): 105-10
  25. Model DG, Berry DJ "Effects of chlordiazepoxide in respiratory failure due to chronic bronchitis." Lancet 2 (1974): 869-70
  26. Dixon D "Respiratory depression following midazolam." Anaesthesia 40 (1985): 922
  27. "Product Information. Halcion (triazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  28. Donaldson D, Gibson G "System complications with intravenous diazepam." Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Patho 49 (1980): 126-30
  29. "Product Information. Serax (oxazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  30. Munoz HR, Dagnino JA, Rufs JA, Bugedo GJ "Benzodiazepine premedication causes hypoxemia during spinal anesthesia in geriatric patients." Reg Anesth 17 (1992): 139-42
View all 30 references
Major

Benzodiazepines (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Seizures

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Seizures

The use of benzodiazepines in patients with seizure disorders may increase the incidence or precipitate the onset of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal). Appropriate anticonvulsant medication might need to be initiated or the dosage increased. Abrupt cessation of benzodiazepine therapy may precipitate seizures and other withdrawal symptoms, particularly after prolonged use and/or excessive dosages. Status epilepticus may occur in patients with a history of seizures withdrawn rapidly from benzodiazepine therapy. Following chronic administration, cessation of benzodiazepine therapy should occur gradually with incrementally reduced dosages. Patients should be advised not to discontinue medication without first consulting with the physician.

References

  1. Berlin RM, Conell LJ "Withdrawal symptoms after long-term treatment with therapeutic doses of flurazepam: a case report." Am J Psychiatry 140 (1983): 488-90
  2. Browne JL, Hauge KJ "A review of alprazolam withdrawal." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 20 (1986): 837-41
  3. Tien AY, Gujavarty KS "Seizure following withdrawal from triazolam." Am J Psychiatry 142 (1985): 1516-7
  4. Schneider LS, Syapin PJ, Pawluczyk S "Seizures following triazolam withdrawal despite benzodiazepine treatment." J Clin Psychiatry 48 (1987): 418-9
  5. "Product Information. ProSom (estazolam)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  6. "Product Information. Xanax (alprazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  7. "Product Information. Dalmane (flurazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  8. "Product Information. Doral (quazepam)." Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
  9. Finley PR, Nolan PE, Jr "Precipitation of benzodiazepine withdrawal following sudden discontinuation of midazolam." DICP 23 (1989): 151-2
  10. MacKinnon GL, Parker WA "Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome: a literature review and evaluation." Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 9 (1982): 19-33
  11. "Product Information. Valium (diazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  12. Busto U, Sellers EM, Naranjo CA, et al "Withdrawal reaction after long-term therapeutic use of benzodiazepines." N Engl J Med 315 (1986): 854-9
  13. "Product Information. Versed (midazolam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  14. Petursson H, Lader MH "Benzodiazepine dependence." Br J Addict 76 (1981): 133-45
  15. Howe JG "Lorazepam withdrawal seizures." Br Med J 280 (1980): 1163-4
  16. Roy-Byrne PP, Sullivan MD, Cowley DS, Ries RK "Adjunctive treatment of benzodiazepine discontinuation syndromes - a review." J Psychiatr Res 27 Suppl (1993): 143-53
  17. Ghadirian AM, Gauthier S, Wong T "Convulsions in patients abruptly withdrawn from clonazepam while receiving neuroleptic medication ." Am J Psychiatry 144 (1987): 686
  18. Kales A, Bixler EO, Soldatos CR, Jacoby JA, Kales JD "Lorazepam: effects on sleep and withdrawal phenomena." Pharmacology 32 (1986): 121-30
  19. Wilbur R, Kulik AV "Abstinence syndrome from therapeutic doses of oxazepam." Can J Psychiatry 28 (1983): 298-300
  20. Hauser P, Devinsky O, De Bellis M, Theodore WH, Post RM "Benzodiazepine withdrawal delirium with catatonic features. Occurrence in patients with partial seizure disorders." Arch Neurol 46 (1989): 696-9
  21. Ryan GP, Boisse NR "Experimental induction of benzodiazepine tolerance and physical dependence." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 226 (1983): 100-7
  22. Bond WS, Schwartz M "Withdrawal reactions after long-term treatment with flurazepam." Clin Pharm 3 (1984): 316-8
  23. Hersch EL, Billings RF "Acute confusional state with status petit mal as a withdrawal syndrome: and five year follow-up." Can J Psychiatry 33 (1988): 157-9
  24. "Product Information. Halcion (triazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  25. Robinson GM, Sellers EM "Diazepam withdrawal seizures." Can Med Assoc J 126 (1982): 944-5
  26. Ananth J "Abstinence syndrome from therapeutic doses of oxazepam." Can J Psychiatry 28 (1983): 592
  27. "Product Information. Tranxene (clorazepate)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  28. "Product Information. Serax (oxazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  29. "Product Information. Librium (chlordiazepoxide)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  30. "Product Information. Ativan (lorazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  31. Alvarez N, Hartford E, Doubt C "Epileptic seizures induced by clonazepam." Clin Electroencephalogr 12 (1981): 57-65
  32. "Product Information. Klonopin (clonazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  33. Specht U, Boenigk HE, Wolf P "Discontinuation of clonazepam after long-term treatment." Epilepsia 30 (1989): 458-63
  34. Patterson WM "Triazolam withdrawal." J Clin Psychiatry 49 (1988): 369
  35. Frattola L, Garreau M, Piolti R, Bassi S, Albizzati MG, Borghi C, Morselli PL "Comparison of the efficacy, safety and withdrawal of alpidem and alprazolam in anxious patients." Br J Psychiatry 165 (1994): 94-100
  36. "Product Information. Restoril (temazepam)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
View all 36 references
Major

Benzodiazepines (Iv/Im) (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Prolonged Hypotension

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Altered Consciousness, Shock

Benzodiazepines should not be administered by injection to patients in shock or coma. The hypnotic and hypotensive effects of these agents may be prolonged and intensified in such patients.

References

  1. "Product Information. Librium (chlordiazepoxide)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. Ativan (lorazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  3. "Product Information. Valium (diazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Versed (midazolam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
View all 4 references
Moderate

Antimuscarinics (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Psychoses

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Psychosis

Toxic psychosis manifested as confusion, disorientation, agitation, excitation, memory impairment, delusions and hallucinations may develop at toxic and therapeutic dosages of antimuscarinic agents. Therapy with these agents should be administered cautiously in patients with mental disorders receiving antimuscarinic agents for control of drug-induced extrapyramidal effects, especially at the beginning of therapy or during dosage adjustment. Psychiatric deterioration and psychotic flare-ups have also been reported following withdrawal of therapy. Symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, aggression or violent behavior, and suicidal tendencies. In high dosages, antimuscarinic agents may sometimes produce euphorigenic effects. For this reason, it can be a drug of abuse.

References

  1. Jellinek T, Gardos G, Cole JO "Adverse effects of antiparkinson drug withdrawal." Am J Psychiatry 138 (1981): 1567-71
  2. Goggin DA, Solomon GF "Trihexyphenidyl abuse for euphorigenic effect." Am J Psychiatry 136 (1979): 459-60
  3. McInnis M, Petursson H "Trihexyphenidyl dependence." Acta Psychiatr Scand 69 (1984): 538-42
  4. Kulik AV, Wilbur R "Delirium and stereotypy from anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs." Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 6 (1982): 75-82
  5. Kaminer Y, Munitz H, Wijsenbeek H "Trihexyphenidyl (Artane) abuse: euphoriant and anxiolytic." Br J Psychiatry 140 (1982): 473-4
  6. Baker LA, Cheng LY, Amara IB "The withdrawal of benztropine mesylate in chronic schizophrenic patients." Br J Psychiatry 143 (1983): 584-90
  7. Craig DH, Rosen P "Abuse of antiparkinsonian drugs." Ann Emerg Med 10 (1981): 98-100
  8. Warnes H "Toxic psychosis due to antiparkinsonian drugs." Can Psychiatr Assoc J 12 (1967): 323-6
  9. Yassa R "Antiparkinsonian medication withdrawal in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: a report of three cases." Can J Psychiatry 30 (1985): 440-2
  10. Mohan D, Mohandas E, Dube S "Trihexyphenidyl abuse." Br J Addict 76 (1981): 195-7
  11. Woody GE, O'Brien CP "Anticholinergic toxic psychosis in drug abusers treated with benztropine." Compr Psychiatry 15 (1974): 439-42
  12. Pullen GP, Best NR, Maguire J "Anticholinergic drug abuse: a common problem?" Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 289 (1984): 612-3
  13. Wilcox JA "Psychoactive properties of benztropine and trihexyphenidyl." J Psychoactive Drugs 15 (1983): 319-21
  14. "Product Information. Artane (trihexyphenidyl)." Lederle Laboratories, Wayne, NJ.
  15. Macvicar K "Abuse of antiparkinsonian drugs by psychiatric patients." Am J Psychiatry 134 (1977): 809-11
  16. Brower KJ "Smoking of prescription anticholinergic drugs." Am J Psychiatry 144 (1987): 383
  17. "Product Information. Cogentin (benztropine)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  18. Laski E, Taleporos E "Anticholinergic psychosis in a bilingual: a case study." Am J Psychiatry 134 (1977): 1038-40
  19. Hidalgo HA, Mowers RM "Anticholinergic drug abuse." DICP 24 (1990): 40-1
  20. Moreau A, Jones BD, Banno V "Chronic central anticholinergic toxicity in manic depressive illness mimicking dementia." Can J Psychiatry 31 (1986): 339-41
  21. Rubinstein JS "Abuse of antiparkinsonism drugs. Feigning of extrapyramidal symptoms to obtain trihexyphenidyl." JAMA 239 (1978): 2365-6
  22. Ananth JV, Jain RC "Benztropine psychosis." Can Psychiatr Assoc J 18 (1973): 409-14
View all 22 references
Moderate

Benzodiazepines (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Depression

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Psychosis, Depression

Benzodiazepines depress the central nervous system and may cause or exacerbate mental depression and cause suicidal behavior and ideation. Episodes of mania and hypomania have also been reported in depressed patients treated with some of these agents. Therapy with benzodiazepines should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of depression or other psychiatric disorders. Patients should be monitored for any changes in mood or behavior. It may be prudent to refrain from dispensing large quantities of medication to these patients.

References

  1. "Product Information. Halcion (triazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  2. "Product Information. Restoril (temazepam)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
  3. "Product Information. Klonopin (clonazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Tranxene (clorazepate)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  5. "Product Information. Librium (chlordiazepoxide)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  6. "Product Information. Ativan (lorazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  7. "Product Information. Dalmane (flurazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  8. "Product Information. ProSom (estazolam)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  9. "Product Information. Xanax (alprazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  10. "Product Information. Serax (oxazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  11. "Product Information. Valium (diazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  12. "Product Information. Doral (quazepam)." Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
View all 12 references
Moderate

Benzodiazepines (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Obesity

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Obesity

The plasma half-lives of benzodiazepines may be prolonged in obese patients, presumably due to increased distribution into fat. Marked increases in distribution (> 100%) have been reported for diazepam and midazolam, and moderate increases (25% to 100%) for alprazolam, lorazepam, and oxazepam. Therapy with benzodiazepines should be administered cautiously in obese patients, with careful monitoring of CNS status. Longer dosing intervals may be appropriate. When dosing by weight, loading doses should be based on actual body weight, while maintenance dose should be based on ideal body weight to avoid toxicity.

References

  1. "Product Information. Librium (chlordiazepoxide)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. Tranxene (clorazepate)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  3. "Product Information. Ativan (lorazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  4. "Product Information. Serax (oxazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  5. "Product Information. Restoril (temazepam)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
  6. "Product Information. ProSom (estazolam)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  7. "Product Information. Xanax (alprazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  8. "Product Information. Versed (midazolam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  9. "Product Information. Doral (quazepam)." Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
  10. "Product Information. Halcion (triazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  11. "Product Information. Dalmane (flurazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  12. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  13. "Product Information. Klonopin (clonazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  14. "Product Information. Valium (diazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
View all 14 references
Moderate

Benzodiazepines (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Paradoxical Reactions

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Psychosis, Hyperkinetic Syndrome of Childhood

Paradoxical reactions, including excitability, irritability, aggressive behavior, agitation, nervousness, hostility, anxiety, sleep disturbances, nightmares and vivid dreams, have been reported with the use of benzodiazepines in psychiatric patients and pediatric patients with hyperactive aggressive disorders. Such patients should be monitored for signs of paradoxical stimulation during therapy with benzodiazepines. The manufacturers do not recommend the use of benzodiazepines for the treatment of psychosis.

References

  1. "Product Information. Dalmane (flurazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. Valium (diazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  3. White MC, Silverman JJ, Harbison JW "Psychosis associated with clonazepam therapy for blepharospasm." J Nerv Ment Dis 170 (1982): 117-9
  4. Goodman WK, Charney DS "A case of alprazolam, but not lorazepam, inducing manic symptoms." J Clin Psychiatry 48 (1987): 117-8
  5. Marchevsky S, Isaacs G, Nitzan I "Behavioral disinhibition with clonazepam." Gen Hosp Psychiatry 10 (1988): 447
  6. Fava M, Borofsky GF "Sexual disinhibition during treatment with a benzodiazepine: a case report." Int J Psychiatry Med 21 (1991): 99-104
  7. Binder RL "Three case reports of behavioral disinhibition with clonazepam." Gen Hosp Psychiatry 9 (1987): 151-3
  8. Schogt B, Conn D "Paranoid symptoms associated with triazolam." Can J Psychiatry 30 (1985): 462-3
  9. Fiset L, Milgrom P, Beirne OR, Roy-Byrne P "Disinhibition of behaviors with midazolam: report of a case." J Oral Maxillofac Surg 50 (1992): 645-9
  10. Lobo BL, Miwa LJ "Midazolam disinhibition reaction." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 22 (1988): 725
  11. Weilburg JB, Sachs G, Falk WE "Triazolam-induced brief episodes of secondary mania in a depressed patient." J Clin Psychiatry 48 (1987): 492-3
  12. "Product Information. Ativan (lorazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  13. Karch FE "Rage reaction associated with clorazepate dipotassium." Ann Intern Med 91 (1979): 61-2
  14. Pollack MH "Clonazepam: a review of open clinical trials." J Clin Psychiatry 48 (1987): 12-5
  15. Rush CR, Higgins ST, Hughes JR, Bickel WK "A comparison of the acute behavioral effects of triazolam and temazepam in normal volunteers." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 112 (1993): 407-14
  16. Cunningham TA "Letter: Adverse reaction to flurazepam." Can Med Assoc J 112 (1975): 805
  17. Koczerginski D, Kennedy SH, Swinson RP "Clonazepam and lithium--a toxic combination in the treatment of mania?" Int Clin Psychopharmacol 4 (1989): 195-9
  18. "Product Information. Tranxene (clorazepate)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  19. "Product Information. Halcion (triazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  20. "Product Information. Librium (chlordiazepoxide)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  21. "Product Information. Serax (oxazepam)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  22. Wysowski DK, Barash D "Adverse behavioral reactions attributed to triazolam in the Food and Drug Administration's Spontaneous Reporting System." Arch Intern Med 151 (1991): 2003-8
  23. Edwards JG, Inman WH, Pearce GL, Rawson NS "Prescription-event monitoring of 10,895 patients treated with alprazolam." Br J Psychiatry 158 (1991): 387-92
  24. Bixler EO, Kales A, Brubaker BH, Kales JD "Adverse reactions to benzodiazepine hypnotics: spontaneous reporting system." Pharmacology 35 (1987): 286-300
  25. "Product Information. Klonopin (clonazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  26. Cohen LS, Rosenbaum JF "Clonazepam: new uses and potential problems." J Clin Psychiatry 48 (1987): 50-6
  27. "Product Information. Restoril (temazepam)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
  28. Viscott DS "Chlordiazepoxide and hallucinations. Report of cases." Arch Gen Psychiatry 19 (1968): 370-6
  29. Dorevitch A "Mania associated with clonazepam." DICP 25 (1991): 938-9
  30. "Product Information. Xanax (alprazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  31. "Product Information. Versed (midazolam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  32. Rothschild AJ "Disinhibition, amnestic reactions, and other adverse reactions secondary to triazolam: a review of the literature." J Clin Psychiatry 53 (1992): 69-79
  33. "Product Information. Doral (quazepam)." Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
  34. French AP "Dangerously aggressive behavior as a side effect of alprazolam." Am J Psychiatry 146 (1989): 276
  35. "Product Information. ProSom (estazolam)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
View all 35 references
Moderate

Chlordiazepoxide (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Porphyria

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Porphyria

There have been isolated reports associating the use of chlordiazepoxide with exacerbation of porphyria. Therapy with chlordiazepoxide should be administered cautiously in patients with porphyria.

References

  1. "Product Information. Librium (chlordiazepoxide)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
Moderate

Anticholinergics (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Hypertension

Minor Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Hypertension

Cardiovascular effects of anticholinergics may exacerbate hypertension. Therapy with anticholinergic agents should be administered cautiously in patients with hypertension.

References

  1. "Product Information. Marezine (cyclizine)." Glaxo Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, NC.
  2. "Product Information. Cogentin (benztropine)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  3. "Product Information. Benadryl (diphenhydramine)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Artane (trihexyphenidyl)." Lederle Laboratories, Wayne, NJ.
  5. Valentin N, Staffeldt H, Kyst A "Effect of i.v. atropine on cardiac rhythm, heart rate, blood pressure and airway secretion during isoflurane anaesthesia." Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 28 (1984): 621-4
  6. "Product Information. Antivert (meclizine)." Roerig Division, New York, NY.
  7. "Product Information. Atropine Sulfate Injection, USP (atropine)." ESI Lederle Generics, Philadelphia, PA.
View all 7 references
Moderate

Atropine-Like Agents (Includes Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium) ↔ Fever

Minor Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Fever

Atropine-like agents may increase the risk of hyperthermia in patients with fever by producing anhidrosis. Therapy with atropine-like agents should be administered cautiously in febrile patients.

References

  1. Sarnquist F, Larson CP Jr "Drug-induced heat stroke." Anesthesiology 39 (1973): 348-50
  2. Lee BS "Possibility of hyperpyrexia with antipsychotic and anticholinergic drugs." J Clin Psychiatry 47 (1986): 571
  3. "Product Information. Atropine Sulfate Injection, USP (atropine)." ESI Lederle Generics, Philadelphia, PA.
  4. Stadnyk AN, Glezos JD "Drug-induced heat stroke." Can Med Assoc J 128 (1983): 957-9
  5. "Product Information. Cogentin (benztropine)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  6. Forester D "Fatal drug-induced heat stroke." JACEP 7 (1978): 243-4
View all 6 references

chlordiazepoxide / clidinium drug Interactions

There are 1017 drug interactions with chlordiazepoxide / clidinium

chlordiazepoxide / clidinium alcohol/food Interactions

There are 3 alcohol/food interactions with chlordiazepoxide / clidinium

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No information available.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

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